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Encyclopedia > Gliding
This article is about the aerial sport of gliding. For other uses, see Gliding (disambiguation).
A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. It is jettisoning water that has been used as ballast.
A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. It is jettisoning water that has been used as ballast.

Gliding (or soaring) is a recreational activity and competitive sport in which pilots fly un-powered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes. Properly, the term gliding refers to descending flight of a heavier-than-air craft, whereas soaring is the correct term to use when the craft gains altitude or speed from rising air.[1] Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Look up gliding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Glider crossing the finish line at high speed after completing a competition task of several hundred kilometers. ... Glider crossing the finish line at high speed after completing a competition task of several hundred kilometers. ... People participating in summer luge as a form of recreation, in the Vosges. ... An Air France Boeing 777, a modern passenger jet. ... Gliders are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ...


After launching, glider pilots search for rising air to gain height. If conditions are good enough, experienced pilots can fly many hundreds, and in some cases thousands, of kilometres before returning to their home airfields. However, if the weather deteriorates they must often land elsewhere, but some can avoid this by using engines.


While many glider pilots merely enjoy the sense of achievement, some competitive pilots fly in races around pre-defined courses. These competitions test the pilots' abilities to make best use of local weather conditions as well as their flying skills. Local and national competitions are organized in many countries and there are also biennial World Gliding Championships.[2] Duo Discuses en masse waiting for the start of a glider competition at Vaumeilh airfield near Sisteron. ... The World Gliding Championships is a gliding competition held every two years or so. ...


Powered aircraft and winches are the two most common means of launching gliders. These and other methods (apart from self-launching motor-gliders) require assistance from other participants. Gliding clubs have thus been established to share airfields and equipment, train new pilots and maintain high safety standards.

Contents

History

The development of heavier-than-air flight in the half-century between Sir George Cayley's coachman in 1853 and the Wright brothers mainly involved gliders (see aviation history). However, the sport of gliding only emerged after the First World War as a result of the Treaty of Versailles,[3] which imposed severe restrictions on the manufacture and use of single-seat powered aircraft in Germany. Thus, in the 1920s and 1930s, while aviators and aircraft makers in the rest of the world were working to improve the performance of powered aircraft, the Germans were designing, developing and flying ever more efficient gliders and discovering ways of using the natural forces in the atmosphere to make them fly farther and faster. Sir George Cayley Sir George Cayley (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was an exuberant polymath from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), are American brothers generally credited with making the first controlled, powered, heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... Icarus and Daedalus Humanitys desire to fly likely dates to the first time prehistoric man observed birds, an observation illustrated in the legendary story of Daedalus and Icarus. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ...


The first German gliding competition was held at the Wasserkuppe[4] in 1920,[5] organized by Oskar Ursinus. The best flight lasted two minutes and set a world distance record of 2 km.[5] Within ten years, it had become an international event in which the achieved durations and distances had increased greatly. In 1931, Gunther Grönhoff flew 272 km (169 miles) from Munich to Czechoslovakia, further than had been thought possible.[5] The Wasserkuppe The Wasserkuppe (German: water peak) is a high plateau (elevation 950 m or 3100 ft), the highest peak in the Rhön Mountains within the German state of Hessen. ... Carl Oskar Ursinus (March 11, 1877 - July 6, 1952) was a pioneer of German aviation and is remembered mainly for his contributions to sailplane designs and the sport of gliding. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ...

The "gull wing" Göppingen Gö 3 Minimoa produced in Germany starting in 1936.
The "gull wing" Göppingen Gö 3 Minimoa produced in Germany starting in 1936.

In the 1930s, gliding spread to many other countries. In the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin gliding was a demonstration sport, and it was scheduled to be a full Olympic sport in the 1940 Games. A glider, the Olympia, was developed in Germany for the event, but World War II intervened. By 1939 the major gliding records were held by Russians, including a distance record of 748 km (465 miles).[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x853, 253 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Göppingen Gö 3 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x853, 253 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Göppingen Gö 3 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Göppingen Gö 3 Minimoa was a one-man sailplane produced in Germany. ... Minimoa The Göppingen Gö 3 Minimoa was a one-man sailplane produced in Germany. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A demonstration sport is a sport which is played in order to promote itself, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also on other sporting events. ... The Games of the XII Olympiad originally programmed to celebrated between September 21 to October 6, 1940 were cancelled due to World War II. Originally slated to be held in Tokyo, Japan, but the Games were given back to the IOC, because the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in... The DFS Meise (Tomtit) was designed as a unity design glider for advanced pilots, enabling duration and long-distance flights with a plane cheap enough for the average flying club to afford. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


During the war, civilian gliding in Europe was largely suspended. Although some military operations in WWII involved military gliders, they did not soar and so are unrelated to the sport of gliding. Nonetheless, several German fighter aces in the conflict, including Erich Hartmann, began their flight training in gliders. Gliders built by the military of various countries were used for carrying troops and heavy equipment, mainly during the Second World War. ... The Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen, perhaps the most famous ace of all. ... Erich Alfred Bubi Hartmann (April 19, 1922 - September 20, 1993), also nicknamed The Blond Knight Of Germany by friends and the Black Devil by his enemies, was the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial combat. ...


