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Encyclopedia > Glenn Gould
Glenn Gould

Gould rehearsing in 1974
Background information
Birth name Glenn Herbert Gould[1][2]
Born September 25, 1932(1932-09-25)
Flag of Canada Toronto, Canada
Died October 4, 1982 (aged 50)
Flag of Canada Toronto, Canada
Genre(s) Classical
Occupation(s) Pianist, Composer
Years active fl. 1945-1982

Glenn Herbert Gould[1][2] (September 25, 1932October 4, 1982) was a Canadian pianist, noted especially for his recordings of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, his remarkable technical proficiency, and his eccentric personality and piano technique. He was one of the best-known and most celebrated pianists of the twentieth century. He gave up concert performances in 1964, dedicating himself to the recording studio for the rest of his career—as well as performances for television and radio, non-musical radio documentaries and other projects. Image File history File links Glenn Gould in rehearsal, Toronto, Ontario, 1974 Image online from the Walter Curtin collection of Library and Archives Canada/PA-137052 [1] Copyright is National Archives of Canada, but there are no restrictions on use or reproduction of this image, and it is therefore Fair... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Floruit (or fl. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Concert (disambiguation). ... ==Individual Studio== A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ...

Contents

Life

Gould, February 1946, with Nick.
Gould, February 1946, with Nick.
Alberto Guerrero with his student Glenn Gould, 1945.

Glenn Gould was born in Toronto on September 25, 1932, to Russell Herbert ("Bert") Gould and Florence ("Flora") Emma Greig Gould, Presbyterians of Scottish extraction. (Greig is the original Scottish spelling of this name, unlike the Norwegian variant Grieg.) His mother's grandfather was a cousin of Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg. Though not athletic, Gould was a sociable young man. He was close friends throughout his life with his cousin, Jessie Grieg. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (475x603, 62 KB)A young Glenn Gould circa 1944 with his Dog and Budgie, from the Ontario Archives This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (475x603, 62 KB)A young Glenn Gould circa 1944 with his Dog and Budgie, from the Ontario Archives This file has been listed on Wikipedia:Possibly unfree images, because it is missing information on its source or copyright status. ... Image File history File links Gould_and_Guerrero. ... Image File history File links Gould_and_Guerrero. ... Alberto Guerrero (standing) with his student Glenn Gould, 1945 Alberto Guerrero (6 February 1886 – 7 November 1959) was a Chilean–Canadian composer, pianist, and teacher, perhaps now best remembered as a mentor of Canadian pianist Glenn Gould. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ...


Gould's interest in music, and his talent as a pianist, became evident very early on. Both his parents were musical and his mother, especially, encouraged the infant Gould's early musical development. He had perfect pitch and could read music before he could read words.[3] At a young age, he reportedly behaved differently from typical children at the piano: he would strike single notes and listen to their long decay.[4] Gould's first piano teacher was his mother until the age of ten. From the age of ten he began attending the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto, where he studied piano with Alberto Guerrero, organ with Frederick C. Silvester and theory with Leo Smith. Absolute pitch (AP), widely referred to as perfect pitch, is the ability of a person to identify or sing a musical note without the benefit of a known reference. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Alberto Guerrero (standing) with his student Glenn Gould, 1945 Alberto Guerrero (6 February 1886 – 7 November 1959) was a Chilean–Canadian composer, pianist, and teacher, perhaps now best remembered as a mentor of Canadian pianist Glenn Gould. ... Old Pipe organ in Église Saint-Thomas, Strasbourg, France. ... Frederick C. Silvester (1901-1966) was an organist and composer. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ...


At an early age Gould became interested in composition, and played his own little pieces for family, friends, and sometimes larger gatherings. For example in 1938, in the company of his mother, Gould attended the Emmanuel Presbyterian Church, a few blocks from the Gould house, and performed one of his own compositions.[5]


When he was six, Glenn was taken for the first time to hear a live musical performance by a celebrated soloist, which had a tremendous impact on him. He later described the experience: "It was Hofmann. It was, I think, his last performance in Toronto,and it was a staggering impression. The only thing I can really remember is that, when I was being brought home in a car, I was in that wonderful state of through your mind. They were all orchestral sounds, but I was playing them all, and suddenly I was Hofmann. I was enchanted."


In 1945, he gave his first public performance, playing the organ, and the following year he made his first appearance with an orchestra, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, in a performance of Beethoven's 4th piano concerto. His first public recital followed in 1947, and his first recital on radio came with the CBC in 1950. This was the beginning of his long association with radio and recording. The Toronto Symphony Orchestra is a leading Canadian orchestra. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ...


In 1957, Gould toured the Soviet Union, becoming the first North American to play there since World War II. His concerts featured Bach, Beethoven, and the serial music of Arnold Schoenberg and Alban Berg, which had been suppressed in the Soviet Union during the era of Socialist Realism. North American redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses of serial or serialism, see Serial (disambiguation). ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...


On April 10, 1964, Gould gave his last public performance, playing in Los Angeles, California, at the Wilshire Ebell Theater.[6] Among the pieces he performed that night were Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30, selections from Bach's The Art of Fugue, and the Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 92 No. 4 by Ernst Krenek. Oddly, a recording exists in which Gould claims the event took place in Chicago. For the rest of his life he eschewed live performance, focusing instead on recording, writing, and broadcasting. Towards the end of his life he began conducting; he had earlier directed Bach's Brandenburg concerto no.5 and cantata BWV 54, Widerstehe doch der Sünde from the harpsipiano (a piano with metal hammers to simulate harpsichord sound) in the 1960s. His last recording was as a conductor, Wagner's Siegfried Idyll in its original chamber music scoring. He had intended to give up the piano at the age of 50, spending later years conducting, writing on music and perhaps composing. is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Opus 109 is the first of the last Beethoven Sonatas (Opus 109-111). ... A portrait which may show Bach in 1750 The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (original German: Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Ernst Krenek (August 23, 1900 – December 22, 1991) was an Austrian born (and from 1945 an American) composer of Czech ancestry; throughout his life he insisted that his name be written Krenek rather than KÅ™enek, and that it should be pronounced as a German word. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Johann Sebastian Bach, c. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue) is the numbering system used to identify musical works by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Widerstehe doch der Sünde (Stand steadfast against transgression), BWV 54, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... The tack piano is a permanently altered version of an ordinary piano, in which tacks or nails are placed on the hammers of the instrument at the point where the hammers hit the strings, giving the instrument a tinny, more percussive sound. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... The Siegfried Idyll is one of Richard Wagners few non-operatic works. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ...


