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Encyclopedia > Global 200

The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF (Worldwide Fund For Nature) as priorities for conservation. 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in June June 27: Shelby Foote June 27: John T. Walton June 26: Richard Whiteley June 25: John Fiedler June 25: Chet Helms June 24: Paul Winchell June 21: Jaime Cardinal Sin June 20: Jack Kilby... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... WWF, the global environment conservation organization, was constituted and registered in 1961 pursuant to Sections 80 et seq. ...

Contents


Introduction

The Global 200 is based on the WWF's comprehensive system of ecoregions defined by the WWF as a

"relatively large unit of land or water containing a characteristic set of natural communities that share a large majority of their species, dynamics, and environmental conditions" (Dinerstein et al. 1995, TNC 1997).

The WWF has identified 867 terrestrial ecoregions, which cover the earth's land surface, as well as freshwater and marine ecoregions. The goal of this classification system is to ensure that the full range of ecosystems will be represented in regional conservation and development strategies. Of these ecoregions, the WWF selected the Global 200 as the ecoregions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity. The Global 200 are actually 233 ecoregions, including 136 terrestrial, 36 freshwater, and 61 marine ecoregions. Ecoregions are defined by World Wildlife Fund as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater ecoregions... Ecoregions are defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Freshwater ecoregions represents the freshwater habitats of a... Marine ecoregions are regions of the worlds oceans, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), to aid in conservation activities for marine ecosystems. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... Conservation can be confused with conversation and vice versa. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...


Conservationists interested in preserving biodiversity have generally focused on the preservation of tropical moist broadleaf forests (commonly known as tropical rainforests) because it is estimated that they harbor one half of Earth's species. The WWF determined that a more comprehensive strategy for conserving global biodiversity should also consider the other half of species, as well as the ecosystems that support them. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ...


Several habitats, such as Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub, were determined to be more threatened than tropical rain forests, and therefore require concerted conservation action. WWF maintains that ... Bush Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub is a temperate biome, characterized by hot-dry summers and mild and rainy winters. ...

"although conservation action typically takes place at the country level, patterns of biodiversity and ecological processes (e.g., migration) do not conform to political boundaries",

... which is why ecoregion-based conservation strategies are deemed essential.


Historically, zoologists and botanists have developed various classification systems that take into account the world's plant and animal communities. Two of the worldwide classification systems most commonly used today were summarized by Miklos Udvardy in 1975. Miklos Udvardy proposed classification systems of the world for conservation purposes. ...


The biogeographical realms divide the Earth's land surface into eight realms (formerly called kingdoms, and which the WWF calls ecozones) that represent the major terrestrial communities of animals and plants, and are a synthesis of previous systems of floristic provinces and faunal regions. The biome system classifies the world into ecosystem types (i.e. forests, grasslands, etc) based on climate and vegetation. Each biogeographical realm contains multiple biomes, and biomes occur across several biogeographical realms. A system of biogeographical provinces was developed to identify specific geographic areas in each biogeographical realm that were of a consistent biome type, and shared distinct plant and animal communities. The WWF system represents a further refinement of the system of biomes (which the WWF calls major habitat types), biogeographical realms (WWF's ecozones), and biogeographical provinces (the WWF scheme divides most biogeographical provinces into multiple smaller ecoregions). Ecozone is a classification system of the world first proposed by Miklos Udvardy under the name biogeographical realms for conservation purposes. ... A floristic province is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species. ... In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, altitude and terrain factors. ...


The WWF assigns a conservation status to each ecoregion in the Global 200: critical or endangered; vulnerable; and relatively stable or intact. Over half of the ecoregions in the Global 200 are rated endangered.


Based on a comprehensive list of ecoregions, The Global 200 includes all major habitat types (biomes), all ecosystems types, and species from every major habitat type. It focuses on each major habitat type of every continent (such as tropical forest or coral reefs). It uses ecoregions as the unit of scale for comparison. WWF say ecoregions could be considered as conservation units at regional scale because they meet similar biological communities. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Conservation can be confused with conversation and vice versa. ...