Gliding did not return to the Olympics after the war, for two reasons: first, the shortage of gliders following the war; and second, the failure to agree on a single model of competition glider. (Some in the community feared doing so would hinder development of new designs.)[5] The re-introduction of air sports such as gliding to the Olympics has been occasionally proposed by the world governing body, the FAI, but this has been rejected on the grounds of lack of public interest.[6] The term Air sports covers a range of aerial activities such as: Aerobatics Ballooning General aviation Gliding Hang gliding Model aircraft Parachuting Paragliding Ultralight aviation Human Powered Aircraft They are governed internationally by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national organizations like the USAs Federal Aviation Administration. ... The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ...


Still, in many countries during the 1950s there were a large number of trained pilots who wanted to continue flying. Many were also aeronautical engineers. They started both clubs and manufacturers, many of which still exist. This stimulated the development of both gliding and gliders; for example, the Soaring Society of America grew from 1,000 members then to its present total of 16,000. The increased numbers of pilots, greater knowledge and improving technology helped set new records, so that the pre-war altitude record was doubled by 1950, and the first 1,000-km (621 statute miles) flight was done in 1964.[5] New materials such as glass fiber and carbon fiber, advances in wing shapes, electronic instruments, GPS and improved weather forecasting have since allowed many pilots to make flights that were once extraordinary. Today almost 500 pilots have made flights over 1,000 km.[7] Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ... The following are some of the companies and other entities that have built significant gliders, though many are no longer in business. ... The Soaring Society of America (SSA) was founded at the instigation of Warren E. Eaton to promote the sport of gliding in the USA and internationally. ... There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City. ... GPS redirects here. ...


Instead of Olympic competition there are the World Gliding Championships. The first event was held at the Wasserkuppe in 1937.[5] Since WWII it has been held every two years. There are now six classes open to both sexes, plus three classes for women and two junior classes. Germany, the sport's birthplace, is still a center of the gliding world: it accounts for 30% of the world's glider pilots,[8] and the three major glider manufacturers are still based there. However the sport has been taken up in many countries and there are now over 116,000 active glider pilots,[9] plus an unknown number of military cadets. Each year many other people experience their first glider flight. It does not matter whether the countries are flat or mountainous, hot or temperate, because gliders can soar in most places. The World Gliding Championships is a gliding competition held every two years or so. ... Competition classes in gliding, as in other sports, mainly exist to ensure fairness in competition. ... The following are some of the companies have built significant gliders, though many are no longer in business. ...


Soaring

Duo Discus T flying over the ridges of Pennsylvania USA.
Duo Discus T flying over the ridges of Pennsylvania USA.

Glider pilots can stay airborne for hours by flying through air that is ascending as fast or faster than the glider itself is descending, thus gaining potential energy.[10] The rate at which a glider descends is dictated by its lift-to-drag ratio (usually expressed as L/D) which approaches 50:1 in modern high-performance designs. This, plus rising air, allows gliders to fly over long distances, a practice called cross-country soaring. Gliders have completed flights exceeding 3000 km in soaring flight, without landing or using an engine. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1238x743, 459 KB) I took this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1238x743, 459 KB) I took this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Schempp-Hirth Duo Discus is a high performance two seat glider primarily designed for fast cross-country flying including gliding competitions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio (ell-over-dee, as opposed to ell-dee), is the amount of lift generated by a wing, compared to the drag it creates by moving through the air. ...


The most commonly used sources of rising air are:

Ridge lift rarely allows pilots to climb much higher than about 600 m (2,000 ft) above the terrain; thermals, depending on the climate and terrain, can allow climbs in excess of 3,000 m (10,000 ft) in flat country and much higher above mountains;[11] wave lift has allowed a glider to reach an altitude of 15,447 m (50,671 ft).[12] In a few countries gliders can continue to climb into the clouds in uncontrolled airspace but in many countries the pilot must stop climbing before reaching cloud-base (see Visual Flight Rules). This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Ridge lift (or slope lift) is created when a prevailing wind strikes a geologic obstacle that is large and steep enough to deflect the wind upward. ... Categories: Aeronautics | Meteorology | Stub ... A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant position. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft, if weather conditions are sufficient to allow the pilot to visually control the aircrafts attitude, navigate, and maintain separation with obstacles such as terrain and other aircraft. ...

