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Encyclopedia > Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg

Born 19 April 1912(1912-04-19)
Ishpeming, Michigan
Died 25 February 1999 (aged 86)
Lafayette, California
Residence United States
Nationality Flag of the United States United States
Field Nuclear chemist
Institutions University of California, Berkeley
Manhattan Project
Atomic Energy Commission
Alma mater UCLA
University of California, Berkeley
Academic advisor   George Ernest Gibson,
Gilbert Newton Lewis
Notable students   Ralph Arthur James
Joseph William Kennedy
Kenneth Ross Mackenzie
Arthur Wall
Known for Discovery of ten transuranium elements
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Chemistry
(1951)

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements,"[1] contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, developed the actinide concept and was the first to propose the actinide series which led to the current arrangement of the Periodic Table of the Elements. He spent most of his career as an educator and research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley where he became the second Chancellor in its history and served as a University Professor.[2] Seaborg advised ten presidents from Truman to Clinton on nuclear policy and was the chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission from 1961 to 1971 where he pushed for commercial nuclear energy and peaceful applications of nuclear science. Throughout his career, Seaborg worked for arms control. He was signator to the Franck Report and contributed to the achievement of the Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.[3] Seaborg was a well-known advocate for science education and federal funding for pure research. He was a key contributor to the report "A Nation at Risk" as a member of President Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education and was the principal author of the Seaborg Report on academic science issued in the closing days of the Eisenhower administration.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ishpeming is a city located in Marquette County, Michigan. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Lafayette is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... George Ernest Gibson (November 9, 1884&ndash August 26, 1959) was a Shotish born American nuclear chemist. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous physical chemist. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... The actinide concept in nuclear chemistry was first theorized by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1944, resulting in the correction of Mendeleyevs periodic table of the elements by placing a new actinide series below the lanthanide series. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... The Franck Report of June 1945, named for James Franck, recommended that the US either a) keep its atomic discoveries secret for an indefinite time, or b) develop nuclear armaments at such a pace that no other nation would think of attacking first from fear of overwhelming retaliation. ... The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... A Nation at Risk was the popular title of the 1983 report of President Ronald Reagans National Commission on Excellence in Education. ... The National Commission on Excellence in Education produced the 1983 report titled A Nation at Risk. ...


Seaborg was the principal or co-discoverer of ten elements: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and Element 106, which was named seaborgium in his honor while he was still living. He also developed more than 100 atomic isotopes, and is credited with important contributions to the separation of the isotope of uranium used in the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. Early in his career, Seaborg was a pioneer in nuclear medicine and developed numerous isotopes of elements with important applications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, most notably iodine-131, which is used in the treatment of thyroid disease. In addition to his theoretical work in the development of the actinide concept which placed the actinide series beneath the lanthanide series on the periodic table, Seaborg proposed the placement of super-heavy elements in the transactinide and superactinide series.[5] After sharing the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Edwin McMillan, he received approximately 50 honorary doctorates and numerous other awards and honors. The list of things named after Seaborg ranges from his atomic element to an asteroid. Seaborg was a prolific author, penning more than 50 books and 500 journal articles, often in collaboration with others. He received so many awards and honors that he was once listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the person with the longest entry in Who's Who in America. General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... In chemistry, transactinide elements are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 103, the atomic number of lawrencium. ... Superactinides are the undiscovered chemical elements from number 123 (Unbitrium) until 153 (Unpenttrium), at which the 5g and 6f- electron shells are filled up. ... Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907-September 7, 1991) was the first scientist to produce a transuranium element. ... Nobel prize winning chemist, Glenn T. Seaborg is known for having received numerous awards and honors during his lifetime. ... Nobel Prize-winning chemist Glenn T. Seaborg is known for his considerable legacy. ... Nobel prize winning chemist Glenn T. Seaborg ranks among the most prolific authors in scientific history. ... Nobel prize winning chemist, Glenn T. Seaborg is known for having received numerous awards and honors during his lifetime. ...