Some ecoregions were selected over other ecoregions of the same major habitat type (biome) or ecozone. Selection of the Global 200 relied on extensive studies of 19 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine major habitat types. Selection of the ecoregions was based on analyses of species richness, species endemism, unique higher taxa, unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena, and global rarity of major habitat type. In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Global 200 ecoregion list is most helpful to conservation efforts at a regional scale: local deforestation, destruction of swamp habitats, degradation of soils, etc. However, certain phenomena, such as bird or whale migration, depend on more complex parameters not used to define the current database, such as atmospheric currents, dynamic pelagic ecosystems, etc. These would require gathering more information, and coordination of efforts between multiple ecoregions. However, the Global 200 ecoregions can help these efforts by identifying habitat sites and resting sites for migratory animals. It may also help identify the origin of invasive species, and offer insights for slowing down or stopping their intrusion. Conservation can be confused with conversation and vice versa. ... This article is about non-human migration. ... The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species or non-indigenous species. ...


List of the Global 200 ecoregions

Terrestrial ecoregions

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Afrotropic
1 Guinean moist forests
2 Congolian coastal forests
3 Cameroon Highlands forests
4 Northeastern Congolian lowland forests
5 Central Congolian lowland forests
6 Western Congolian moist forests
7 Albertine Rift montane forests
8 East African Coastal Forests
9 Eastern African montane forests
10 Madagascar lowlands and subhumid forests
11 Seychelles and Mascarene Islands moist forests
Ecoregions are defined by the World Wildlife Fund as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The Upper Guinean forests is a tropical moist forest region of West Africa. ... The Madagascar lowland forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion, found on the eastern coast of the island of Madagascar. ... The Madagascar subhumid forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion which covers most of the central highlands of the island of Madagascar. ... Mauritius (right) and Réunion (left) The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ...


Australasia
12 Sulawesi moist forests
13 Moluccas moist forests
14 Southern New Guinea lowland forests
15 New Guinea montane forests
16 Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck moist forests
17 Queensland tropical rain forests
18 New Caledonia moist forests
19 Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands forests
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba... The East Melanesian Islands, also known as the Solomons-Vanuatu-Bismarck moist forests a biogeographic region notable for its unique flora and fauna and species richness. ... The Queensland tropical rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion located in northeastern Australia. ... The New Caledonia rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion, located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific. ... Lord Howe Island showing Mts Lidgbird and Gower. ...


Indomalaya
20 South Western Ghats montane rain forests and moist deciduous forests
21 Sri Lanka moist forests
22 Northern Indochina Subtropical moist forests
23 Southeast China-Hainan moist forests
24 Taiwan montane forests
25 Annamite Range moist forests
26 Sumatran Islands lowland and montane forests
27 Philippines moist forests
28 Palawan moist forests
29 Kayah-Karen/Tenasserim moist forests
30 Peninsular Malaysian lowland and montane forests
31 Borneo lowland and montane forests
32 Nansei Shoto Archipelago forests
33 Eastern Deccan Plateau moist forests
34 Naga-Manupuri-Chin hills moist forests
35 Cardamom Mountains moist forests
36 Western Java montane forests
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters. ... The South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India. ... The Philippine archipelago is one of the worlds great reservoirs of biodiversity and endemism. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands Flag of same The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō), also known as the Nansei-shoto (南西諸島 Nansei-shotō, which translates literally as the Southwest Islands), are an island chain stretching southwestward from the island of Kyushu in Japan. ... The Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of east-central India. ... The Naga-Manupuri-Chin hills moist forests is an ecoregion of India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, designated by the World Wildlife Fund as one of the worlds outstanding Global 200 ecoregions. ...


Neotropic
37 Greater Antillean moist forests
38 Talamancan-Isthmian Pacific forests
39 Choco-Darien moist forests
40 Northern Andean montane forests
41 Coastal Venezuela montane forests
42 Guianan moist forests
43 Napo moist forests
44 Rio Negro-Jurua moist forests
45 Guayana Highlands moist forests
46 Central Andean yungas
47 Southwestern Amazonian moist forests
48 Atlantic forests
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Oceania
49 South Pacific Islands forests
50 Hawaii moist forests
Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ...


Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ...


Afrotropic
51 Madagascar dry forests
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Australasia
52 Nusa Tenggara dry forests
53 New Caledonia dry forests
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Indomalaya
54 Indochina dry forests
55 Chhota-Nagpur dry forests
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forest is a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion in eastern India. ...


Neotropic
56 Mexican dry forests
57 Tumbesian-Andean valleys dry forests
58 Chiquitano dry forests
59 Atlantic dry forests
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Oceania
60 Hawaii dry forests
Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ...


Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ...


Nearctic
61 Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental pine-oak forests
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...


Neotropic
62 Greater Antillean pine forests
63 Mesoamerican pine-oak forests
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ...