Good gliding weather: Well-formed cumulus humilis, with darker bases, suggests active thermals and light winds.
Good gliding weather: Well-formed cumulus humilis, with darker bases, suggests active thermals and light winds.
A lenticular cloud produced by a mountain wave
A lenticular cloud produced by a mountain wave

This sky has nice day written all over it. ... This sky has nice day written all over it. ... A cumulus cloud (Cu) is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by puffs, mounds or towers, with flat bases and tops that often resemble cauliflower. ... This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (881x574, 76 KB) Lenticularis cloud formation over Mt Wash, 2004 By w:en:User:Lupinelawyer, uploaded on 1 March 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (881x574, 76 KB) Lenticularis cloud formation over Mt Wash, 2004 By w:en:User:Lupinelawyer, uploaded on 1 March 2005. ...

Thermals

Thermals are streams of rising air that are formed on the ground through the warming of the surface by sunlight.[13] If the air contains enough moisture, the water will condense from the rising air and form cumulus clouds. Once a thermal is encountered, the pilot usually flies in circles to keep the glider within the thermal, so gaining altitude before flying off to the next thermal and towards the destination. This is known as 'thermalling'. Climb rates depend on conditions, but rates of several meters per second are common. Thermals can also be formed in a line usually because of the wind or the terrain, creating cloud streets. These can allow the pilot to fly straight while climbing in continuous lift. This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... A cumulus cloud (Cu) is a cloud belonging to a class characterized by puffs, mounds or towers, with flat bases and tops that often resemble cauliflower. ... Cloud streets are rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow. ...


When the air has little moisture or when an inversion stops the warm air from rising high enough for the moisture to condense, thermals do not create cumulus clouds. Without clouds or dust devils to mark the thermals, the pilot must use his skill and luck to find them using a sensitive vertical speed indicator called a variometer that quickly indicates climbs or descents. Typical locations to find thermals are over towns, freshly ploughed fields and asphalt roads, but thermals are often hard to associate with any feature on the ground. Occasionally thermals are caused by the exhaust gases from power stations or by fires. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dust devil in Johnsonville, South Carolina A dust devil or whirlwind is a rotating updraft, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (over 10 meters wide and over 1000 meters tall). ... The term Variometer also refers to a type of tunable electrical transformer // Definition A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is an instrument in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent... It has been suggested that Mouldboard Plough be merged into this article or section. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Oil power plant in Iraq A power station or power plant is a facility for the generation of electric power. ...


As it requires rising heated air, thermalling is only effective in mid-latitudes from spring through into late summer. During winter the solar heat can only create weak thermals, but ridge and wave lift can still be used during this period.

A Scimitar glider ridge soaring in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania USA
A Scimitar glider ridge soaring in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania USA

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (898x539, 228 KB) I took this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (898x539, 228 KB) I took this picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Ridge lift

A ridge soaring pilot uses air lifted up the sides of hills. It can also be augmented by thermals when the slopes also face the sun.[14] In places where a steady wind blows, a ridge may allow virtually unlimited time aloft, though records for duration are no longer recognized because of the danger of exhaustion.[15] Ridge lift (or slope lift) is created when a prevailing wind strikes a geologic obstacle that is large and steep enough to deflect the wind upward. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ...


Wave lift

The powerfully rising and sinking air in mountain waves was discovered by a glider pilot, Wolf Hirth, in 1933.[16] Gliders can sometimes climb in these waves to great altitudes, if pilots use supplementary oxygen to avoid hypoxia. This lift is often marked by long, stationary lenticular (lens-shaped) clouds lying perpendicular to the wind.[17] Most altitude records for gliders have been set this way, though thunderstorms have also accounted for a share. The current world distance record of 3,008 km (1,869 statute miles) by Klaus Ohlmann (set on 21 January 2003)[18] was flown using mountain waves in South America. Generation of Lee Waves (schematic drawing) 1 = Mountain 2 = Wind 3 = Rotor 4 = Lee Wave 5 = typical cloud (lenticularis) 6 = typical cloud (cumulus) In meteorology, Lee waves, also known as mountain waves, are periodic changes of pressure in a stream of air when the wind moves over mountains. ... Wolfram Kurt Erhard Hirth (February 28, 1900 – July 25, 1959) was a German gliding pioneer and sailplane designer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Lenticular clouds, technically known as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are stationary lens-shaped clouds that form at high altitudes, normally aligned at right-angles to the wind direction. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


A rare wave phenomenon is known as Morning Glory, a roll cloud producing strong lift. Pilots near Australia's Gulf of Carpentaria make use of it in springtime.[19] The spectacular Morning Glory cloud occurs in the Australian region called the Gulf of Carpentaria and off the Mexican coast in the Sea of Cortez The springtime phenomenon is a completely natural and quite spectacular, though relatively unknown. ... A roll cloud is a low, horizontal tube-shaped arcus cloud associated with a thunderstorm gust front (or sometimes with a cold front). ... The Gulf of Carpentaria viewed from orbit. ... Spring is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


Other sources of lift

The boundaries where two air masses meet are known as convergence zones.[20] These can occur in sea breezes or in desert regions. Glider pilots can gain altitude by flying along the intersection as if it were a ridge of land. Convergence may occur over considerable distances and so may permit virtually straight flight while climbing. Convergence zone usually refers to a region in the atmosphere where two prevailing flows meet and interact, usually resulting in distinctive weather conditions. ... A: Sea breeze, B: Land breeze A sea-breeze (or seabreeze) is a wind from the sea that develops over land near coasts. ...


