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Encyclopedia > Glioma
Glioma
ICD-10 C71
ICD-9 191
ICD-O: 9380/0-9460/3
DiseasesDB 31468

A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. The most common site of involvement of a glioma is the brain, but they can also affect the spinal cord, or any other part of the CNS, such as the optic nerves. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ...

Contents


Classification

By type of cell

Gliomas are named according to the specific type of cell they most resemble. The main types of gliomas are:

Ependymoma are tumors arising from the inner lining of the cerebral ventricles (= intracranial) and the remnants of the central canal in the spinal cord. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Astrocytomas are intracranial tumors derived from astrocytes. ... Astrocytes, also known as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain. ... Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain. ... Oligodendrocytes (from Greek literally meaning few tree cells), or oligodendroglia (Greek, few tree glue)[1], are a variety of neuroglia. ... Oligoastrocytomas are a subset of brain tumor that present with an appearance of mixed glial cell origin, astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. ...

By grade

Gliomas are further categorized according to their grade, which is determined by pathologic evaluation of the tumor. A grade may refer to many different concepts, including: in various contexts: Each item in a (generally ordered and finite) collection of symbols or designators used as a particular grade system to distinguish and rank corresponding groups, where distinct members or instances of each group are regarded as sufficiently similar... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ...

  • Low grade gliomas are well-differentiated, slower growing, biologically less aggressive, and portend a better prognosis for the patient.
  • High grade gliomas are undifferentiated or anaplastic, fast growing and can invade adjacent tissues, and carry a worse prognosis.

There are numerous grading systems, but the most commonly used system is the World Health Organization (or WHO) grading system for astrocytomas. The WHO system assigns astrocytomas a grade from 1 to 4, with 1 being the least aggressive and 4 being the most aggressive. Various types of astrocytomas are given corresponding WHO grades. Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...

WHO grading system for astrocytomas

The prognosis is worst for Grade 4 gliomas, with an average survival time of 12 months. Overall, few patients survive beyond 3 years. [1] [2] It occurs predominantly in children and involves the midline, basal and posterior fossa structures. ... This article is about the physical mechanism of diffusion. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... Glioblastoma multiforme, (GBM) also known as grade 4 astrocytoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 52 percent of all primary brain tumor cases. ...


By location

The gliomas can also be roughly classified according to their location:

  • infratentorial : mostly in children (70%)
  • supratentorial : mostly in adults (70%)

In anatomy the supratentorial is located above the tentorium cerebri. ...

Symptoms

Symptoms of gliomas depend on which part of the central nervous system is affected. A brain glioma can cause headaches, nausea and vomiting, seizures, and cranial nerve disorders as a result of increased intracranial pressure. A glioma of the optic nerve can cause visual loss. Spinal cord gliomas can cause pain, weakness or numbness in the extremities. Gliomas do not metastasize by the bloodstream, but they can spread via the cerebrospinal fluid and cause "drop metastases" to the spinal cord. A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Paresthesia (paraesthesia in British) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent physical cause, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


Pathology

High grade gliomas are highly vascular tumors and have a tendency to infiltrate. They have extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Often tumor growth causes a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the vicinity of the tumor. As a rule, high grade gliomas almost always grow back even after complete surgical excision. Vascular tumor may mean: tumor of vascular origin, a growth (benign or malignant) formed from blood vessels; for example, hemangioma, hemangioendothelioma, Kaposi sarcoma, angiosarcoma, etc. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells and living tissue. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ...


On the other hand, low grade gliomas grow slowly, often over many years, and can be followed without treatment unless they grow and cause symptoms.


Treatment

Standard therapy

Treatment for brain gliomas depends on the location and the grade. Often, treatment is a combined approach, using surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The radiation therapy is in the form of external beam radiation or the stereotactic approach using radiosurgery. Spinal cord tumors can be treated by surgery and radiation. Temozolomide is a chemotherapeutic drug that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier effectively and is being used in therapy. Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Stereotactic surgery is a minimally-invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinates system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation (removal), biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, etc. ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Background Temozolomide (brand name Temodar®) is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of refractory anaplastic astrocytoma -- a type of cancerous brain tumour. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ...


Experimental therapies

Gene therapy using lytic viruses or prodrug converting retroviruses and adenoviruses is being studied for the treatment of gliomas. Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector. ...