Australasia
64 Eastern Australia temperate forests
65 Tasmanian temperate rain forests
66 New Zealand temperate forests
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba... The Tasmanian temperate rain forests are an ecoregion of western Tasmania. ...


Indomalaya
67 Eastern Himalayan broadleaf and conifer forests
68 Western Himalayan temperate forests
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ...


Nearctic
69 Appalachian and mixed mesophytic forests
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...


Palearctic
70 Southwest China temperate forests
71 Russian Far East temperate forests
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Temperate coniferous forests
Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ...


Nearctic
72 Pacific temperate rain forests
73 Klamath-Siskiyou forests
74 Sierra Nevada forests
75 Southeastern coniferous and broadleaf forests
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Pacific temperate rain forests of Canada and the United States are the largest temperate rain forests zone on the planet. ... The Klamath-Siskiyou forests are a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. ... Biotic zones in Yosemite See Sierra Nevada for general information about the mountain range in the United States. ...


Neotropic
76 Valdivian temperate rain forests-Juan Fernandez Islands
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... The Valdivian temperate rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion located on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and extending into a small part of Argentina. ... Map of Isla Más Afuera / Selkirk Map of Isla Más a Tierra / Crusoe The Juan Fernández archipelago is located 670 km off the coast of Chile, and is composed of the volcanic islands Robinson Crusoe, located closest to the mainland at 33º 13 S, 78º 50 W...


Palearctic
77 European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests
78 Caucasus-Anatolian-Hycanian temperate forests
79 Altai-Sayan montane forests
80 Hengduan Shan coniferous forests
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Boreal forests/taiga
Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ...


Nearctic
81 Muskwa-Slave Lake boreal forests
82 Canadian taiga
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...


Palearctic
83 Ural Mountains taiga
84 East Siberian taiga
; 85 Kamchatka taiga and grasslands
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... Taiga (pronounced , from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ...


Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ...


Afrotropic
86 Horn of Africa acacia savannas
87 East African acacia savannas
88 Central and Eastern miombo woodlands
89 Sudanian savannas
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Australasia
90 Northern Australia and Trans-Fly savannas
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Indomalaya
91 Terai-Duar savannas and grasslands
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Terai or Tarai (moist land) is a belt of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests at the base of the Himalaya range in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, from the Yamuna River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. ...


Neotropic
92 Llanos savannas
93 Cerrado woodlands and savannas
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Los Llanos (meaning the flat plains) is a vast tropical grassland plain situated at the east of the Andes in northwestern South America (Colombia and Venezuela). ... The Cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil. ...


Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a group of biomes in which the climate is temperate to semi-arid. ...


Nearctic
94 Northern prairie
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...


Neotropic
95 Patagonian steppe
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Patagonia is that portion of South America which, to the east of the Andes, lies south of the Neuquén River and Colorado rivers, and, to the west of the Andes, south of (42°S). ...


Palearctic
96 Daurian steppe
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Flooded grasslands and savannas
Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ...


Afrotropic
97 Sudd-Sahelian flooded grasslands and savannas
98 Zambezian flooded savannas
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Indomalaya
99 Rann of Kutch flooded grasslands
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ...


Neotropic
100 Everglades flooded grasslands
101 Pantanal flooded savannas
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... An Anhinga perched on the boardwalk railing Everglades is also the name of a city in Collier County, Florida. ... The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area. ...


Montane grasslands and shrublands
Montane grasslands and shrublands is biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ...


Afrotropic
102 Ethiopian Highlands
103 Southern Rift montane woodlands
104 East African moorlands
105 Drakenberg montane shrublands and woodlands
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The Ethiopian Highlands are a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia and Eritrea in northeastern Africa. ...


Australasia
106 Central Range subalpine grasslands
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Indomalaya
107 Kinabalu montane shrublands
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ...


Neotropic
108 Northern Andean paramo
109 Central Andean dry puna
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Palearctic
110 Tibetan Plateau steppe
111 Middle Asian montane steppe and woodlands
112 Eastern Himalayn alpine meadows
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Tundra
In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


Nearctic
113 Alaskan North Slope coastal tundra
114 Canadian low arctic tundra
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ...


Palearctic
115 Fenno-Scandia alpine tundra and taiga
116 Taimyr and Russian coastal tundra
117 Chukote coastal tundra
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub
Bush Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub is a temperate biome, characterized by hot-dry summers and mild and rainy winters. ...


Afrotropic
118 Fynbos
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Fynbos (Afrikaans for fine bush) is the natural vegetation occurring in a small belt of South Africa, mainly in the South-western Cape. ...