Glider pilots have been able to use a technique called "dynamic soaring",[21] where a glider can gain kinetic energy by repeatedly crossing the boundary between air masses of different horizontal velocity. However, such zones of high "wind gradient" are usually too close to the ground to be used safely by gliders. Dynamic soaring is a flying technique used to gain kinetic energy without effort by repeatedly crossing the boundary between air masses of significantly different horizontal velocity. ... Kinetic energy is the energy that a body possesses as a result of its motion. ... A wind gradient describes the change in velocity and/or direction of the wind in a certain direction. ...


Launch methods

A Pawnee aerotowing a glider
A Pawnee aerotowing a glider

The Piper Pawnee just leaving an airfield with a glider on tow. ... The Piper Pawnee just leaving an airfield with a glider on tow. ...

Aerotowing

Aerotows normally use single-engined light aircraft, although motor gliders have also been permitted to tow gliders. The tow-plane takes the glider to the desired height and place and the glider pilot releases the rope.[22] A weak link is often fitted to the rope to ensure that any sudden loads do not damage the airframe of the tow-plane. Scheibe SF25C - a typical old-style touring motorglider Aeromot Super Ximango self-launching motor glider Touring Motor Gliders (TMG) are powered sailboats with an engine / propeller, which cannot be retracted into the cannon. ... Airframe is a novel by renowned author Michael Crichton first published in hardback edition in 1996 and as a paperback edition in 1997. ...


During the aerotow, the glider pilot keeps the glider in one of two positions behind the tow-plane.[23] This position can either be the "low tow" position, just below the slipstream from the tow-plane's propeller, or the "high tow" position just above the slipstream. In Australia the convention is to fly in low tow, whereas in the United States and Europe the high tow prevails.[24] One aerotow variation is to attach two gliders to one tow-plane, using a short rope for the high towed glider and the long rope for the low tow. dddeath ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...

A Ventus 2b being winch-launched at Lasham Airfield
A Ventus 2b being winch-launched at Lasham Airfield

Winch-launching is one of several ways to launch a glider (see article on gliding). ... Winch-launching is one of several ways to launch a glider (see article on gliding). ... Location Lasham Airfield is 6 miles south-south-east of Basingstoke in Hampshire near the village of Lasham. ...

Winch-launching

Gliders are often launched using a stationary ground-based winch mounted on a heavy vehicle.[25] This method is widely used at many European clubs, often in addition to aerotowing. The engine is usually a large diesel, though hydraulic fluid engines and electrical motors are also used. The winch pulls in a 1,000 to 1,600 m (3,000 to 5,500-foot) cable, made of steel wire or a synthetic fiber, attached to the glider. The cable is released at a height of about 400 to 500 m (1,300 to 1,600 feet) after a short and steep ride. Modern sailing boat winch A winch is a machine that is used to wind up a rope. ... now. ... Hydraulic fluids are a large group of liquids made of many kinds of chemicals. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ...


The main advantage of a winch launch is its lower cost. However, the launch height is usually lower than an aerotow, so flights are shorter unless the pilot can quickly make contact with a source of lift within a few minutes of releasing the cable. Although there is a risk of the cable breaking during this type of launch, pilots are trained to deal with this.

A bungee launch at the Long Mynd by the Midland Gliding Club
A bungee launch at the Long Mynd by the Midland Gliding Club

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 1685 KB) Summary Photo taken by Paul Garnham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 1685 KB) Summary Photo taken by Paul Garnham. ... The Long Mynd, or Long Mountain, is a ridge of high ground in South Shropshire, running roughly SW to NE, and extending some 15 km in length, between the Stiperstones to the west, and Wenlock Edge to the east. ...

Other methods of launching

In a few places, gliders are launched from the top of a hill into a strong breeze using a rubber band, or "bungee".[26] For this launch method, the glider's main wheel rests in a small concrete trough. The hook normally used for winch-launching is instead attached to the middle of the bungee. Each end is then pulled by three or four people. One group runs slightly to the left, the other to the right. Once the tension in the bungee is high enough, the pilot releases the wheel brake and the glider's wheel pops out of the trough. The glider gains just enough energy to leave the ground and fly away from the hill. Bungee cord is an elastic cord composed of one or more elastic strands forming a core, covered in a woven sheath usually of nylon or cotton. ...


