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Encyclopedia > GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
Type Public (LSE: GSK
NYSEGSK)
Founded 2000, by merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham
Headquarters Flag of the United Kingdom London, England, UK
Key people Sir Chris Gent, Chairman
Andrew Witty, Chief Executive
Julian Heslop, Chief Financial Officer
Dr. Moncef Slaoui, Chairman of Research and Development
Industry Pharmaceutical
Products www.gsk.com/products
Revenue £22.7 billion (2007)
Net income £7.8 billion (2007)
Employees Circa 100,000 (2007)
Website www.gsk.com

GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSEGSK) is a United Kingdom-based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. GSK is the world's second largest pharmaceutical company and a research-based company with a wide portfolio of pharmaceutical products covering anti-infectives, central nervous system (CNS), respiratory, gastro-intestinal/metabolic, oncology, and vaccines products. It also has a Consumer Healthcare operation comprising leading oral healthcare products, nutritional drinks, and over the counter (OTC) medicines. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Chris Gent was the CEO of Vodafone, a British cell-phone company. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... CFO redirects here. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... This article is about work. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Look up company in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ...

Contents

History

GSK was formed by the merger of GlaxoWellcome (formed from the mergers of Burroughs Wellcome & Company and Glaxo Laboratories), and SmithKline Beecham (from Beecham, and SmithKline Beckman).


In 1880, Burroughs Wellcome & Company was founded in London by American pharmacists Henry Wellcome and Silas Burroughs. Wellcome Tropical Researches Laboratories was opened in 1902. McDougall & Robertson Inc. was bought by the Wellcome Company to be more active in animal health. Also, the production center was moved from New York to North Carolina in 1970 and the following year another research center was built. Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome (born 1853 in Wisconsin, died July 25, 1936 in London) was an American-British pharmaceutical entrepreneur. ... Silas Mainville Burroughs (Medina, 1846-Monte Carlo, 1895) was an American pharmacist. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


Glaxo was founded in Bunnythorpe, New Zealand. Originally a baby food manufacturer processing local milk into an early baby food by the same name, which was sold in the 1930s under the slogan "Glaxo builds bonny babies". Still visible on the main street of Bunnythorpe is a derelict dairy factory (factory for drying and processing cows' milk into powder) with the original Glaxo logo clearly visible, but nothing to indicate that this was the start of a major multinational company.


Glaxo became Glaxo Laboratories, and opened new units in London in 1935. Glaxo Laboratories bought two companies called Joseph Nathan and Allen & Hanburys in 1947 and 1958 respectively. After it bought Meyer Laboratories, it started to play an important role in the US market. In 1983 the American arm Glaxo Inc. moved to Research Triangle Park (US headquarters/research) and Zebulon (US manufacturing) in North Carolina. To be stronger in the medicine market, Burroughs Wellcome and Glaxo, Inc merged in 1995. The new name of the company was GlaxoWellcome. In the same year, GlaxoWellcome opened their Medicine Research Centre in England. Three years later GlaxoWellcome bought Polfa Poznan Company in Poland. Research Triangle Park (RTP) is the largest research park in the world. ...


In 1843, Thomas Beecham launched his Beecham's Pills laxative in England. Beechams opened its first factory in St Helens, Lancashire, England for rapid production of medicines in 1859. By the 1960s it was extensively involved in pharmaceuticals. Beechams Pills were a laxative first marketed around 1842 in St Helens, Merseyside. ... Beechams was the family business of Thomas Beecham, a chemist. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of St Helens. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...

The GSK Headquarters in Brentford.
The GSK Headquarters in Brentford.

In 1830, John K. Smith opened its first pharmacy in Philadelphia. Over the years Smith, Kline and Company favorably amalgamated with the French, Richard and Company because of their successful management decisions. It changed its name to Smith Kline & French Laboratories to focus more on research in 1929. Years later, Smith Kline & French Laboratories opened a new laboratory in Philadelphia; furthermore, it bought a laboratory called Norden Laboratories which was doing research into animal health to benefit their research in various other areas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1912x1341, 315 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): GlaxoSmithKline ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1912x1341, 315 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): GlaxoSmithKline ... , Brentford is a suburb in the London Borough of Hounslow at the confluence of the River Thames and the River Brent in West London, situated approximately 8 miles (12. ...