Australasia
119 Southwestern Australia forests and scrub
120 Southern Australia mallee and woodlands
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Nearctic
121 California chaparral and woodlands
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of central and southern California (United States) and northwestern Baja California (Mexico), located on the west coast of North America. ...


Neotropic
122 Chilean Matorral
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... The Chilean Matorral is a terrestrial ecoregion of central Chile, located on the west coast of South America. ...


Palearctic
123 Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Deserts and xeric shrublands
Deserts and xeric shrublands is a biome characterized by a dry climate. ...


Afrotropic
124 Namib-Karoo-kaokoveld deserts
125 Madagascar spiny thicket
126 Socotra Island desert
127 Arabian Highland woodlands and shrublands
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquá¹­ra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the Horn of Africa, some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. ...


Australasia
128 Carnavon xeric scrub
129 Great Sandy-Tanami deserts
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Nearctic
130 Sonoran-Baja deserts
131 Chihuahuan-Tehuacan deserts
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... Sonoran Desert wildlife Mountains in the Sonoran Desert The Sonoran Desert (sometimes also called Gila Desert after Gila River) is a North American desert which straddles part of the U.S.-Mexico border and covers large parts of the U.S. states of Arizona and California and the Mexican state... The Baja California desert is a Desert ecoregion of Mexicos Baja California Peninsula. ... The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert that straddles the U.S.-Mexico border. ...


Neotropic
132 Galapagos Islands scrub
133 Atacama-Sechura deserts
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ... Atacama The Atacama desert of Chile and Peru is a virtually rainless plateau made up of salt basins (salares), sand, and lava flows, extending from the Andes mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Sechura desert is a desert ecoregion of coastal Peru. ...


Palearctic
134 Central Asian deserts
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Mangroves
Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangroves are woody trees or shrubs that grow in mangrove habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999). ...


Afrotropic
135 Gulf of Guinea mangroves
136 East African mangroves
137 Madagascar mangroves
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Australasia
138 New Guinea mangroves
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Indomalaya
139 Sundarbans mangroves
140 Greater Sundas mangroves
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The mangrove-dominated Ganges delta – the Sundarbans - is a complex ecosystem comprising one of the three largest single tract mangrove forests of the world (Blasco 1975). ...


Neotropic
141 Guianan-Amazon mangroves
142 Panama Bight mangroves
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Freshwater ecoregions

Large rivers
Afrotropic
143 Congo River and flooded forests (Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo)
Ecoregions are defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Freshwater ecoregions represents the freshwater habitats of a... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The Congo is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


Indomalaya
144 Mekong River (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ...


Nearctic
145 Colorado River (Mexico, United States)
146 Lower Mississippi River (United States)
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,333 km) long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. ... This article is about the river in the United States. ...


Neotropic
147 Amazon River and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Peru)
148 Orinoco River and flooded forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... The Amazon River (occasionally River Amazon; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) of South America is one of the two longest rivers on Earth, the other being the Nile in Africa. ... This page is about the Orinoco River, for the Aphra Behn novel see Oroonoko With a length of 2140 km, the Orinoco is one of the largest rivers of South America. ...


Palearctic
149 Yangtze River and lakes (China)
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... Afternoon light on the jagged grey mountains rising from the Yangtze River gorge The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world after the Amazon in South America and the Nile in Africa. ...


Large river headwaters
Afrotropic
150 Congo basin piedmont rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Sudan)
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Nearctic
151 Mississippi piedmont rivers and streams (United States)
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... This article is about the river in the United States. ...


Neotropic
152 Upper Amazon rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana (France), Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela)
153 Upper Paraná rivers and streams (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay)
154 Brazilian Shield Amazonian rivers and streams (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... The Amazon River (occasionally River Amazon; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) of South America is one of the two longest rivers on Earth, the other being the Nile in Africa. ... This article is about the second-longest river in South America: For the shorter river in Goiás, central Brazil, see Paranã River The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ... The Amazon River (occasionally River Amazon; Spanish: Río Amazonas, Portuguese: Rio Amazonas) of South America is one of the two longest rivers on Earth, the other being the Nile in Africa. ...


Large river deltas
Afrotropic
155 Niger River delta (Nigeria)
Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... ...


Indomalaya
156 Indus River Delta (India, Pakistan)
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ...