Another launch method, the "autotow", was used more frequently in the past.[27] It requires a long runway, a pick-up truck and the cable. After gently taking up slack in the cable, the driver accelerates hard and the glider rises like a kite to as much as 400 m (1300 feet) if there is a good headwind and a runway of 1.5 km (1 mile) or more. This method has been employed upon various desert dry lakes. A variation on this is the "reverse pulley" method in which the truck drives towards the glider that it is launching with the cable passing around a pulley at the far end of the airfield. A third method uses a pulley on the vehicle, with one end of the cable fixed - a dangerous method since the glider will be pulled twice as fast as the vehicle travels, and so requiring an experienced and cautious driver. Pickup truck with extended cabin and homebuilt lumber rack. ... // Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point In physics or physical science, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or derivative with respect to... The wind that hits an aircraft in the front. ... Runway 13R/31L of El Dorado International Airport, Bogotá, D.C. Aerial picture of a runway of Chennai International Airport, Tamil Nadu A runway is a strip of land on an airport, on which aircraft can take off and land. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with salt pan (geology). ...


Glider pilots who want to use the different types of launch methods must be in current practice in each. Licensing rules in some countries differentiate between aerotows and ground launch methods, due to the widely different techniques. In most countries it is required to obtain a glider pilot license before acting as pilot of a glider. ...


Cross-country

Glider on a cross-country flight in the Alps
Glider on a cross-country flight in the Alps

Gliders can stay airborne for hours in good conditions. This enables gliders to fly long distances at high speeds.[28] The record speed for 1,000 km is 169.7 km/h (621 statute miles at 105 miles/h).[29] Even in places with less favorable conditions (such as Northern Europe) most good pilots have flights over 500 km (310 statute miles) every year.[30] As the performance of gliders improved in the 1960s, the concept of flying as far away as possible became unpopular with the crews who had to retrieve the gliders. Pilots now aim to fly around a course (called a task) via turn-points and back to the starting point. Image File history File links Nimbus2. ... Image File history File links Nimbus2. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... A waypoint is a fixed location with a specified longitude and latitude and UTM coordinates, which is maintained by a global positioning system (GPS). ...


In addition to just trying to fly further, glider pilots also race each other in competitions.[31] The winner is the fastest, or, if the weather conditions are poor, the furthest round the course. Tasks of up to 1,000 km have been set[32] and speeds of 120 km/h are not unusual. Duo Discuses en masse waiting for the start of a glider competition at Vaumeilh airfield near Sisteron. ...


In the sport's infancy, ground observers confirmed that pilots had passed the turn-points. Later, the glider pilots photographed these places. Today, gliders carry secure GNSS Flight Recorders that record the position every few seconds from GPS satellites.[33] These recording devices now provide the proof that the turn-points have been reached. The FAI Gliding Commission (formerly known as the International Gliding Commission (IGC)[1] is a division of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)[2], or International Aeronautics Federation, the world record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ... GPS redirects here. ...


National competitions generally last one week, with international championships running over two. The winner is the pilot who has amassed the greatest number of points over all the contest days. However, these competitions have as yet failed to draw much interest outside the gliding community for several reasons. Because it would be unsafe for many gliders to cross a start line at the same time, pilots can choose their own start time. Furthermore, gliders are not visible to the spectators for long periods during each day's contest and the scoring is complex, so gliding competitions have been difficult to televise. In an attempt to widen the sport's appeal, a new format, the Grand Prix, has been introduced.[34] Innovations introduced in the Grand Prix format include simultaneous starts for a small number of gliders, tasks consisting of multiple circuits, and simplified scoring. There is an informal Internet competition called the On-Line Contest[35] where pilots upload their GPS data files and are automatically scored based on distance flown. 7,800 pilots worldwide participated in this contest in 2006.[36]


Maximizing speed

Soaring pioneer Paul MacCready is usually credited with developing a mathematical theory for optimizing the speed to fly when cross-country soaring,[37] though it was first described by Wolfgang Späte (who later became famous for flying Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket fighters with the Luftwaffe late in World War II) in 1938.[38] The speed to fly theory allows the optimal cruising speed between thermals to be computed, using thermal strength, glider performance and other variables. It accounts for the fact that if a pilot flies faster between thermals, the next thermal is reached sooner. However at higher speeds the glider also sinks faster, requiring the pilot to spend more time circling to regain the altitude. The MacCready speed represents the optimal trade-off between cruising and circling. Most competition pilots use MacCready theory to optimize their flight speeds, and have the calculations programmed in their flight computers. The greatest factor in maximizing speed, however, remains the ability of the pilot to find the strongest lift.[39] Paul MacCready (born September 25, 1925 in New Haven, Connecticut) is an American aeronautical engineer. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... The Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft during WWII. It required a lengthy development process and entered the Second World War in a very limited fashion only in 1944. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


On cross-country flights where strong thermals are forecast, pilots fly with water ballast, which is stored in tanks in the wings.[40] Ballast makes the glider fly faster, but slows its climb rate in thermals. However, if the thermals are strong, the disadvantage of slower climbs are outweighed by the higher cruising speeds between them. Thus, the pilot can improve the speed over the course by several percent.[40] To prevent over-stressing the glider, the flight manuals of gliders require that pilots dump their water before landing. Look up ballast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City. ...