Contents

Biography

Of Swedish ancestry, Seaborg was born in Ishpeming, Michigan, the son of Herman Theodore (Ted) and Selma Olivia Erickson Seaborg. He had one sister, Jeanette. When Glenn Seaborg was a boy, the family moved to the Seaborg Home in a subdivision called Home Gardens, that was later annexed to the City of South Gate, California, a suburb of Los Angeles. Ishpeming is a city located in Marquette County, Michigan. ... The Seaborg Home was the family home of Nobel-prize winning chemist and nuclear pioneer, Glenn Seaborg from 1922 to 1934. ... Location of South Gate in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1923-01-20 [2] Government  - Mayor Bill De Witt [1] Area  - City  7. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


He kept a daily journal from 1927 until he suffered a stroke in 1998. As a youth, Seaborg was both a devoted sports fan and an avid movie buff. His mother encouraged him to become a bookkeeper as she felt his literary interests were impractical. He did not take an interest in science until his junior year when he was inspired by Dwight Logan Reid, a chemistry and physics teacher at David Starr Jordan High School in Watts. [6] David Starr Jordan High School is a public comprehensive four-year high school in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, USA. Some sections of Florence-Graham, an unincorporated neighborhood in Los Angeles County, are jointly zoned to Jordan and John C. Fremont High School. ... Watts is a residential district in southern Los Angeles, California. ...


He graduated from Jordan in 1929 at the top of his class and received a bachelor's degree in chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1934. While at UCLA, he was invited by his German professor to meet Albert Einstein, an experience that had a profound impact on Seaborg and served as a model of graciousness for his encounters with aspiring students in later years. Seaborg worked his way through school as a stevedore (longshoreman), fruit packer and laboratory assistant.[7] See also: Other events of 1929 List of years in science . ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Stevedores on a New York dock loading barrels of corn syrup onto a barge on the Hudson River. ...


Graduate work

Ernest O. Lawrence, Glenn Seaborg and Robert Oppenheimer at the controls of the 187-inch cyclotron.

Seaborg took his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1937 with a doctoral thesis on the inelastic scattering of neutrons in which he coined the term "nuclear spallation". He was a member of the professional chemistry fraternity Alpha Chi Sigma. As a graduate student in the 1920s Seaborg performed wet chemistry research for his advisor Gilbert Newton Lewis and published three papers with him on the theory of acids and bases. Seaborg then studied thoroughly the text Applied Radiochemistry by Otto Hahn, of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin and it had a major impact on his developing interests as a research scientist. For several years, Seaborg conducted important research in artificial radioactivity using the Lawrence cyclotron at UC Berkeley. He was excited to learn from others that nuclear fission was possible -- but also chagrined, as his own research might have led him to the same discovery.[8] Image File history File links Lawrence_Seaborg_Oppenheimer. ... Image File history File links Lawrence_Seaborg_Oppenheimer. ... Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 - August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate best known for his invention of the cyclotron. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... Alpha Chi Sigma (ΑΧΣ) is a professional fraternity specializing in the field of chemistry. ... Wet chemistry is a term used to refer to chemistry generally done in the liquid phase. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous physical chemist. ... Applied radiochemistry was an important collection of lectures by German chemist Otto Hahn published in English in 1936 by the Cornell University Press (Ithaca, New York) and simultaneously by the Oxford University Press (London). ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ...


Seaborg also became expert in dealing with noted Berkeley physicist Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer had a daunting reputation, and often answered a junior man's question before it had even been stated. Often the question answered was more profound than the one asked, but of little practical help. Seaborg learned to state his questions to Oppenheimer quickly and succinctly, a habit which stood Seaborg in good stead all his professional life.[9] Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ...


Career

Pioneering work in nuclear chemistry

Seaborg at the Geiger Counter, 301 Gilman Hall, Berkeley, California, where he discovered plutonium.