To move on this path, Smith Kline & French Laboratories bought Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques (Belgium) in 1963 to focus on vaccines. The company also wanted to spread globally to capture shares in various medicine markets. Because of this, Smith Kline & French Laboratories bought 7 more laboratories in Canada and US six years later. In 1982, it bought Allergan which was making products about eye and skin. It also merged with Beckman Inc. After this merge, it changed its name to SmithKline Beckman. Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques (R.I.T.) was founded in Genval, Belgium, as a penicillin factory in 1945 by Dr Pieter De Somer, the former rector of the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium). ...


In 1988, SmithKline Beckman bought its biggest competitor, International Clinical Laboratories, and enlarged by 50%. The next year, Beecham and SmithKline Beckman became one and changed the name of the company to SmithKline Beecham plc. The headquarters of the company were then moved to England. To improve the R&D in US, SmithKline Beecham bought a new research center in 1995. Yet another new research center was opened in New Frontiers Science Park two years later.


In 2000, Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham merged to form GlaxoSmithKline.


Structure

As the second largest pharmaceutical company in the world, based on net income, the company had sales of £22.7 billion and made a profit of £7.8 billion in 2007. It employs around 110,000 people worldwide, including over 40,000 in sales and marketing. Its global headquarters are GSK House in Brentford, London, United Kingdom, with its United States headquarters based in Philadelphia and its consumer products division based in the Pittsburgh suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania. The research and development division has major headquarters in South East England, Philadelphia and Research Triangle Park (RTP) in North Carolina.


The company is listed on the London and New York stock exchanges. The majority of its activity is in the United States, although the company has a presence in almost 70 countries.


Products

In 2007, pharmaceutical sales accounted for £19.2 billion (or 85%) of GSK's total sales. Sales are based around a broad range of products with the most successful (starting with highest sales) being:

The Consumer Healthcare portfolio contributed sales of £3.4 billion in 2007, in three main areas: The combination preparation fluticasone/salmeterol is a formulation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ... Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. It is currently available in both dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). ... Fluticasone proprionate is a glucocorticoid often prescribed as treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug from the thiazolidinedione class. ... Agonists In pharmacology an agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Lamotrigine (marketed as Lamictal (IPA: ) by GlaxoSmithKline, called Lamictin in South Africa, (Lamogine)[1] in Israel, and in South Korea) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Valaciclovir (INN) or valacyclovir (USAN) is an antiviral drug used in the management of herpes simplex. ... This article is about the disease. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Sumatriptan (Imitrex, Imigran, Imigran Recovery) is a triptan drug including a sulfonamide group which was originally developed by Glaxo for the treatment of migraine headaches. ... Fluticasone proprionate is a glucocorticoid often prescribed as treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... ... Co-amoxiclav is the British Approved Name, in the British Pharmacopoeia, for the combination antibiotic containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin (to form co-amoxiclav) to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, and urinary tract. ...

Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... ... Orlistat (marketed under the trade name Xenical by Roche; or over-the-counter as Alli[1] by GlaxoSmithKline, pronounced , like the English word ally)—also known as tetrahydrolipstatin—is a drug designed to treat obesity. ... Aquafresh is a brand of toothpaste that has been sold since 1979. ... Sensodyne is a toothpaste marketed for individuals with sensitive teeth. ... Lucozade logo Lucozade is an umbrella name for a series of Energy and Sports drinks. ... Ribena (trademark) is a brand of uncarbonated soft drink made by GlaxoSmithKline, containing blackcurrant juice. ... Horlicks malt powder in jars from India (left) and Jamaica. ...

Work in the community

For many years now GSK has been a leading contributor to a multinational government and industry alliance to rid the world of lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis). LF threatens over one billion people in 83 countries. Approximately 120 million people are infected with the parasites, 40 million of whom have clinical symptoms of the disease. The Global Alliance to Eliminate LF was formed with the support of the pharmaceutical companies GlaxoSmithKline and Merck to help countries with LF respond. GSK has donated over 440 million albendazole tablets to date, which serve as a cornerstone of the program. See special page for Filariasis in domestic animals Lymphatic Filariasis is a parasitic and infectious tropical disease, caused by three thread-like parasitic filarial worms, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, all transmitted by mosquitoes. ... Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, the elephant) is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. ... Merck & Co. ... Albendazole marketed as Albenza or Zentel, is indicated for the treatment of a variety of work infestations. ...