Badges

Achievements in gliding have been marked by the awarding of badges since the 1920s.[41] For the lower badges, such as the first solo flight, national gliding federations set their own criteria. Typically, a bronze badge shows preparation for cross-country flight, including precise landings and a pair of two-hour flights. Higher badges follow the standards set down by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI).[42] The FAI's Sporting Code[43] defines the rules for observers and recording devices to validate the claims for badges, which are defined by kilometers of distance and meters of altitude gained. The Silver-C badge was introduced in 1930.[41] Earning the Silver Badge shows that a glider pilot has achieved an altitude gain of at least 1,000 m, made a five-hour duration flight, and has flown cross-country for a straight-line distance of at least 50 km, usually, but not invariably, in separate flights. The Gold and Diamond Badges require pilots to fly higher and further. A pilot who has completed the three parts of the Diamond Badge has flown 300 km to a pre-defined goal, has flown 500 km in one flight (but not necessarily to a pre-defined goal) and gained 5,000 m in height. The FAI also issues a diploma for a flight of 1,000 km and further diplomas for increments of 250 km. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) is a standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. ...


Landing out

Pilot and crew about to de-rig a glider
Pilot and crew about to de-rig a glider

If lift is not found during a cross-country flight, for example because of deteriorating weather, the pilot must choose a field and 'land out'.[44] Although inconvenient and often mistaken for "emergency landings", landing out (or "outlanding") is a routine event in cross-country gliding. The pilot has to choose a field where the glider can be landed safely, without damaging property such as crops or livestock.[45] Although pilots try to return to their home airfields, an outlanding is sometimes necessary. ... Although pilots try to return to their home airfields, an outlanding is sometimes necessary. ...


The glider and the pilot(s) can be retrieved from the field using a purpose-built trailer. Alternatively, if the glider has landed in a suitable field, a tow-plane can be summoned to re-launch the aircraft (as long as the property owner gives permission). The glider pilot typically pays for the time the tow-plane is in the air, both to and from the field, so this alternative can become expensive.


Use of engines

ASH25M - a self-launching two-seater glider
Enlarge
ASH25M - a self-launching two-seater glider

To avoid the inconvenience of landing out, some gliders are motor gliders, optionally fitted with a small engine and a retractable propeller, adding both weight and expense. "Self-launching" motor gliders have engines that are powerful enough to launch the glider unaided. In "self-sustaining" motor gliders these engines are not powerful enough for launch, but can provide enough power to climb slowly and return to the home airfield. However, engines have to be started at a height that includes a margin that would still allow a safe landing-out to be made, if the engine were to fail to start.[46] Image File history File links Ash-25. ... Image File history File links Ash-25. ... The ASH 25 is a two-seater high performance Open Class glider manufactured by Alexander Schleicher, originally with a 25 metre wing span. ... Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ...


In a competition, starting the engine ends the soaring flight. Gliders without an engine are lighter and, as they do not need a safety margin for an engine-start, they can safely thermal at lower altitudes in weaker conditions. So, pilots in unpowered gliders may complete competition flights when some powered competitors cannot.[47] Conversely, motor glider pilots can start the engine if conditions will no longer support soaring flight, while unpowered gliders will have to land out, away from the home airfield, requiring retrieval by road using the glider's trailer.


Touring motor gliders have a non-retractable propeller. Since the additional drag reduces their performance, they are seldom used in competition. They can, however, be useful in training for cross-country flights.[48] After take-off, the engine is switched off, and the trainee flies the aircraft as a glider. Landings in unfamiliar fields can be practiced while the motor idles. If the trainee chooses an inappropriate field, or misjudges the approach, the instructor can apply power and climb away safely, after pointing out the error. Scheibe SF25C - a typical old-style touring motorglider Aeromot Super Ximango self-launching motor glider Touring Motor Gliders (TMG) are powered sailboats with an engine / propeller, which cannot be retracted into the cannon. ... An object falling through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


Aerobatics

S-1 Swift - modern aerobatic glider
S-1 Swift - modern aerobatic glider

Aerobatic competitions are held regularly.[49] In this type of competition, the pilots fly a program of maneuvers (such as inverted flight, loop, roll, and various combinations). Each maneuver has a rating called the "K-Factor".[50] Maximum points are given for the maneuver if it is flown perfectly; otherwise, points are deducted. Efficient maneuvers also enable the whole program to be completed with the height available. The winner is the pilot with the most points. An aerobatic glider (Swift). ... An aerobatic glider (Swift). ... S-1 Swift is a single seat mid-wing single-seat glider with retractable undercarriage. ... Soon after aircraft were invented, pilots realised that they could be used as part of a flying circus to entertain people or impress others in what was termed aerobatics. ...


