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Encyclopedia > Glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral joint
The right shoulder and Glenohumeral joint
Latin articulatio humeri
Gray's subject #82 315
MeSH Glenohumeral+Joint
Dorlands/Elsevier a_64/12161240

The glenohumeral joint, commonly known as the shoulder joint, is a synovial ball and socket joint and involves articulation between the glenoid fossa of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the head of the humerus (upper arm bone). Image File history File links Gray327. ... This article is about the body part. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... This article is about the body part. ... Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ... A ball and socket joint (enarthrosis, spheroidal joint) is a joint in which the distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center. ... Glenoid fossa redirects here, for the other use of Glenoid fossa please see mandibular fossa. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... The upper extremity of the humerus (proximal humerus) consists of a large rounded head joined to the body by a constricted portion called the neck, and two eminences, the greater and lesser tubercles. ...



The glenoid fossa is shallow and contains the glenoid labrum which deepens it and aids in stability. With 120 degrees of unassisted flexion, the glenohumeral joint is the most mobile joint in the body. A labrum (Latin for lip) is the large vessel of a warm bath in the Roman thermae. ...

Scapulohumeral rhythm helps to achieve further range of movement.

The rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder produce a high tensile force, and help to pull the head of the humerus into the glenoid fossa. The rotator cuff (rotor cuff) is an anatomical term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. ... In physics, tension is a force on a body directed to produce strain (extension); it can be considered to be negative compression. ...


The glenohumeral joint has a loose capsule that is lax inferiorly and therefore is at risk of dislocation inferiorly. The long head of the biceps brachii muscle travels inside the capsule to attach to the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula. The joint capsules or articular capsules form complete envelopes for the freely movable bone joints. ... Dislocation (joint dislocation) occurs when bones at a joint move from their normal position. ... In human anatomy, the biceps brachii is a muscle located on the upper arm. ... The supraglenoid tubercle is a region of the scapula to which the long head of the biceps brachii muscle attaches. ...

Because the tendon is inside the capsule, it requires a synovial tendon sheath to minimize friction.

A number of bursas in the capsule aid mobility. Namely, they are the subcoracoid bursa, coracobrachial bursa and the subtendieus bursa of subscapularis muscle. The bursa are formed by the synovial membrane of the joint capsule. Bursae visible top right and bottom right A bursa (plural bursae or bursas; Latin: Bursa synovialis) is a small fluid-filled sac located at the point where a muscle or tendon slides across bone. ...

It is important to note that the shoulder joint is a muscle dependent joint as it lacks strong ligaments.


In addition to the coracohumeral ligament, three supplemental bands, which are named the glenohumeral ligaments, strengthen the capsule. ... The coracohumeral ligament is a broad ligament which strengthens the upper part of the capsule of the shoulder joint. ... The transverse humeral ligament is a broad band passing from the lesser to the greater tubercle of the humerus, and always limited to that portion of the bone which lies above the epiphysial line. ...


The capsule can become inflamed and stiff, with abnormal bands of tissue (adhesions) growing between the joint surfaces, causing pain and restricting movement of the shoulder, a condition known as frozen shoulder or adhesive capsulitis. An adhesion is a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures. ... Frozen shoulder, medically referred to as adhesive capsulitis, is a disorder in which the shoulder capsule, the connective tissue surrounding the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder, becomes inflamed and stiff. ...

External links

The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ...

Additional images

  Results from FactBites:
Effects of anteroinferior capsulolabral incision and resection on glenohumeral joint reaction force (3673 words)
The glenohumeral joint reaction force was resolved into three orthogonal components: (1) force perpendicular to the glenoid (compression force), (2) force-directed anterior to the glenoid (anterior-directed force), and (3) force-directed superior to the glenoid (superior directed force).
Additional glenohumeral joints were not tested because post hoc power analysis indicated that a minimum of 20 glenohumeral joints would be required to demonstrate differences in the compression force in comparison of the intact condition and either of the two simulated capsulolabral lesion conditions.
Because of their orientation to the glenohumeral joint, muscles that move the shoulder contribute to anterior joint stability through "concavity compression." Coined by Lippett and coworkers, this term refers to the component of the joint reaction force that acts perpendicular to the glenoid fossa, compressing the humeral head [20].
Memorial Bone and Joint - Adult Joint Reconstruction and MIS (474 words)
Glenohumeral (shoulder) arthritis is a common source of pain and disability that affects up to 20% of the older population.
Damage to the cartilage surfaces of the glenohumeral joint (the shoulder's "ball-and-socket" structure) is the primary cause of shoulder arthritis.
Glenohumeral joint arthritis is caused by the destruction of the cartilage layer covering the bones in the glenohumeral joint.
  More results at FactBites »



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