Palearctic
157 Volga River Delta (Kazakhstan, Russia)
158 Mesopotamian delta and marshes (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait)
159 Danube River delta (Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia)
160 Lena River delta (Russia)
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... Volga Delta and northwestern Caspian Sea Lotus plant—The Volga Delta is the only place in Russia where pelicans, flamingoes, and lotuses may be found. ... ecoregion : Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh (Ref PA0906). ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), located in Dobrogea, Romania and a small part in Odeska oblast, Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km². The delta is located around the area where... The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ...


Small rivers
Afrotropic
161 Upper Guinea rivers and streams (Côte D’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone)
162 Madagascar freshwater (Madagascar)
163 Gulf of Guinea rivers and streams (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo)
164 Cape rivers and streams (South Africa)
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic southwest of Africa. ...


Australasia
165 New Guinea rivers and streams (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
166 New Caledonia rivers and streams (New Caledonia)
167 Kimberley rivers and streams (Australia)
168 Southwest Australia rivers and streams (Australia)
169 Eastern Australia rivers and streams (Australia)
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Indomalaya
170 Xi Jiang rivers and streams (China, Vietnam)
171 Western Ghats Rivers and Streams (India)
172 Southwestern Sri Lanka rivers and streams (Sri Lanka)
173 Salween River (China, Myanmar, Thailand)
174 Sundaland rivers and swamps (Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Enlarge this map of South India to see details about Western Ghats Nelliampathi mountains, Kerala A view from Ponmudi The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains (as they are known in the state of Maharashtra) run along the western edge of Indias Deccan Plateau, and separate the plateau from a... Salween River Delta, October 1994 The Salween River (also spelled Salwin) rises in Tibet, after which it flows through Yunnan, where it is known as the Nujiang river (Chinese: 怒江; pinyin: ), although either name can be used for the whole river. ... Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeast Asia that comprises the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding smaller islands. ...


Nearctic
175 Southeastern rivers and streams (United States)
176 Pacific Northwest coastal rivers and streams (United States)
177 Gulf of Alaska coastal rivers and streams (Canada, United States)
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... Darker red states are always part of the Pacific Northwest. ... The Gulf of Alaska is an arm of the Pacific Ocean defined by the curve of the southern coast of Alaska, stretching from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east, where Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are to be found. ...


Neotropic
178 Guianan freshwater (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
179 Greater Antillean freshwater (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico)
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Palearctic
180 Balkan rivers and streams (Albania, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Turkey, Yugoslavia)
181 Russian Far East rivers and wetlands (China, Mongolia, Russia)
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Large lakes
Afrotropic
182 Rift Valley lakes (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The are a group of lakes formed by the Great Rift Valley of eastern Africa. ...


Neotropic
183 High Andean lakes (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Palearctic
184 Lake Baikal (Russia)
185 Lake Biwa (Japan)
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal is the largest (by volume), deepest and oldest freshwater lake in the world. ... Reeds on the shore of Lake Biwa Lake Biwa from outer space. ...


Small lakes
Afrotropic
186 Cameroon crater lakes (Cameroon)
The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ...


Australasia
187 Lakes Kutubu and Sentani (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
188 Central Sulawesi lakes (Indonesia)
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba... Sulawesi (formerly Celebes ) is a large island in Indonesia. ...


Indomalaya
189 Philippines freshwater (Philippines)
190 Inle Lake (Myanmar)
191 Yunnan lakes and streams (China)
The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Inle Lake is a freshwater lake located in the mountains of Shan State in Myanmar. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; Hanyu pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


Neotropic
192 Mexican highland lakes (Mexico)
The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...


Xeric basins
Australasia
193 Central Australian freshwater (Australia)
The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba...


Nearctic
194 Chihuahuan freshwater (Mexico, United States)
The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert that straddles the U.S.-Mexico border. ...


Palearctic
195 Anatolian freshwater (Syria, Turkey)
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...


Marine ecoregions

Polar
Antarctic Ocean
196 Antarctic Peninsula & Weddell Sea Marine ecoregions are regions of the worlds oceans, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), to aid in conservation activities for marine ecosystems. ... The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. ...


Arctic Ocean
197 Bering Sea (Canada, Russia, United States)
198 Barents-Kara Sea (Norway, Russia)
Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water above, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ...


Temperate shelfs and seas
Mediterranean
199 Mediterranean Sea (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey) Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...


North Temperate Atlantic
200 Northeast Atlantic Shelf Marine (Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom)
201 Grand Banks (Canada, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), United States)
202 Chesapeake Bay (United States)
For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Map showing the Grand Banks and ground fish zones in eastern Canada from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. ... Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. ...


North Temperate Indo-Pacific
203 Yellow Sea (China, North Korea, South Korea)
204 Sea of Okhotsk (Japan, Russia)
... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ...