During his life he suffered many pains and ailments, including chronic prostatitis.[7] Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ...


He suffered a stroke on 27 September 1982, which paralyzed the left side of his body. He was admitted to hospital and his condition rapidly deteriorated. He was taken off life support on October 4.[8] He is buried in Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Mount Pleasant Cemetery is a famous cemetery located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Gould as a pianist

Gould was known for his vivid musical imagination, and listeners regarded his interpretations as ranging from brilliantly creative to, on occasion, outright eccentric. His piano playing had great clarity, particularly in contrapuntal passages. He was considered a child prodigy and in adulthood he was also described as a musical phenomenon. As he played, he often swayed his torso, almost always in a clockwise motion.[9] This page refers to eccentricity in behavior and popular usage. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Wunderkind redirects here. ... The Clockwise direction A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ...


When Gould was around ten years old, he injured his back as a result of a fall from a boat ramp on the shore of Lake Simcoe. [10] This incident is almost certainly not related to his father's subsequent construction for him of an adjustable-height chair, which he used for the rest of his life. This famous chair was designed so that Gould could sit very low at the keyboard with the object of pulling down on the keys rather than striking them from above — a central technical idea of his teacher, Alberto Guerrero, [11]seen in the above-right photograph from 1945. Gould's mother urged the young Gould to sit up straight at the keyboard,[12] which is how we see him with Guerrero in 1945 before he had fully developed his mature technique.


Gould developed a formidable technique. It enabled him to choose very fast tempos while retaining the separateness and clarity of each note. His extremely low position at the instrument arguably permitted more control over the keyboard. According to the pianist Charles Rosen, however, a low position at the piano is unsuitable for playing the technically demanding music of the 19th century. Nevertheless, this did not seem to impede Gould, as he showed considerable technical skill in both his recordings of Bach and in virtuosic and romantic works like his own arrangement of Ravel's La Valse and his playing of Liszt's transcriptions of Beethoven's fifth and sixth symphonies. Gould worked from a young age with his teacher Alberto Guerrero on a technique known as finger-tapping, a method of training the fingers to act more independently from the arm. For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Maurice Ravel. ... External links Maurice Ravels La Valse An analysis and history of Maurice Ravels La Valse Category: ... Liszt redirects here. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Alberto Guerrero (standing) with his student Glenn Gould, 1945 Alberto Guerrero (6 February 1886 – 7 November 1959) was a Chilean–Canadian composer, pianist, and teacher, perhaps now best remembered as a mentor of Canadian pianist Glenn Gould. ...


Gould claimed he practiced little on the piano, preferring to study music by reading it rather than playing it, a technique he had also learnt from Guerrero. His manual practicing was unusually attentive to articulation, rather than exercises for basic facility. He may have spoken ironically about his practicing, but there is evidence that he did practice Bach and Beethoven, in a way that was nuanced and efficient.[13]


He stated that he didn't understand the requirement of other pianists to continuously reinforce their relationship with the instrument by practicing many hours a day.[14] It seems that Gould was able to practice mentally without access to an instrument, and even took this so far as to prepare for a recording of Brahms piano works without ever playing them until a few weeks before the recording sessions. This is all the more staggering considering the absolute accuracy and phenomenal dexterity exhibited in his playing. Gould's large repertoire also demonstrated this natural mnemonic gift. Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


Regarding the performance of Bach on the piano, Gould said, "the piano is not an instrument for which I have any great love as such... [But] I have played it all my life and it is the best vehicle I have to express my ideas." In the case of Bach, Gould admitted, "[I] fixed the action in some of the instruments I play on — and the piano I use for all recordings is now so fixed — so that it is a shallower and more responsive action than the standard. It tends to have a mechanism which is rather like an automobile without power steering: you are in control and not it; it doesn't drive you, you drive it. This is the secret of doing Bach on the piano at all. You must have that immediacy of response, that control over fine definitions of things."[15] The action of a stringed instrument is the distance between the fingerboard and the string, which determines how easy it is to sound notes when pressure is applied with the finger tips. ...


Gould had a pronounced aversion to what he termed a ‘hedonistic’ approach to the piano repertoire, performance and music generally. For Gould, ‘hedonism’ in this sense denoted a superficial theatricality, something to which he felt Mozart, for example, became increasingly susceptible later in his career.[16] He associated this drift towards ‘hedonism’ with the emergence of a cult of showmanship and gratuitous virtuosity on the concert platform in the nineteenth century and later on. The institution of the public concert, he felt, degenerated into the 'blood sport' which he struggled with and ultimately rejected.[17] “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Recordings

The Goldberg Variations (Gould Album), 1955
The Goldberg Variations (Gould Album), 1955

In creating music, Gould much preferred the control and intimacy provided by the recording studio, and he disliked the concert hall, which he compared to a competitive sporting arena. After his final public performance in 1964, he devoted his career solely to the studio, recording albums and several radio documentaries. He was attracted to the technical aspects of recording, and considered the manipulation of tape to be another part of the creative process. Although his producer at CBS, Andrew Kazdin, has stated that he was the classical artist least in need of splices or dubs, Gould used the process to give him total artistic control over a recording. He recounted his recording of the A minor fugue from Book I of the Well-Tempered Clavier, and how it was spliced together from two takes, with the fugue's expositions from one take and its episodes from another.[18] ==Individual Studio== A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... A radio documentary or feature is a radio programme devoted to covering a particular topic in some depth, usually with a mixture of commentary and sound pictures. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Splice has several meanings: In outdoor recreation (such as sailing or camping) rope splicing involves joining two pieces of rope or wire by weaving the strands of each into the other. ... Overdubbing is a technique used by recording studios to add a supplementary recorded sound to a previously taped musical recording. ... Artistic control is a term commonly used in media production, such as movies, television, and music production. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


Gould's first major recording, The Goldberg Variations came in 1955, at Columbia Masterworks' 30th Street Studios in New York City. Although there was initially some controversy at CBS as to whether this was the most appropriate piece to record, the finished product received phenomenal praise, and was among the best-selling classical music albums of its time. Gould became closely associated with the piece, playing it in full or in part at many of his recitals. Another version of the Goldberg Variations, recorded in 1981, would be among his last recordings, and one of only a few pieces he recorded twice in the studio. The 1981 recording was one of CBS Masterworks' first digital recordings. The two recordings are very different, the first highly energetic and often frenetic, the second slower and more introspective; in it, Gould treats the Aria and its thirty variations as one cohesive piece. There are also two other recordings of the Goldberg Variations; one is a live recording from 1954 (CBC PSCD2007) the other is a live recording from Salzburg in 1959 (Sony SRCR-9500). Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminance values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound or moving image. ...