Hazards

Gliders, unlike hang-gliders and paragliders, surround the pilot with a strong structure, so most accidents cause no injuries,[51] but there are some hazards.[52] Even though training and safe procedures are central to the ethos of the sport, a small number of fatal accidents occurs every year, almost all caused by pilot error.[51] In particular there is a risk[53] of mid-air collisions between gliders because the pilots tend to fly to the same areas of lift. To avoid other gliders and general aviation traffic, pilots must comply with the rules of the air and keep a good lookout. They also usually wear parachutes. In Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and Australia, the FLARM warning system is used to avoid mid-air collisions between gliders.[54] Hang gliding is an air sport. ... Paragliding (known in some countries as parapenting) is a recreational and competitive flying sport. ... General aviation (abbr. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... FLARM is an electronic device to alert pilots to potential collisions between aircraft. ...


Challenges for the gliding movement

Gliding as a sport faces challenges in the years ahead.[55] These include:

  • Time pressures on participants: gliding typically takes whole days, which many people today find harder to devote. As a result the average age of glider pilots is increasing
  • Airspace: in many European countries the growth of civil aviation is reducing the amount of uncontrolled airspace
  • Competition from other activities: there is now a greater variety of similar sports such as hang gliding and paragliding that may attract potential glider pilots.
  • Lack of publicity: without coverage by television, many people are unaware of competitive gliding.
  • Increasing bureaucracy.

Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific portion of the atmosphere. ... Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ... Uncontrolled airspace exists wherever a control service cant be provided for whatever reason, or is not deemed necessary, many of them are above mountains or oceans. ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Paragliding (known in some countries as parapenting) is a recreational and competitive flying sport. ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules is socially organized. ...

Learning to glide

The Blanik L-23, a common training glider
The Blanik L-23, a common training glider

Most clubs offer trial lessons to people interested in learning to glide. National gliding associations have contact details for their member clubs. The pupil flies with an instructor in a two-seat glider fitted with dual controls.[56] The instructor does the first launches and landings but otherwise the pupil uses the controls. Some clubs offer courses over several days, though, with a mixture of winch and aerotow launches, it often takes ab initios at least 50 training flights before they are allowed to fly solo.[57] A Blanik L-23 - A Common Training Glider This image is copyrighted. ... A Blanik L-23 - A Common Training Glider This image is copyrighted. ... The L-13 Blaník is a two seater trainer glider produced by Let Kunovice since 1956. ... The sport of gliding is managed in each country by national gliding associations, subject to governmental aviation authorities to varying degrees. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...


If winches are used, the cost of learning to glide is much less than that of learning to fly powered aircraft. Training using aerotow costs more than using winches, even though fewer launches (as few as 30) might be needed. Simulators are also beginning to be used in training, especially during poor weather. Interior Cockpit of a modern Flight Simulator A flight simulator is a system that tries to replicate, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft as closely and realistically as possible. ...


Early solo flights are restricted to within gliding range of the airfield. Further training continues after the first solo until the pupil is judged capable of taking a glider cross-country. Pilots must also familiarize themselves with the regulations, use of the radio, weather and navigation.


Related air sports

Hang-gliding uses simpler and cheaper aircraft in which pilots exercise control by shifting body weight, whereas glider-pilots use conventional flight controls. Hang-gliders typically use fabric wings, shaped over a rigid framework. The lower aerodynamic efficiency of these wings means that shorter cross-country distances are flown than in gliders. Unlike the hang-gliders' wings, paragliders' wings have no frames and their shape is entirely formed by the pressure of the air. The aerodynamic efficiency of paragliders is lower still and so cross-country flights are even shorter. Radio-controlled gliding uses scale-models of gliders mainly for ridge soaring. Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... An aviator is a person who flies aircraft for pleasure or as a profession. ... A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City. ... Paragliding (known in some countries as parapenting) is a recreational and competitive flying sport. ... A radio-controlled glider is a type of radio-controlled airplane that normally does not have any form of propulsion. ...


See also

Gliders are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ... Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... Scheibe SF25C - a typical old-style touring motorglider Aeromot Super Ximango self-launching motor glider Touring Motor Gliders (TMG) are powered sailboats with an engine / propeller, which cannot be retracted into the cannon. ... Duo Discuses en masse waiting for the start of a glider competition at Vaumeilh airfield near Sisteron. ... Notable glider pilots are: Neil Armstrong - astronaut on first Moon landing[1] Richard Bach - author Barbara Cartland - author[2] Kalpana Chawla - astronaut John Denver - singer/songwriter Hugh Downs - television news anchor Richard C. du Pont - director of military glider program Steve Fossett - entrepreneur and record breaker[3] Matthew Fox - actor... The sport of gliding is managed in each country by national gliding associations, subject to governmental aviation authorities to varying degrees. ... A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. ...