A small number of low-scale clinical studies have shown possible links between prescription of Carphedon and improvement in a number of encephalopathic conditions, including lesions of cerebral blood pathways and certain types of glioma. Carphedon was developed in Russia and is claimed to increase physical stamina along with improved tolerance to cold, its also used for amnesia treatment. ... Encephalopathy is a container term for various conditions affecting the brain. ...


American scientists are also studying the the affects of Leiurus Quinquestriatus scorpion (Israeli Yellow Scorpion) venom on glioma. They have successfully isolated the peptide chlorotoxin from the venom of the Leiurus Quinquestriatus scorpion by means of gel filtration chromatography. The peptide appears to target glioma-specific chloride ion channels within the cancerous glial cells of the brain, where it binds with a high affinity. Only eight people have received this treatment and seven of them are still living.


Further, lots of clinical research is being conducted, the US National Institute of Health has a database with information about recent and current studies. For a list of current scientific investigations about glioblastoma treatment, goto Clinical Trials Search
Search tips :

  • Fill in 'Disease or Condition' = glioblastoma multiforme
  • Click the checkbox 'Exclude synonyms from search' at the bottom of the page
  • Then click the Search button
  • Finally, click the checkbox 'Include trials that are no longer recruiting patients'

External links

Tumors (and related structures), Cancer, and Oncology
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant

Topography: Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum - Duodenum - Endometrium - Esophagus - Eye - Gallbladder - Head/Neck - Liver - Larynx - Lung - Mouth - Pancreas - Penis - Prostate - Kidney - Ovaries - Skin - Stomach - Testicles - Thyroid GPnotebook is a British medical database for general practitioners (GPs. ... The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (often referred to simply as The Merck Manual) is one of the worlds most widely used medical textbooks. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial mass created by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells either normally found in the brain itself: neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... Bold textA more uncommon cancer predominate in females, if found early on before symptoms, can be cured by removing Gallbladder, most often it is found after symptoms occur (abdominal pain, Jaundice) and has spread to other organs such as liver and the outlook at this point is poor. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths located in the oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and lymph nodes of the upper neck. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or liver cancer) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is represented by the growth of a malignant tumour within the small pancreas organ. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... In medicine (dermatology), there are several different types of cancer referred to under the general label of skin cancer. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs, particularly the esophagus, small intestine. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...


Morphology: Papilloma/carcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/fibrosarcoma - Lipoma/liposarcoma - Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma - Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma - Mesothelioma - Angioma/angiosarcoma - Osteoma/osteosarcoma - Chondroma/chondrosarcoma - Glioma - Lymphoma/leukemia Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Skin cancer, close-up of level IV melanoma Melanoma is a malignant tumour of melanocytes . ... Fibroma. ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... A lipoma is a common, benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ... A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of muscle. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells arise from skeletal muscle. ... Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... An osteoma is a new piece of bone growing on another piece, typically the skull. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... Lymphoma is a variety of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


Treatment: Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy - Immunotherapy - Experimental cancer treatment Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Related structures: Cyst - Dysplasia - Hamartoma - Neoplasia - Nodule - Polyp - Pseudocyst This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Dysplasia is a situation where cells have changed from their original mature differentiated type into another mature differentiated cell type as an adaptive response to exposure to chronic irritation, or to a pathogen or carcinogen. ... A hamartoma is an abnormal growth of normal cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... A pseudocyst is a pathological collection of fluid. ...


Misc: Tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes - Staging/grading - Carcinogenesis/metastasis - Carcinogen - Research - Paraneoplastic phenomenon - ICD-O - List of oncology-related terms A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand the development of cancer and identify potential therapies. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glioma - Diagnosis and Treatment Options at Mayo Clinic (364 words)
Gliomas can be either benign (slow growing) or malignant (fast growing).
Treatment for a glioma -- and survival odds -- depends on tumor type, size and location, and the patient's age and overall health.
Gliomas can be complex, and there are a variety of techniques and procedures to treat them.
Medcyclopaedia - Glioma (0 words)
There is a topographic difference between the gliomas of adults and those of children.
Adult gliomas are mainly supratentorial in location, whereas in children 70-80% are infratentorial.
: \r\n \r\n plural of modality \r\n \r\n   \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n');" href="/Home/library/glossaries/modalities.aspx">modalities are often inconclusive regarding histological grade of the glioma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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