Gould recorded most of Bach's other keyboard works, including the complete Well-Tempered Clavier, Partitas, French Suites, English Suites and keyboard concertos. For his only recording at the organ, he recorded about half of The Art of Fugue. He also recorded all five of Beethoven's piano concertos and 23 of the 32 piano sonatas. Title-page of Das wohltemperirte Clavier A flat major (As-dur) fugue from the second part of Das wohltemperirte Clavier (manuscript) The Well-Tempered Clavier (in the original German: Das wohltemperierte Clavier[1]) is a collection of solo keyboard music composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Partita was originally the name for a single instrumental piece of music (16th and 17th centuries), but Johann Kuhnau and later German composers (notably Johann Sebastian Bach) used it for collections of musical pieces, as a synonym for suite. ... The French Suites, BWV 812-817, refer to six suites written by Johann Sebastian Bach for the clavier (harpsichord or clavichord). ... The English Suites, BWV 806–811, refer to a set of six suites written by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach for harpsichord and generally thought to be the earliest of Bachs 18 suites for keyboard, the others being the 6 French Suites, BWV 812-817 and the 6... Old Pipe organ in Église Saint-Thomas, Strasbourg, France. ... A portrait which may show Bach in 1750 The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (original German: Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ...


Gould also recorded works by many other prominent piano composers, though he was outspoken in his criticism of some of them, apparently not caring for Frédéric Chopin, for example. In a radio interview, when asked if he didn't find himself wanting to play Chopin, he replied: "No, I don't. I play it in a weak moment — maybe once a year or twice a year for myself. But it doesn't convince me." Although Gould recorded all of Mozart's sonatas and admitted enjoying the "actual playing" of them[19], he was a harsh critic of Mozart's music to the extent of arguing (perhaps a little puckishly) that Mozart died too late rather than too early.[20] He was fond of many lesser-known composers, such as the early keyboard music of Orlando Gibbons, who he claimed was his favourite composer in terms of Gibbons' spiritual quest in music, alongside his favouritism of Bach in general for his technical mastery.[21] He made recordings of piano music that was little known in North America, including music by Jean Sibelius (the sonatines, Kyllikki), Georges Bizet (the Variations Chromatiques de Concert and the Premier nocturne), Richard Strauss (the piano sonata, the five pieces, Enoch Arden), and Paul Hindemith (the three sonatas, the sonatas for brass and piano). He also made recordings of the complete piano works and Lieder of Arnold Schoenberg. Chopin redirects here. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons (baptised December 25, 1583 – June 5, 1625) was an English composer and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. ... Sibelius redirects here. ... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ...


One of Gould's performances of the Prelude and Fugue in C Major from Book Two of The Well-Tempered Clavier was chosen for inclusion on the NASA Voyager Golden Record by a committee headed by Carl Sagan. The disc of recordings was placed on the spacecraft Voyager 1, which is now approaching interstellar space and is the farthest human-made object from Earth.[22] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Voyager Golden Record. ... Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrochemist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... For the album by The Verve, see Voyager 1 (album). ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ...


Collaborations

The success of Gould's collaborations with other artists was to a degree dependent upon their receptiveness to his sometimes unconventional readings of the music. His television collaboration with Yehudi Menuhin in 1965, recording works by Bach, Beethoven and Schoenberg[23] was deemed a success because 'Menuhin was ready to embrace the new perspective opened up by an unorthodox view'.[23] In 1966, his collaboration with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, however, recording Richard Strauss's Ophelia Lieder, op.67, was deemed an "outright fiasco".[23] Schwarzkopf believed in "total fidelity" to the score, but she also objected to the thermal conditions in the recording studio: "The studio was incredibly overheated, which may be good for a pianist but not for a singer: a dry throat is the end as far as singing is concerned. But we persevered nonetheless. It wasn't easy for me. Gould began by improvising something Straussian - we thought he was simply warming up, but no, he continued to play like that throughout the actual recordings, as though Strauss's notes were just a pretext that allowed him to improvise freely ...".[24] Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was an American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. ... Elisabeth Schwarzkopf Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf DBE (b. ...


Radio documentaries

Less well known is Gould's work in radio. This work was, in part, the result of Gould's long association with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, for which he produced numerous television and radio programs. Notable recordings include his Solitude Trilogy, consisting of The Idea of North, a meditation on Northern Canada and its people; The Latecomers, about Newfoundland; and The Quiet in the Land, on Mennonites in Manitoba. All three use a technique which Gould called "contrapuntal radio," in which several people are heard speaking at once, much like the voices in a fugue. Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The Solitude Trilogy is a collection of three hour-long radio documentaries produced by Canadian pianist Glenn Gould (1932–1982) for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ...


Lost footage of a live performance

In 2002, during preparations for Queen Elizabeth II's Jubilee Tour of Canada, lost footage of a Glenn Gould performance was discovered. It was part of a CBC program of various musical performances, which had followed the Queen's 1957 television address to Canadians from Rideau Hall, and featured a seven-minute live performance in which he plays the second and third movements of Bach's Keyboard Concerto in F Minor.[25] Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ...


Composition

As a teenager, Gould wrote chamber music and piano works in the style of the Second Viennese school of composition. His only significant work was the String Quartet, Op. 1, which he finished when he was in his 20s, and perhaps his cadenzas to Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 1, which can be heard on his recording of the piece and have recently been recorded by the German pianist Lars Vogt. The Second Viennese School was a group of composers made up of Arnold Schoenberg and those who studied under him in early 20th century Vienna. ... In music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a free rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Lars Vogt (b. ...