Seaborg remained at the University of California, Berkeley for post-doctoral research. He followed Frederick Soddy's work investigating isotopes and contributed to the discovery of more than 100 isotopes of elements. Using one of Lawrence's advanced cyclotrons, John Livingood, Fred Fairbrother, and Seaborg created a new isotope of iron, iron-59 (Fe-59) in 1937. Iron-59 was useful in the studies of the hemoglobin in human blood. In 1938, Livingood and Seaborg collaborated to create an important isotope of iodine, iodine-131 (I-131) which is still used to treat thyroid disease. (Many years later, it was credited with prolonging the life of Seaborg's mother.) As a result of these and other contributions, Seaborg is regarded as a pioneer in nuclear medicine and is one of its most prolific discoverers of isotopes.[10] Image File history File links Seaborg_Geiger_Gilman_Hall. ... Image File history File links Seaborg_Geiger_Gilman_Hall. ... Gilman Hall is a building on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley. ... Frederick Soddy in 1922. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ...


In 1939 he became an instructor in chemistry at UC Berkeley, was promoted to assistant professor in 1941 and professor in 1945.[11] For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


UC Berkeley physicist Edwin McMillan had led a team that discovered Element 93, neptunium in 1940. However in November 1940, McMillan was persuaded to leave Berkeley temporarily to assist with urgent research needed to advance radar technology. Since Seaborg and his colleagues had perfected McMillan's oxidation-reduction technique for isolating neptunium, he asked McMillan for permission to continue the research and search for element 94. McMillan agreed to the collaboration.[12] Seaborg first reported alpha decay proportionate to only a fraction of the element 93 under observation. The first hypothesis for this alpha particle accumulation was contamination by uranium, which produces alpha-decay particles. However, an analysis of alpha-decay particles ruled out the hypothesis. Seaborg then postulated that a distinct alpha-producing element was being formed from element 93. In February 1941, Seaborg and his collaborators produced plutonium 239 through the bombardment of uranium. This experimental achievement changed the course of human history in ways more profound than they could have ever imagined: the production of plutonium 239 was successful. In their experiments bombarding uranium with deuterons, they observed the creation of neptunium, element 93. But it then underwent beta-decay, forming a new element, plutonium, with 94 protons. Plutonium is fairly stable, but undergoes alpha-decay, which explained the presence of alpha particles coming from neptunium.[13] Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907-September 7, 1991) was the first scientist to produce a transuranium element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


In the same year in which he produced plutonium, 1941, he also discovered that the isotope U235 undergoes fission under appropriate conditions. He therefore contributed to the science enabling two different approaches to the development of nuclear weapons. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


In addition to plutonium, he is credited as a lead discoverer of americium, curium, and berkelium, and as a co-discoverer of californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1951 with Edwin McMillan for "their discoveries in the chemistry of the first transuranium elements." He obtained patents on americium and curium, which were developed in 1944 in Chicago at the wartime metallurgical laboratory during the Manhattan project. His research contributions to all of the other elements were conducted at the University of California, Berkeley. This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907-September 7, 1991) was the first scientist to produce a transuranium element. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


Scientific contributions during the Manhattan Project

On April 19, 1942, Seaborg reached Chicago, and joined up with the chemistry group at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi and his group would later convert U238 to plutonium in the world's first controlled nuclear chain reaction using a chain-reacting pile. Seaborg's role was to figure out how to extract the tiny bit of plutonium from the mass of uranium. Plutonium-239 was isolated in visible amounts using a transmutation reaction on August 20, 1942 and weighed on September 10, 1942 in Seaborg's Chicago laboratory. He was responsible for the multi-stage chemical process that separated, concentrated and isolated plutonium. This process was further developed at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and then entered full-scale production at the Hanford Engineer Works, in Hanford, Washington.[14] The Metallurgical Laboratory or Met Lab at the University of Chicago was part of the World War II–era Manhattan Project, created by the United States to develop an atomic bomb. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... The Hanford Engineer Works was established by the Manhattan Project during World War II to build the Plutonium atomic bomb. ... Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington. ...