Southern Ocean
205 Patagonian Southwest Atlantic (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay)
206 Southern Australian Marine (Australia)
207 New Zealand Marine (New Zealand)


Temperate upwelling
North Temperate Indo-Pacific
208 California Current (Canada, Mexico, United States) Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ... The California Current is a Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America, begining off southern British Columbia, and ending off southern Baja California. ...


South Temperate Atlantic
209 Benguela Current (Namibia, South Africa) The frigid waters of the north-flowing Benguela current move from the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica along the west coast of Africa as far as Angola. ...


South Temperate Indo-Pacific
210 Humboldt Current (Chile, Ecuador, Peru)
211 Agulhas Current (Mozambique, South Africa) ... The Agulhas Current is the Western Boundary Current of the South-West Indian Ocean and is part of the westward-flowing South Equatorial Current. ...


Tropical upwelling
Central Indo-Pacific
212 Western Australian Marine (Australia) Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ...


Eastern Indo-Pacific
213 Panama Bight (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama)
214 Gulf of California (Mexico)
215 Galápagos Marine (Ecuador) The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ...


Eastern Tropical Atlantic
216 Canary Current (Canary Islands, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara) The Canary Current branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows toward the South West about as far as Senegal where it turns West. ...


Tropical coral
Central Indo-Pacific
217 Nansei Shoto (Japan)
218 Sulu-Sulawesi Seas (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines)
219 Bismarck-Solomon Seas (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands)
220 Banda-Flores Sea (Indonesia)
221 New Caledonia Barrier Reef (New Caledonia)
222 Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
223 Lord Howe-Norfolk Islands Marine (Australia)
224 Palau Marine (Palau)
225 Andaman Sea (Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand) Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... The Southwest Islands or Nansei-shoto (南西諸島 Nansei-shotō) are an island chain stretching southwestward from Kyushu in Japan. ... The New Caledonia Barrier Reef is located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific, and is the second-largest coral reef in the world, after Australias Great Barrier Reef. ... Satellite image of a part of the Great Barrier Reef. ... The Andaman Sea is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar and west of Thailand; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...


Eastern Indo-Pacific
226 Tahitian Marine (Cook Islands, French Polynesia)
227 Hawaiian Marine (Hawaii)
228 Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
229 Fiji Barrier Reef (Fiji) Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ...


Western Indo-Pacific
230 Maldives, Chagos, and Lakshadweep atolls (Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), India, Maldives, Sri Lanka)
231 Red Sea (Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen)
232 Arabian Sea (Djibouti, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen)
233 East African Marine (Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania)
234 West Madagascar Marine (Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte and Iles Glorieuses (France), Seychelles) Map of the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory) The Chagos Archipelago is a group of six atolls with more than 600 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, that lies about 500 km (300 miles) due south of the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, and 1600 km (1000 miles... Lakshadweep (Malayalam:ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്) is the smallest Union Territory of India. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ...


Western Tropical Atlantic
235Mesoamerican Reef (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico)
236 Greater Antillean Marine (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States)
237 Southern Caribbean Sea (Aruba, Columbia, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela)
238 Northeast Brazil Shelf Marine (Brazil)

Ecozones
Afrotropic · Antarctic · Australasia · Indomalaya · Nearctic · Neotropic · Oceania · Palearctic
Terrestrial biomes
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests · Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests · Temperate coniferous forests · Boreal forests/taiga ·Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Flooded grasslands and savannas · Montane grasslands and shrublands · Tundra ·Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub · Deserts and xeric shrublands · Mangrove

Ecozone is a classification system of the world first proposed by Miklos Udvardy under the name biogeographical realms for conservation purposes. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Antarctica is one of eight terrestrial ecozones. ... The Australasian ecozone includes Australia, the island of New Guinea (including Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian province of Papua), and the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, including the island of Sulawesi, the Moluccan islands (the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku) and islands of Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, altitude and terrain factors. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Taiga Taiga (IPA pronunciation: , from the Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by coniferous forests. ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a group of biomes in which the climate is temperate to semi-arid. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... Bush Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub is a temperate biome, characterized by hot-dry summers and mild and rainy winters. ... Deserts and xeric shrublands is a biome characterized by a dry climate. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangrove are woody trees or shrubs that grow in coastal habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999), for which the term mangrove swamp also would apply. ...

See also

The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ...

External links

  • map of the 200 ecoregions
  • conservation status map of the global 200
  • List of the Global 200

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