Early works:

  • 5 little pieces (Piano)
  • 2 pieces (Piano)
  • Sonata for Piano (unfinished)
  • Sonata for Bassoon and Piano

Slightly later works: Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ...

The majority of his work is published by Schott Music. The recording Glenn Gould: The Composer contains his original works excepting the cadenzas. This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... The Juilliard String Quartet performing in 1963. ... This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Schott Music is one of the oldest German music publishers. ...


As well as composing, Gould was a prolific arranger of orchestral repertoire for piano. His arrangements include his Wagner and Ravel transcriptions which he recorded, as well as the operas of Richard Strauss and the symphonies of Schubert and Bruckner, which he played privately for his own pleasure.[26] This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Bruckner redirects here. ...


Eccentricities

A replica of Glenn Gould's chair
A replica of Glenn Gould's chair

Glenn Gould usually hummed while he played, and his recording engineers varied in how successfully they were able to exclude his voice from recordings. Gould claimed that his singing was subconscious and increased proportionately with the inability of the piano in question to realize the music as he intended. It is likely that this habit originated in Gould's being taught by his mother to 'sing everything that he played', as Kevin Bazzana puts it. This became 'an unbreakable and (notorious) habit'.[27] Some of Gould's recordings were severely criticised because of the background 'vocalise'. For example, a reviewer of his 1981 re-recording of the Goldberg Variations opined that many listeners would 'find the groans and croons intolerable'.[28] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Glenn Goulds chair in the stand organized during the fair Salon du Meuble in Paris I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Glenn Goulds chair in the stand organized during the fair Salon du Meuble in Paris I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ...


Gould was renowned for his peculiar body movements while playing, (circular swaying, conducting, or grasping at the air as if to reach for notes as he did in the taping of Beethoven's Tempest Sonata) and for his insistence on absolute control over every aspect of his playing environment. The temperature of the recording studio had to be exactly regulated. He invariably insisted that it be extremely warm. According to Friedrich, the air conditioning engineer had to work just as hard as the recording engineers.[29] The piano had to be set at a certain height and would be raised on wooden blocks if necessary.[30] A small rug would sometimes be required for his feet underneath the piano.[31] He had to sit fourteen inches above the floor and would only play concerts while sitting on the old chair his father had made. He continued to use this chair even when the seat was completely worn through.[32] His chair is so closely identified with him that it is shown in a place of honor in a glass case at the National Library of Canada. Piano Sonata No. ... Library and Archives Canada (in French: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a cultural institution created by the Parliament of Canada in 2004 (S.C. 2004, c. ...


Conductors responded diversely to Gould and his playing habits. George Szell, who led Gould in 1957 with the Cleveland Orchestra, remarked to his assistant, "That nut's a genius."[33] Leonard Bernstein said, "There is nobody quite like him, and I just love playing with him."[33] Ironically, Bernstein created a stir in April of 1962 when just before the New York Philharmonic was to perform the Brahms D minor piano concerto with Gould as soloist, he informed the audience that he was assuming no responsibility for what they were about to hear. Specifically, he was referring to Gould's insistence that the entire first movement be played at half the indicated tempo. Plans for a studio recording of the performance came to nothing; the live radio broadcast (along with Bernstein's disclaimer) was subsequently released on CD. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the major symphony orchestras in the United States. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ...


Gould was averse to cold and wore heavy clothing, including gloves, even in warm places. He was once arrested, presumably mistaken for a vagrant, while sitting on a park bench in Sarasota, Florida, dressed in his standard all-climate attire of coat(s), warm hat and mittens.[34] He also disliked social functions. He had an aversion to being touched, and in later life he limited personal contact, relying on the telephone and letters for communication. Upon one visit to historic Steinway Hall in New York City in 1959, the chief piano technician at the time, William Hupfer, greeted Gould by giving him a slap on the back. Gould was shocked by this, and complained of aching, lack of coordination, and fatigue due to the incident; he even went on to explore the possibility of litigation against Steinway & Sons if his apparent injuries were permanent.[35] He was known for cancelling performances at the last minute, which is why Bernstein's above-mentioned public disclaimer opens with, "Don't be frightened, Mr. Gould is here; will appear in a moment." Steinway Hall 14th Str. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Steinway & Sons grand piano on stage Steinway & Sons is a piano maker, since 1853 in New York City. ...


In his liner notes and broadcasts, Gould created more than two dozen alter egos for satirical, humorous, or didactic purposes, permitting him to write hostile reviews or incomprehensible commentaries on his own performances. Probably the best known are "Karlheinz Klopweisser", the English conductor "Sir Nigel Twitt-Thornwaite", and the American pianist "Theodore Slutz".[36] Alter Ego has multiple meanings: Alter Ego is a game for the Commodore 64 computer. ...


Fran's Restaurant was a constant haunt of Gould's. A CBC profile noted, "sometime between two and three every morning Gould would go to Fran's, a 24-hour diner a block away from his Toronto apartment, sit in the same booth and order the same meal of scrambled eggs." [37] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ...


Philosophical and aesthetic views

Gould stated that had he not been a musician, he would have been a writer. He wrote music criticism and expounded his philosophy of music and art, in which he rejected what he deemed banal in music composition and its consumption by the public. In seeming contrast to his geniality, open-mindedness and modernism, Gould's remarks on jazz and other popular music were mostly uninterested or oblique. He enjoyed a jazz concert with his friends as a youth, mentioned jazz in his writings, and once criticized The Beatles for "bad voice leading."[38] He believed that the keyboard is fulfilled as an instrument primarily through counterpoint, a musical style which reached its zenith during the Baroque era. Much of the homophony that followed, he felt, belongs to a less serious and less spiritual period of art. Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... In music, voice leading is the continuity between pitches or notes played successively in time. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Homophony is a musical term that describes the texture of two or more instruments or parts moving together and using the same rhythm. ...


Gould was convinced that the institution of the public concert with audience en masse and the tradition of applause was a force of evil, and that these practices should be abandoned. This doctrine he set forth, half in jest and half seriously, in "GPAADAK," the Gould Plan for the Abolition of Applause and Demonstrations of All Kinds.[39]


Gould enjoyed solitude, and expressed that theme in his trio of radio documentaries, the Solitude Trilogy. The Solitude Trilogy is a collection of three hour-long radio documentaries produced by Canadian pianist Glenn Gould (1932–1982) for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ...