Seaborg's theoretical development of the actinide concept resulted in a redrawing of the Periodic Table of the Elements into its current configuration with the actinide series appearing below the lanthanide series. Seaborg developed the chemical elements americium and curium while in Chicago. He managed to secure patents for both elements. His patent on curium never proved commercially viable because of the element's short half-life. Americium is commonly used in household smoke detectors, however, and thus provided a good source of royalty income to Seaborg in later years. Prior to the test of the first nuclear weapon, Seaborg joined with several other leading scientists in a written statement known as the Franck Report (secret at the time but since published) calling on President Truman to conduct a public demonstration of the atomic bomb witnessed by the Japanese rather than engaging in a surprise attack. Truman instead proceeded to drop two bombs, credited by most observers at the time with ending the war, a uranium bomb on Hiroshima and a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki.[15] The actinide concept in nuclear chemistry was first theorized by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1944, resulting in the correction of Mendeleyevs periodic table of the elements by placing a new actinide series below the lanthanide series. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... The lanthanide series is the 14 rare earth chemical elements which lie between lanthanum and ytterbium on the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The Franck Report of June 1945, named for James Franck, recommended that the US either a) keep its atomic discoveries secret for an indefinite time, or b) develop nuclear armaments at such a pace that no other nation would think of attacking first from fear of overwhelming retaliation. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Professor and Chancellor at UC Berkeley

After the conclusion of World War II and the Manhattan Project, Seaborg was eager to return to academic life and university research free from the restrictions of wartime secrecy. In 1946, he added to his responsibilities as a professor by heading the nuclear chemistry research at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory operated by the University of California on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Seaborg was named one of the "Ten Outstanding Young Men in America" by the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1947 (along with Richard Nixon and others). Seaborg was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1948. From 1954 to 1961 he served as associate director of the radiation laboratory. He was appointed by President Truman to serve as a member of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, an assignment he retained until 1960. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...


Seaborg served as chancellor at University of California, Berkeley from 1958 to 1961. His term as Chancellor came at a time of considerable controversy during the time of the free speech movement. In October 1958, he announced that the University had relaxed its prior prohibitions on political activity on a test basis.[16] Seaborg served on the Faculty Athletic Committee for several years and is the co-author of a book concerning the Pacific Athletic Conference scandal and the founding of the PAC-10 (formerly PAC-8), in which he played a role. Seaborg served on the President's Science Advisory Commission during the Eisenhower administration, which produced the report "Scientific Progress, the Universities, and the Federal Government," also known as the "Seaborg Report," in November 1960. The Seaborg Report is credited with influencing the federal policy towards academic science for the next eight years. In 1959, he helped found the Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory with UC president Clark Kerr. A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The Pacific Ten Conference (Pac-10) is a college athletic conference which operates in the western United States. ... The Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) is run by the University of California, Berkeley. ... Clark Kerr (May 17, 1911 – December 1, 2003) was the first Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (1952–1958) and the 12th President of the University of California (1958–1967). ...


Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission

Seaborg ca. 1964.
Seaborg ca. 1964.

After appointment by President Kennedy and confirmation by the United States Senate, Seaborg was chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1961 to 1971. His pending appointment by President Kennedy was nearly derailed in late 1960 when members of the Kennedy transition team learned that Seaborg had been listed in a U.S. News and World Report article as a member of "Nixon's Brain Trust." Seaborg said that as a lifetime Democrat he was baffled when the article appeared associating him with Vice President Nixon, whom he considered a casual acquaintance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... JFK redirects here. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...


While chairman of the AEC, Seaborg participated on the negotiating team for the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). Seaborg considered his contributions to the achievement of the LTBT as his greatest accomplishment. Despite strict rules from the Soviets about photography at the signing ceremony, Seaborg snuck a tiny camera past the Soviet guards to take a close-up photograph of Soviet Premier Khrushchev as he signed the treaty. The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union...

President Kennedy and his Atomic Energy Commission Chairman, Glenn Seaborg.
President Kennedy and his Atomic Energy Commission Chairman, Glenn Seaborg.