Jean-Pierre (JP) Garnier, CEO of GlaxoSmithKline added, “The Egyptian data shows that we can now eliminate a disease that has plagued the world for centuries. We remain committed to donating as much albendazole as required to eliminate this disabling disease, but ultimate success will depend on continued long-term commitments by all partners across the globe.”


In addition Glaxo has been short-listed for awards such as The Worldaware Business Award for its work to eliminate malaria in Kenya.[1]


GlaxoSmithKline recently donated money to the British flood appeal, and was ranked first on the 2006 UK Corporate Citizenship Index for donations.[2]


Global locations

, Brentford is a suburb in the London Borough of Hounslow at the confluence of the River Thames and the River Brent in West London, situated approximately 8 miles (12. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Research Triangle Park, or RTP is a research park near Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill, in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Moon Township is located along the Ohio River in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of research and technological development. ... Greenford, historically Greenford Magna, is a suburb in the London Borough of Ealing in west London, England. ... For other uses see Stevenage (disambiguation) Stevenage is a town and district in Hertfordshire, England. ... Harlow is a new town and local government district in Essex, England. ... For other uses, see Ware (disambiguation). ... Beckenham is a town in the London Borough of Bromley, England. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Évreux is a commune of Normandy, France, in the Eure département, of which it is the préfecture (capital). ... Research Triangle Park (RTP) is the largest research park in the world. ... Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ... Wavre is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant, of which it is the capital. ... Rixensart is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Irvine may refer to: // William Irvine (Scotland) (c. ... For other uses, see Ware (disambiguation). ... Évreux is a commune of Normandy, France, in the Eure département, of which it is the préfecture (capital). ... , Montrose is a port, tourist resort and royal burgh in Angus, on the east coast of Scotland. ... Statistics Population: 5,326 (2001) [1] Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ047166 Administration District: Teesdale Shire county: County Durham Region: North East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: County Durham Historic county: County Durham Services Police force: Durham Constabulary Ambulance service: North East Post office... For other uses, see Crawley (disambiguation). ... , Ulverston is a market town in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria in north-west England. ... State Street separates Virginia (left) and Tennessee (right). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Zebulon is a town located in Wake County, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Binomial name Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché Cucurbita ficifolia is an annual vine or trailing plant grown at high altitudes for its edible seeds, fruit, and greens. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the Italian city. ... Statistics Population: 58,848 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU889811 Administration District: Windsor and Maidenhead Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Berkshire Historic county: Berkshire Services Police force: Thames Valley Ambulance service: South Central Post office and telephone Post town: MAIDENHEAD... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish grid reference X259930 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 1m (3 ft) Population (2002)  - Town:  - Environs:   7,220  232 Website: www. ... For the First Nation, see Mississaugas. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Aiken is a city in Aiken County, South Carolina and is part of the CSRA. The population was 25,337 at the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Map of Clifton in Passaic County Clifton is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Corporate governance

Current members of the board of directors of GlaxoSmithKline are: Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...

  • Sir Christopher Gent (Non-Executive Chairman);
  • Andrew Witty (Chief Executive Officer);
  • Dr Stephanie Burns (Non-Executive Director);
  • Lawrence Culp (Non-Executive Director);
  • Sir Crispin Davis (Non-Executive Director);
  • Julian Heslop (Chief Financial Officer);
  • Sir Deryck Maughan (Non-Executive Director);
  • Sir Ian Prosser (Senior Independent Non-Executive Director);
  • Dr Ronaldo Schmitz (Non-Executive Director);
  • Moncef Slaoui (Executive Director, Chairman, Research & Development);
  • Robert Wilson (Non-Executive Director);
  • Dr Daniel Podolsky (Non-Executive Director);
  • Tom De Swaan (Independent Non-Executive Director).

On October 8, 2007 it was announced that Dr Garnier would be succeeded as Chief Executive by Mr Andrew Witty. Mr Witty, 43, has taken up the position in May 2008 and joined the Board. Sir Christopher Gent (Beckenham, Kent, May 10, 1948) is the former chief executive officer of Vodafone, a British cell-phone company. ... Sir Ian Prosser is a UK businessman. ...


David Stout, president of Pharmaceuticals operations, and Chris Viehbacher, president of the US Pharmaceuticals division, who lost out to Mr Witty in the succession race, might possibly quit the company. However it was reported in the UK press on 5 December that both executives would receive retention packages worth £2m in the form of shares over the next 2 to 3 years plus a small amount of cash to stay at GlaxoSmithKline.