Having entertained a life-long fascination with the hereafter, with theories of reincarnation and mystic numerology akin to those of Arnold Schoenberg, Gould believed that he would be reincarnated two years after his death in the person of Sam Caldwell, a media theorist and contrapuntal poet. This belief was strengthened by Gould's regrets, expressed particularly in his 1980 interviews with Bruno Monsaigneon, that he had not brought his contrapuntal radio work to a satisfactory stage of completion. With plans to explore to its logical conclusion the application of Wagnerian leitmotifs and J.S. Bach's contrapuntal textures in the medium of the spoken word, and particularly in poetry, Gould conceived of this fictional 'second go around,' toward the end of his already immensely productive lifetime. A leitmotif (pronounced ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ...


Health

Early in his life Gould suffered a spine injury which prompted his physicians to prescribe him an assortment of painkillers and other drugs. Some speculate that his continued use of prescribed medications throughout his career had a deleterious effect on his health. He was highly concerned about his health throughout his life, worrying about everything from high blood pressure, to the safety of his hands. It is often claimed that Gould never shook hands with anyone and always wore gloves.[40] However, there are documented cases of Gould shaking hands.[41] For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...


Gould's experience with psychoanalytic treatment and medication is well documented. After his death, Dr. Timothy Maloney, director of the Music Division of the National Library of Canada, wrote about the possibility that Gould also had Asperger's syndrome,[42] commonly referred to as a high-functioning type of autism first described in a medical paper in 1981. This idea was first tentatively proposed by Gould's biographer, Dr. Peter Ostwald, who argued that Gould's eccentricities, such as rocking and humming, isolation and difficulty with social interaction, dislike of being touched, and uncanny focus and technical ability, can be related to the symptoms displayed by persons with Asperger's, according to Maloney. Ostwald died before he could further develop his theory. However, other experts dismiss this theory as post-mortem diagnosis based on circumstantial evidence. Dr. Helen Mesaros, a Toronto psychiatrist and author, published a rebuttal to Maloney's paper suggesting that there are ample psychological and emotional explanations for Gould's eccentricities, and that it is not necessary to resort to neurological explanations. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Circumstantial evidence is lesbian sex with a huge glass dildo unrelated facts that, when considered together, can be used to infer a conclusion about something unknown. ... For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ...


Relationships

Gould lived a private life: Yehudi Menuhin said of him, "No supreme pianist has ever given of his heart and mind so overwhelmingly while showing himself so sparingly." Showing little outward interest in love, Gould had a series of girlfriends in early adulthood. Despite these relationships there has been speculation that he was homosexual, asexual, or omnisexual. Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was an American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... This article is about human asexuality; asexual reproduction is a separate topic. ... Bisexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by romantic love or sexual desire for members of either or both genders, contrasted with homosexuality, heterosexuality, and asexuality. ...


In 2007, Cornelia Foss, wife of composer and conductor Lukas Foss, publicly revealed in an article in the Toronto Star (August 25, 2007) that she and Gould had had a love affair lasting several years. She and her husband had met Gould in Los Angeles in 1956. Cornelia was an art instructor who had studied sculpture at the American Academy in Rome; Lukas was a pianist and composer who conducted both the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra and the Brooklyn Philharmonic. Lukas Foss (born Lukas Fuchs, August 15, 1922 in Berlin, Germany) is an American composer and conductor. ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ...


After several years, Glenn and Cornelia became lovers. Cornelia left Lukas in 1967 for Gould, taking her two children with her to Toronto, where she purchased a house near Gould's apartment at 110 St. Clair Avenue West. According to Cornelia, "There were a lot of misconceptions about Glenn and it was partly because he was so very private. But I assure you, he was an extremely heterosexual man. Our relationship was, among other things, quite sexual." Their affair lasted until 1972, when she returned to Lukas. As early as two weeks after leaving her husband, she had noticed disturbing signs in Gould. She describes a serious paranoid episode:

"It lasted several hours and then I knew he was not just neurotic — there was more to it. I thought to myself, `Good grief, am I going to bring up my children in this environment?' But I stayed four and a half years." Foss did not discuss details, but others close to Gould said he was convinced someone was trying to poison him and that others were spying on him.[43]

Awards and recognitions

Glenn Gould statue in Toronto
Glenn Gould statue in Toronto

Glenn Gould received many honors before and after his death, although he personally claimed to despise competition in music. In 1983, he was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame. The Canadian Music Hall of Fame honors Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements in music. ...

Gould won four Grammy Awards: The Glenn Gould Prize is an international award bestowed by the Glenn Gould Foundation. ... The Canadian dollar, CAD or C$, is the unit of currency of Canada. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Royal Conservatory of Music (RCM) is a music school in Toronto, Ontario, Canada that is noted throughout the country. ... Glenn Gould Studio is a performance and recording studio located in the CBC Broadcast Centre. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Centre View up to the skylight inside the Barbara Frum atrium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The 16th Grammy Awards were held in 1974, and were broadcast live on American television. ... The Grammy Award for Best Album Notes - Classical was presented from 1973 to 1976 alongside the award for Best Album Notes. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... The 25th Grammy Awards were held in 1983. ... The Grammy Award for Best Classical Album has been awarded since 1962. ... The 25th Grammy Awards were held in 1983. ... The Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra) has been awarded since 1959. ... The 26th Grammy Awards were held in 1984, and were broadcast live on American television. ... The Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist Performance (without orchestra) has been awarded since 1959. ...

Media

  • Prelude and Fugue in C major from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 by Johann Sebastian Bach (excerpt)
    The C major prelude from the first book of the WTC.
    Allegro Moderato from Piano Sonata No. 10 in C major by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (excerpts from two recordings)
    Compare the 1970 version from the "Complete Piano Sonatas" set (played first) and the 1958 interpretation (played second).
    Contrapunctus V from The Art of Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach (excerpt)
    The only organ recordings Gould made were the first 9 parts of Bach's The Art of Fugue.
    Gigue from Suite in A major HWV 426, by Georg Friederich Handel (excerpt)
    Gould recorded several Handel suites and a few pieces from JS Bach's WTC on a Wittmayer harpsichord. The somewhat muffled sound of this 20th century instrument is very different compared to modern recordings that are made using copies of old harpsichords.
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Gould-bwv846-prelude. ... Image File history File links Gould-mozart-330. ... Image File history File links Gould-bwv1080-5. ... Image File history File links Gould-hwv426-4. ...