Seaborg enjoyed a close relationship with President Johnson and influenced the administration to pursue the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Image File history File links Seaborg_kennedy. ... Image File history File links Seaborg_kennedy. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Seaborg was called to the White House in the first week of the Nixon Administration in January 1969 to advise President Nixon on his first diplomatic crisis involving the Soviets and nuclear testing. Seaborg clashed with Nixon presidential adviser John Ehrlichman over the treatment of a Jewish scientist whom the Nixon administration suspected of leaking nuclear secrets to Israel. Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ...


Seaborg published several books and journal articles during his tenure at the Atomic Energy Commission. His predictions concerning development of stable super-heavy elements are considered among his most important theoretical contributions.[17] Seaborg theorized the transactinide series and the superactinide series of undiscovered synthetic elements. While most of these theoretical future elements have extremely short half-lives and thus no expected practical applications, Seaborg theorized an island of stability for isotopes of certain elements.[18] In chemistry, transactinide elements are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 103, the atomic number of lawrencium. ... Superactinides are the undiscovered chemical elements from number 123 (Unbitrium) until 153 (Unpenttrium), at which the 5g and 6f- electron shells are filled up. ... 3-dimensional rendering of the theoretical Island of Stability. ...


When Seaborg resigned as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1971, he had served longer than any other Kennedy appointee.


Return to California

Following his service as Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Seaborg returned to UC Berkeley where he was awarded the position of University Professor. At the time, there had been fewer University Professors at UC Berkeley than Nobel prize winners. He also served as Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Seaborg served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972 and as President of the American Chemical Society in 1976. In 1976, when the Swedish king visited the United States, Seaborg played a major role in welcoming the Swedish Royal Family. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... The Swedish Royal Family consists of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte, closely related to the King of Sweden, who are entitled to royal titles, and some of which are performing various official engagements on behalf of the Royal Family and ceremonial duties of State. ...


In 1980, he transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.[19] His experimental technique, using nuclear physics, was able to remove protons and neutrons from the bismuth atoms. Seaborg's technique would have been far too expensive to enable routine manufacturing of gold, but his work is the closest to the mythical Philosopher's Stone. // Transmutation is the conversion of one object into another. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... The philosophers stone, in Latin lapis philosophi, is a legendary substance that supposedly could turn inexpensive metals such as lead into gold (chrysopoeia in the Greek language) and/or create an elixir that would make humans younger, thus delaying death. ...


In 1983, President Reagan appointed Seaborg to serve on the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Upon seeing the final draft report, Seaborg is credited with making comments that it was far too weak and did not communicate the urgency of the current crisis. He compared the crisis in education to the arms race, and stated that we are "a nation at risk." These comments led to a new introduction to the report and gave the report the famous title which focused national attention on education as an issue germane to the federal government. Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ...


Seaborg lived most of his later life in Lafayette, California, where he devoted himself to editing and publishing the journals that documented both his early life and later career. He rallied a group of scientists who criticized the science curriculum in the State of California which he viewed as far too socially oriented and not nearly focused enough on hard science. California Governor Pete Wilson appointed Seaborg to head a committee that proposed sweeping changes to California's science curriculum despite outcries from labor organizations and others. Lafayette is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States. ...


On August 24, 1998, while in Boston to attend a meeting by the American Chemical Society, Seaborg suffered a stroke, which led to his death six months later on February 25, 1999 at his home in Lafayette. The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


During his lifetime, Seaborg is said to have been the author or co-author of more than 50 books and 500 scientific journal articles, many of them brief reports on fast-breaking discoveries in nuclear science while other subjects, most notably the actinide concept, represented major theoretical contributions in the history of science. He held more than 40 patents — among them the only patents ever issued for chemical elements, americium and curium. He is also said to have received more than 50 degrees and honorary degrees in his lifetime. At one time, he was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as having the longest entry in Marquis Who's Who in America. In February 2005, Seaborg was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Marquis Whos Who is a US publisher of a number of books containing short biographical sketches of celebrated persons. ... Exterior of the National Inventors Hall of Fame museum, 2005 The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an organization that honors important inventors from the whole world. ...