References

  1. ^ Frequently asked questions about gliding. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  2. ^ Information about gliding competitions. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  3. ^ History of gliding. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  4. ^ Wasserkuppe, gliding and model gliding. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Welch, Ann (1980). The Story of Gliding 2nd edition. John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3659-6.
  6. ^ FAI the Olympics. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  7. ^ List of pilots who have flown over 1,000km. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  8. ^ FAI membership summary. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  9. ^ FAI membership summary. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  10. ^ Visual explanation of soaring. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  11. ^ Mountain flying. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  12. ^ Altitude record. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  13. ^ Diagram of thermals. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  14. ^ Diagram of ridge lift. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  15. ^ Duration record. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  16. ^ Article about wave lift. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  17. ^ Diagram of wave lift. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  18. ^ Distance record. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  19. ^ Morning Glory. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
  20. ^ Bradbury, Tom (2000). Meteorology and Flight: Pilot's Guide to Weather (Flying & Gliding). A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-4226-2.
  21. ^ Reichmann, Helmut (2005). Streckensegelflug. Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-6130-2479-9.
  22. ^ Further information on launch methods. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  23. ^ Aerotowing explained. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  24. ^ On-line debate on the relative merits of high tow versus low tow and where each method is used. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  25. ^ Further information on launch methods. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  26. ^ Bungee launching explained. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  27. ^ Autotow launching information and discussion. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  28. ^ How gliders fly cross country. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  29. ^ FAI World records page. Retrieved on 2006-09-06.
  30. ^ On Line Contest. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  31. ^ Introduction to gliding competitions. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  32. ^ Typical competition results. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  33. ^ How competitions are monitored and scored. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  34. ^ Sailplane Grand Prix. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  35. ^ On Line Contest. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  36. ^ Listing of lowest ranked participants in the On Line Contest. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  37. ^ MacCready Theory. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  38. ^ Pettersson, Åke (Oct-Nov 2006). "Letters". Sailplane & Gliding 57 (5): 6.
  39. ^ How gliders fly cross country. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  40. ^ a b Water ballast. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  41. ^ a b >Eckschmiedt, George, John Bisscheroux (Feb/Mar 2004). "A Modest Proposal". Free Flight 2004 (1): 8. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  42. ^ FAI Badges page. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  43. ^ FAI Sporting Code. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  44. ^ Cross country flying and landing out. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  45. ^ Code of practice for field landings. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  46. ^ Information about self-sustaining gliders. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  47. ^ Guide to Self-launching Sailplane Operation. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  48. ^ Motor gliding training syllabus for instructors. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  49. ^ Information about gliding aerobatics. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.
  50. ^ FAI Aerobatics Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  51. ^ a b Every, Douglas (October/November 2006). "Accident/incident Summaries". Sailplane & Gliding 57 (5): 61. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  52. ^ How safe is gliding?. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  53. ^ Analysis of serious and fatal gliding accidents in France. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  54. ^ Summary of collision avoidance techniques. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  55. ^ Challenges facing gliding reported to FAI. Retrieved on 2006-09-18.
  56. ^ Learning to glide. Retrieved on 2006-09-18.
  57. ^ Information about learning to glide. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • Longland, Steve (2001). Gliding: From Passenger to Pilot. The Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 1-8612-6414-3.
  • Piggott, Derek (2002). Gliding: A handbook on soaring flight. A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-6148-8.
  • Stewart, Ken (2003). The Glider Pilot's Manual. Air Pilot Publisher Ltd. ISBN 1-8433-6078-0.

External links

  • Links to all national gliding federations
  • International Gliding Commission
  • Gliding pictures
  • Videos
  • Diagrams
  • Learning to glide


  Results from FactBites:
 
FAI Gliding Commission - IGC (921 words)
IGC (which stands for "International Gliding Commission") is responsible for FAI's gliding activities, in particular World Records and International Competitions with the exception of glider aerobatics [ more about IGC ]
The International Gliding Commission held its annual meeting in Lausanne at the end of February 2007.
For those of you who had the privilege to visit this club at the General Conference last year you will appreciate the lessons that we could all learn from their initiatives and enthusiasm in protecting and developing the club and airfield.
Gliding (1062 words)
Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive sport where individuals fly un-powered aeroplanes usually called gliders or sailplanes.
The first German gliding competition was held at the Wasserkuppe in 1920, organised by Oskar Ursinus, and ten years later had become an international event.
Two minimalistic variations of the sport are hang gliding, where instead of a fully-fledged plane with full control surfaces and an enclosed cockpit the craft used is basically a fabric flying wing, and paragliding, where a sophisticated kind of parachute is flown.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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