Works by and about Gould

Musical Works

  • Louie, Alexina (1982) O Magnum Mysterium: In Memoriam Glenn Gould. For string orchestra.

Alexina Louie (1949-) is a British Columbian composer who has written many pieces for orchestra, as well as for solo piano. ...

Books

  • Andreacchi, Grace (2007) Scarabocchio A novel in which a lightly fictionalized Glenn Gould plays a prominent part.
  • Bazzana, Kevin (1997) Glenn Gould: the performer in the work. Clarendon, ISBN 0-19-816656-7
  • Bazzana, Kevin (2003) Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn Gould. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517440-2
  • Bernhard, Thomas (1991) The Loser. A fictional account of a relationship with Glenn Gould and Vladimir Horowitz. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-04388-6
  • Canning, Nancy (1992) A Glenn Gould Catalog. Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-27412-6
  • Carroll, Jock (1995) Glenn Gould: some portraits of the artist as a young man. Stoddart, ISBN 0-7737-2904-6
  • Cott, Jonathan (2005) Conversations with Glenn Gould. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-11623-9. Interview in two parts from 1974. Originally published in Rolling Stone magazine.
  • Friedrich, Otto (1989) Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations. Random House, ISBN 0-679-73207-1
  • Hafner, Katie (2008) A Romance on Three Legs: Glenn Gould's Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Piano. McClelland & Stewart, ISBN 0-7710-3754-6
  • Mesaros, Helen M.D. (2008) Bravo Fortissimo: Glenn Gould The Mind of a Canadian Virtuoso. American Literary Press Inc., ISBN 1-5616-7985-2
  • National Library of Canada (1992) Descriptive Catalogue of the Glenn Gould Papers. ISBN 0-660-57327-X
  • Ostwald, Peter (1997) Glenn Gould: the ecstasy and tragedy of genius. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04077-1
  • Page, Tim (1990) Glenn Gould Reader. Contains a select collection of Gould's essays, articles and liner notes. Vintage, ISBN 0-679-73135-0
  • Payzant, Geoffrey (1992) Glenn Gould Music and Mind. Key Porter, ISBN 1-55013-439-6
  • Rieger, Stefan (1997) Glenn Gould czyli sztuka fugi. Słowo/Obraz Terytoria, ISBN 978-83-7453-834-3
  • Robert, John PL and Ghyslaine Guertin (1992) Glenn Gould : selected letters. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-540799-7
  • Rosen, Charles (2002) Piano Notes: The World of the Pianist. The Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-4312-9.

Grace Andreacchi (born 3 December 1954) American-born author. ... Thomas Bernhard (February 9, 1931, Heerlen - February 12, 1989, Ohlsdorf) was an Austrian playwright and novelist. ... Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American[1][2] pianist. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Tim Page (born October 11, 1954 in San Diego, California) is a writer, editor, producer and music critic. ...

Films about Gould

  • Glenn Gould On the Record and Glenn Gould Off the Record (both 1959). Documentaries. National Film Board of Canada.
  • Glenn Gould (1961). Biography by the NFB.
  • Conversations with Glenn Gould (1966). Filmed conversations between Glenn Gould and Humphrey Burton on classical composers. BBC.
  • The Idea of North (film)(1970) Produced and directed by Judith Pearlman; based on Gould's original audio version.
  • Music and Terminology, Chemins de la Musique (1973-76). Glenn Gould talking about and performing music by Bach, Schoenberg, Scriabin, Gibbons, Byrd, Berg, and Wagner. Series of four films directed by Bruno Monsaingeon.
  • Radio as Music (1975). Film adaptation of an article by John Jessop (in collaboration with Gould) on Glenn Gould's contrapuntal radio documentary techniques.
  • Bach Series (1979-91). Series of three films of Glenn Gould talking about and performing the music of Bach: Goldberg Variations, Variations: Chromatic Fantasy, Partita No 4, and excerpts from The Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue. Clasart.
  • The Goldberg Variations: Glenn Gould Plays Bach (1981). The Bach Series directed by Bruno Monsaingeon.
  • Variations on Glenn Gould. Documentary on Glenn Gould at a recording session, making a radio documentary and in the Ontario northland.
  • Solitude, Exile and Ecstasy was a BBC Radio 3 drama broadcast in 1991. It features Gould as a character, and is structured by sequential selections from his 1981 performance of JS Bach's Goldberg Variations.[45]
  • Les Variacions Gould (1992). Directed by Manuel Huerga, documentary coproduced by Ovideo TV about Glenn Gould in the 10th anniversary of his death. This film has received several awards and has been finalist in the International Visual Music Awards of Cannes '93.
  • Thirty-Two Short Films About Glenn Gould (1993). Directed by François Girard and starring Colm Feore as Gould.
  • Glenn Gould : The Russian Journey (2002). The 1957 trip in the USSR and Gould's performances in Moscow and Leningrad.
  • Extasis (2003). Documentary featuring Glenn Gould in concert; also, interviews with acquaintances.
  • Glenn Gould : Life & Times (2003). DVD documentary. Contains performances, sessions and interviews. Also a look at his [still-playable] grand piano and chair.
  • Glenn Gould : The Alchemist (2003). DVD documentary footage of Gould's performances and interviews with Gould about his music and life.
  • Glenn Gould : au-delà du temps (2005). A French/Canadian documentary by Bruno Monsaingeon, 107 minutes, first aired on arte, May 13, 2006, Winner of Fipa d’or 2006, catégorie musique et spectacles.
  • Gould contributed to the screenplay of the experimental PBS TV movie The Idea of North, produced and directed by Judith Pearlman.