Personal life

Seaborg Family Portrait. From left to right: Lynne Seaborg, Dianne Seaborg, Peter Seaborg, David Seaborg, Stephen Seaborg (in front of David), Glenn T. Seaborg, Eric Seaborg (in front of Glenn), and Helen L. Seaborg.

In 1942, Seaborg married Helen Griggs, the secretary of Ernest Lawrence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x851, 53 KB)Description: The Seaborg family photo for the Blair House Gallery, Washington, D.C. in 1964. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x851, 53 KB)Description: The Seaborg family photo for the Blair House Gallery, Washington, D.C. in 1964. ... Helen L. (Griggs) Seaborg (March 2, 1917 – August 29, 2006) was an American-born child welfare advocate and the wife of Nobel Prize chemist Glenn T. Seaborg. ... Ernest O. Lawrence Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his invention, utilization, and improvement of the cyclotron beginning in 1929, and his later work in uranium-isotope separation in the Manhattan Project. ...


Under wartime pressure, Seaborg had moved to Chicago while engaged to Griggs. When Seaborg returned to accompany Griggs for the journey back to Chicago, friends expected them to marry in Chicago. But, eager to be married, Seaborg and Griggs impulsively got off the train in the town of Caliente, Nevada for what they thought would be a quick wedding. When they asked for City Hall, they found Caliente had none—they would have to travel 25 miles north to Pioche, the county seat. With no car, this was no easy feat but, happily, one of Caliente's newest deputy sheriffs turned out to be a recent graduate of the Cal Berkeley chemistry department and was only too happy to do a favor for Seaborg. The deputy sheriff arranged for the wedding couple to ride up and back to Pioche in a mail truck. The witnesses at the Seaborg wedding were a clerk and a janitor. Caliente is a city located in Lincoln County, Nevada. ... Pioche is a town located in Lincoln County, Nevada, of which it is the county seat. ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ...


Glenn Seaborg and Helen Griggs Seaborg had six children, of whom the first, Peter Glenn Seaborg, died in 1997. The others were Lynne Seaborg Cobb, David Seaborg, Steve Seaborg, Eric Seaborg, and Dianne Seaborg. David Seaborg (b. ...


Seaborg was an avid hiker. Upon becoming Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1961, he commenced taking daily hikes through a trail which he blazed at the headquarters site in Gaithersburg, Maryland. He frequently invited colleagues and visitors to accompany him and the trail became known as the "Glenn Seaborg Trail."


He and his wife Helen are credited with blazing a 12 mile trail in the East Bay area near their Lafayette, California home. This trail has since become a part of the American Hiking Association's cross-country network of trails. Seaborg and his wife walked the trail network from Contra Costa County all the way to the California-Nevada border.


Seaborg was honored as Swedish-American of the Year in 1962 by the Vasa Order of America. In 1991, the organization named "Local Lodge Glenn T. Seaborg No. 719" in his honor during the Seaborg Honors ceremony at which he appeared. This lodge maintains a scholarship fund in his name, as does the unrelated Swedish-American Club of Los Angeles.


Seaborgium

The element seaborgium was named after Seaborg by Albert Ghiorso and others, who also credited Seaborg as a co-discoverer. It was so named while Seaborg was still alive, which proved extremely controversial. He influenced the naming of so many elements that with the announcement of Seaborgium, it was noted in Discover magazines review of the year in science that he could receive a letter addressed in chemical elements: Seaborgium, Lawrencium (for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where he worked), Berkelium, Californium, Americium.[20] General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... The names for the chemical elements 104 to 109 were the subject of a major controversy starting in the 1960s which was finally resolved in 1997. ... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


While it is commonly stated that Seaborgium is the only element to have been named after a living person, this is not entirely accurate. Both einsteinium and fermium, were proposed as names of new elements discovered by Albert Ghiorso, Seaborg and the other American co-discoverers of those elements while Enrico Fermi and Albert Einstein were still living. The discovery of these elements and their names were kept secret under Cold War era nuclear secrecy rules, however, and thus the names were not known by the public or the broader scientific community until after the deaths of Fermi and Einstein. Seaborgium is the only element to have been publicly named after a living person. General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. Nobel Foundation (1951). Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  2. ^ http://www.nmu.edu/seaborg/seaborg.htm, "Glenn T. Seaborg: Citizen-Scholar," Glenn T. Seaborg Center Website, Northern Michigan University, accessed November 9, 2006.
  3. ^ http://isswprod.lbl.gov/Seaborg/bio.htm, Glenn Seaborg: His Biography, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website, accessed November 9, 2006.
  4. ^ http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/seaborg-edu-legacy.html, Science Beat, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website, accessed November 9, 2006.
  5. ^ http://www-cms.llnl.gov/seaborginstitute/seaborg.html, Seaborg Institute website, accessed November 9, 2006.
  6. ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 13-14. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
  7. ^ http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAseaborgH.htm biographical entry, website, accessed July 8, 2006.
  8. ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 57-59. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
  9. ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. and Eric Seaborg, Adventures in the Atomic Age: From Watts to Washington. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 26. ISBN 0-374-29991-9
  10. ^ http://www.atomicmuseum.com/tour/nm1d4.cfm, National Atomic Museum, website, accessed July 16, 2006.
  11. ^ http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/seaborg-timeline.html, Glenn T. Seaborg Timeline, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website, accessed November 9, 2006.
  12. ^ Jackson, David J. and W. K. H. Panofsky, Biographical Memoirs: Edwin Mattison McMillan, National Academies Press, online at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/emcmillan.html , accessed July 16, 2006
  13. ^ Delphine Farmer, An Elementary Problem, Berkeley Science Review, Issue 1:Volume 1, 2001, online at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/biomems/emcmillan.html , website accessed July 16, 2006.
  14. ^ http://isswprod.lbl.gov/Seaborg/hits.htm, Seaborg's Greatest Hits, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory website, accessed, November 9, 2006.
  15. ^ Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.) 320, 340-43, 348, 354, 369, 377, 395. ISBN 0-684-81378-5.
  16. ^ Theodore L. Hullar, Clark Kerr, Julius R. Krevans, Pedro Noguera, Glenn T. Seaborg, Neil J. Smelser, Martin Trow, and Charles E. Young. The University of California Office of the President and Its Constituencies, 1983-1995. Volume II: On the Campuses: Chancellors, Faculty, Student. Regional Oral History Office, University of California, Berkeley, 1997-1999. Available from the Online Archive of California; <http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt967nb5sj>
  17. ^ Glenn T. Seaborg, "Prospects for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table," Journal of Chemical Education (46: 626–634), 1969.
  18. ^ Glenn Considine, ed., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 9th ed., (New York:Wiley Interscience, 2002, 738. ISBN 0-471-33230-5.
  19. ^ K. Aleklett, D. J. Morrissey, W. Loveland, P. L. McGaughey, and G. T. Seaborg. Energy dependence of 209Bi fragmentation in relativistic nuclear collisions. Phys. Rev. C 1981, 23, 1044-1046. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.23.1044
  20. ^ Jeffrey Winters, "What’s in a Name?" DISCOVER, Vol. 19 No. 01, January 1998. http://www.discover.com/issues/jan-98/features/theyearinscience1309/ , website, accessed October 17, 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Neil J. Smelser was a University of California Berkeley sociologist who studied collective behavior. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Preceded by
Clark Kerr
Chancellor of UC Berkeley
1958–1961
Succeeded by
Edward W. Strong
Preceded by
John A. McCone
Chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission
1961–1971
Succeeded by
James R. Schlesinger
Persondata
NAME Seaborg, Glenn Theodore
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
DATE OF BIRTH April 19, 1912(1912-04-19)
PLACE OF BIRTH Ishpeming, Michigan
DATE OF DEATH February 25, 1999
PLACE OF DEATH Lafayette, California

 
 

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