The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... Humphrey Burton, CBE, is a British classical music presenter, broadcaster, director, producer, and biographer of musicians. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин, Aleksandr Nikolajevič Skriabin; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin or Scriabine (6 January 1872 [O.S. 26 December 1871]—27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons (baptised December 25, 1583 – June 5, 1625) was an English composer and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Bruno Monsaingeon (born 5 December 1943) is a French filmmaker, writer, and violinist. ... Counterpoint is a very general feature of music (especially prominent in much Western music) whereby two or more melodic strands occur simultaneously - in separate voices, either literally or metaphorically (if the music is instrumental). ... Title page of the Goldberg Variations (first edition) For other uses, see Goldberg Variations (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... BBC Radio 3 is a radio station operated by the BBC within the United Kingdom. ... DVD cover Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould, released in 1993, is an award-winning movie about the famous piano prodigy Glenn Gould. ... François Girard (1963 - ) is a Canadian director and screenwriter particularly noted for his innovative film Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould. ... Colm Feore (born August 22, 1958, at Boston, Massachusetts) is an Canadian-American actor raised in Canada of Irish and Italian extraction. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Bruno Monsaingeon (born 5 December 1943) is a French filmmaker, writer, and violinist. ... The Arte building in Strasbourg Arte (Association Relative à la Télévision Européenne) is a Franco-German TV network, which aims to promote quality programming related to the world of arts and culture. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The Idea of North is an Australian a cappella vocal ensemble, founded in Canberra in 1996. ...

Films using Gould's music

Gould's recorded music has been featured in many other films, both in his lifetime and after his death.

  • Spheres (1969). Animated film directed by René Jodoin and Norman McLaren, with music by Bach played by Glenn Gould. National Film Board of Canada.
  • Slaughterhouse-Five (1972). Directed by George Roy Hill; based on the Kurt Vonnegut novel. Musical soundtrack arranged and performed by Glenn Gould. Universal Pictures.
  • The Terminal Man (1974). Directed by Mike Hodges; based on a Michael Crichton novel. Soundtrack features Glenn Gould playing the Goldberg Variations. Warner Bros.
  • The Wars (1983) features Gould playing music of Richard Strauss and Johannes Brahms. Directed by Robin Philips; based on the novel by Timothy Findley.
  • Hannibal (2001) uses Gould's 1981 recording of the Goldberg Variations.
  • The Triplets of Belleville (2003) includes a segment in which an animated Glenn Gould with greatly exaggerated mannerisms plays Prelude No. 2 in C minor from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, Book One.
  • Gould's prowess was referenced (and his recordings used) in the motion picture When Will I Be Loved, written and directed by James Toback.
  • Hannibal Rising (2007) has a scene in which the young Hannibal Lecter plays Gould's 1955 recording of the Goldberg Variations while he injects himself with sodium thiopental. This is an anachronism, because the scene takes place when Lecter is an eighteen-year-old medical student in Paris in 1951.[46] In The Silence of the Lambs, Lecter listens to a recording of the variations while incarcerated in the United States, but the movie uses a recording by Jerry Zimmermann, not Gould.

René Jodoin is an animation director and producer who founded the French-language animation studio of the National Film Board of Canada. ... Norman McLaren, C. C., C. Q. (b. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... Slaughterhouse-Five is a film adaptation of the Kurt Vonnegut novel of the same name. ... George Roy Hill (December 20, 1921 – December 27, 2002) was an Academy Award winning American film director. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Mike Hodges (born July 29, 1932 in Bristol, England) is a British screenwriter and film director. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Timothy Irving Frederick Findley, OC , O. Ont. ... Hannibal (aka The Silence of the Lambs 2) is a 2001 film directed by Ridley Scott, adapted from the Thomas Harris novel of the same name. ... Les Triplettes de Belleville is an award-winning 2003 animated feature film written and directed by Sylvain Chomet. ... When Will I Be Loved is a 2004 film directed by James Toback. ... James Toback (b. ... Hannibal Rising is a 2007 horror/thriller film, the fifth film to feature Dr. Hannibal Lecter. ... Sodium thiopental, better known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone sodium, or trapanal, is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anaesthetic. ... The Silence of the Lambs is a 1991 Academy Award-winning film directed by Jonathan Demme and starring Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins. ...

Published music

  • Cadenza to Beethoven Concerto No.1, Op.15 (Barger and Barclay)
  • Piano Pieces ISMN: M-001-08466-6 (Schott)
  • String Quartet Op. 1 (Barger and Barclay ed., 1956)
  • String Quartet Op. 1 ISMN: M-001-12171-2 (Schott ed.)
  • Lieberson Madrigal (SATB and Piano) ISMN: M-001-11577-3 (Schott)
  • So You Want To Write A Fugue? (G. Schirmer)
  • Sonata for Piano ISMN: M-001-13363-0 (Schott)
  • Sonata for Bassoon and Piano ISMN: M-001-09317-0 (Schott)

Schott Music is one of the oldest German music publishers. ... The Juilliard String Quartet performing in 1963. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Some sources list his birth name as "Glenn Herbert Gold", for example Encyclopedia of Music in Canada: Gould, Glenn and Ostwald, page 35
  2. ^ a b Otto Friedrich, Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations (Vintage Books, a division of Random House, New York, 1989), pp. 13-14. "Peter Greig, one of thirteen children of a Scottish farmer, emigrated to Canada in the mid-nineteenth century. He and his wife, Emma, had ten children, one of whom was Charles Holman Greig, who married Mary Catherine Flett, whose father, a carpenter from the Orkneys, died in a fall from the roof of the Bank of Montreal. One of their children, Florence, duly met and married Russell Herbert Gould, whose father's business card said: 'Thomas G. Gould, Fur Salon, Designers and Manufacturers of Quality Fur Garments.'"
  3. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p.15.
  4. ^ Bert Gould, cited in Friedrich, Otto, Glenn Gould, A Life and Variations, Lime Tree, 1990, p.15.
  5. ^ Ostwald 1997, p. 48 refers to a concert at this location on December 9, 1938 at which Gould performed a 'piano composition'.
  6. ^ Bazzana 2003, 229.
  7. ^ Glenn Gould as Patient. Retrieved on 2008-05-12.
  8. ^ Ostwald, pages 325 - 328
  9. ^ He did this in music of medium to very slow tempo. The clockwise motion is associated with left-handedness(also cited in Wikipedia: "Clockwise," citing Theodore H. Blau, The torque test: A measurement of cerebral dominance. 1974, American Psychological Association,) and rather than mental abnormality suggests a musical function.
  10. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p. 27. Otto Friedrich dates this incident on the basis of discussion with Gould's father, who is cited by Friedrich as stating that it occurred 'when the boy was about ten'.
  11. ^ Ostwald 1997, p. 71
  12. ^ Ostwald 1997, p.73
  13. ^ In outtakes of the Goldberg Variations, Gould describes clearly his practicing technique by composing a drill on Variation 11, remarking that he is "still sloppy" and with his usual humor that "a little practicing is in order." He is also heard practicing other parts of the Goldbergs. Of earlier years it was recalled that "he would not come out [away from the piano] until he knew it" (of one of Beethoven's piano concertos, from a biographical documentary).
  14. ^ Interview with Gould by David Dubal in "The World of the Concert Pianist", p180-83. There are recordings of Gould practicing, but to what extent he did is difficult to determine.
  15. ^ From the liner notes to Bach Partitas, Preludes and Fugues, page 15: Sony CD SM2K-52597.
  16. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p.147.
  17. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p.100.
  18. ^ The Prospects of Recording - Resources - The Glenn Gould Archive
  19. ^ "Of Mozart and Related Matters. Glenn Gould in Conversation with Bruno Monsaingeon", Piano Quarterly Fall 1976. Reprinted in Page (1990), page 33. See also Ostwald page 249.
  20. ^ Ostwald 1997, 249.
  21. ^ He discusses this on the Bruno Monsaingeon film 'Chemins de la Musique'.
  22. ^ Voyager - Space Craft - Golden Record - Music
  23. ^ a b c Gould Meets Menuhin, Sony Classical, SMK 52688, 1993
  24. ^ Sony Classical, Richard Strauss, Ophelia-Lieder, et al, SM2K 52657, 1992, Liner Notes, p.12
  25. ^ CBC's Dan Bjarnason reports on newly discovered film of Glenn Gould's live television performance for the Queen's 1957 visit to Canada (Runs 3:24). It also contained footage of a Quodlibet including the Star-Spangled Banner and God Save the Queen.
  26. ^ The Schubert can be seen briefly on Hereafter, the transcription of Bruckner's 8th symphony Gould alludes to in an article in The Glenn Gould Reader where he deprecates its "sheer leger-line unplayability"; the Strauss opera playing can be seen in one of the Humphrey Burton conversations and is referred to by almost everyone who saw him play in private.
  27. ^ Bazzana, 2003, p.47.
  28. ^ Greenfield, E., Layton, R., & March, I., The New Penguin Guide to Compact Discs and Cassettes, Penguin, 1988, p.44.
  29. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p.50.
  30. ^ Ostwald 1997, p. 18
  31. ^ Friedrich, 1990, p.51
  32. ^ Gould's chair
  33. ^ a b Bazzana 2003, p. 158.
  34. ^ Friedrich, 62.
  35. ^ Musicians' Musical Maladies
  36. ^ From the liner notes to Bach Partitas, Preludes and Fugues, page 14: Sony CD SM2K-52597.
  37. ^ Glenn Gould's eating habits
  38. ^ These comments can be found in essays in The Glenn Gould Reader.
  39. ^ Gould, Glenn. The Glenn Gould Reader. ISBN 0-5711-4852-2. 
  40. ^ This is discussed and can be seen on the film On And Off The Record.
  41. ^ Friedrich, 267. Interview of Timothy Findley: "[...]Everybody said you never touched his hands, you never try to shake hands with him, but the first thing he did to me was to offer to shake hands. He offered me his hand in a very definite way, none of this tentative, 'don't-touch-me' stuff."
  42. ^ see Timothy Maloney, "Glenn Gould, Autistic Savant," in Sounding Off: Theorizing Disability in Music, edited by Neil Lerner & Joseph Straus (New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 121-135 (Chapter 9).
  43. ^ Toronto Star, August 25, 2007.
  44. ^ The Glenn Gould School
  45. ^ http://www.hedweb.com/bgcharlton/solitude.html complete text
  46. ^ In the novel, Hannibal is an eight-year old in 1941 (p.5). At eighteen (p.163) he is the youngest medical student in French history, the age at which the injection scene occurs. The book makes no mention of the Goldberg Variations, however. During this scene Lecter plays a 'scratchy record' of 'children's songs' on a 'wind-up phonograph' (p.197). The film closely follows the novel's chronology, or at least attempts to. (Page references are to the 2006 William Heinemann edition).

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Nicholson took the copy Key gave him to a printer, where it was published as a broadside on September 17 under the title The Defence of Fort McHenry, with an explanatory note explaining the circumstances of its writing. ... For other uses, see God Save the Queen (disambiguation). ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Humphrey Burton, CBE, is a British classical music presenter, broadcaster, director, producer, and biographer of musicians. ...

References

  • Bazzana, Kevin (2004). Wondrous Strange: The Life and Art of Glenn Gould. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0195174402. 
  • Friedrich, Otto (1989) Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations. Random House, ISBN 0-679-73207-1
  • Ostwald, Peter (1997) Glenn Gould: the ecstasy and tragedy of genius. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04077-1

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Buchbesprechung - Thomas Bernhard: Der Untergeher (0 words)
Glenn Gould macht aus seinem Körper eine Maschine und stirbt schon mit 51 an einem Schlaganfall.
Glenn Gould erreicht sein Ziel, perfekt Klavier zu spielen, doch dafür übt er rücksichtslos gegen sich und spielt Jahrzehnte lang die Goldbergvariationen, als habe er kein Interesse mehr an der Musik, sondern feiere mit der permanenten Wiederholung seiner Perfektion nur noch sich selbst (1).
Glenn Gould war ein äußerst vielseitiger und kreativer Pianist, der ein Klavierstück vollkommen verschieden interpretieren konnte und sich dabei oft weit von den Vorgaben des Komponisten entfernte.
GLENN GOULD (0 words)
Glenn Gould was born in Toronto on 25 September 1932 into a musical family: Edvard Grieg was a first cousin of his mother's grandfather, his father was an amateur violinist, and his mother played piano and organ.
Gould viewed the two interpretations as substantially different because he came to see the Variations not as separate and distinct exercises but as belonging to a larger whole, with one rhythmic pulse, harmony, and ideology underlying the entire work and forming a definite unity of composition.
Glenn Gould gathered a large and loyal group of friends with whom he remained in contact over the telephone and whom he received in Toronto with eager enthusiasm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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