On December 7, 2007, it was announced that Andrew Witty, CEO Designate, and Chris Viehbacher, President US Pharmaceuticals, have been appointed Executive Directors and will join the Board of the Company with effect from January 31, 2008. It was also announced that David Stout will leave the company in February 2008.


Tachi Yamada resigned as head of research and development at GSK during 2007 to take up a position working for Bill Gates' charitable foundation. He was replaced by Moncef Slaoui.


Diversity

GlaxoSmithKline was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2007 by Working Mother magazine[3] and was recognized by the International Charter for its efforts. GSK also received a perfect score of 100 percent from the Human Rights Campaign Foundation's 2008 Corporate Equality Index, an annual report card of corporate America's treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) employees, customers and investors. GSK also supports employee diversity networks for groups such as ECN, PTPN, GLBT, AAA, etc. HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ... The Corporate Equality Index is a report published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation as a tool to rate American businesses on their treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employees, consumers and investors. ...


Controversy

  • Paroxetine (Seroxat, Paxil) is an SSRI antidepressant released in 1992 by GlaxoSmithKline. In March 2004 the FDA ordered a black box warning placed on SSRI and other antidepressants, warning of the risk for potential suicidal thinking in children and adolescents. Since the FDA approved paroxetine in 1992, approximately 5,000 U.S. citizens have sued GSK. On January 29 2007, the BBC in the UK broadcast a fourth documentary in its 'Panorama' series about Seroxat.[4] One clinical trial indicated that adolescents were six times more likely to become suicidal after taking it.
  • In March 2006, California Attorney General Bill Lockyer announced that "GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) will pay $14 million to resolve allegations that state-government programs paid inflated prices for the firm’s anti-depressant drug Paxil because GSK engaged in patent fraud, antitrust violations and frivolous litigation to maintain a monopoly and block generic versions from entering the market."[9]
  • At the AGM on 19 May 2003, GSK shareholders rejected a motion regarding a £22 million pay and benefits package for CEO, JP Garnier. This was the first time such a rebellion by shareholders against a major British company has occurred, but was regarded as a possible turning point against other so-called "fat cat" deals within executive pay structure.
  • In November 2005, AIDS Healthcare Foundation accused the company of boosting its short-term monopoly profit by not increasing production of the anti-AIDS drug AZT despite a surge in demand, hence creating a shortage that affected many AIDS patients in Africa. GSK announced that it had halted clinical trials of the CCR5 entry inhibitor, aplaviroc (GW873140), in HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients because of concerns about severe hepatotoxicity.[11] In June of 2006 GSK said it was further cutting, by about 30%, the not-for-profit prices it charges for some of these medicines in the world's poorest countries.[12]

Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug from the thiazolidinedione class. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... William Westwood Bill Lockyer (born May 8, 1941) is the current State Treasurer of California. ... An Annual General Meeting, commonly abbreviated as AGM, also known as the annual meeting, is a meeting that official bodies and associations involving the public are often required by law (In what country?) to hold. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A man holds a monkey by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract animal-testing company founded in 1952 in England, now with facilities in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire and Eye, Suffolk in the UK; New Jersey in the U.S.; and in Japan. ... A monkey inside Huntingdon Life Sciences in the United States. ... For other uses of the term ALF, see ALF (disambiguation). ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (abbreviated to AZT) is an anti-retroviral drug, the first antiviral treatment to be approved for use against HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis, and as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir. ...

Legal

In 2003 GSK signed a corporate integrity agreement and paid $88 million in a civil fine for overcharging Medicaid for the antidepressant Paxil, and nasal-allergy spray Flonase. Later that year GSK also ran afoul of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and was facing a demand for $7.8 billion in backdated taxes and interest, the highest in IRS history. Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ... Paroxetine (paroxetine hydrochloride; trade names Paxil® (United States), Seroxat® (UK), Aropax® (Australia)) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type. ... Fluticasone proprionate is a glucocorticoid often prescribed as treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ...


On September 12, 2006 GSK settled the largest tax dispute in IRS history agreeing to pay $3.1 billion. At issue in the case were Zantac and the other Glaxo Group heritage products sold from 1989–2005. The case was about an area of taxation dealing with intracompany "transfer pricing"—determining the share of profit attributable to the US subsidiaries of GSK and subject to tax by the IRS. Taxes for large multi-divisional companies are paid to revenue authorities based on the profits reported in particular tax jurisdictions, so how profits were allocated among various legacy Glaxo divisions based on the functions they performed was central to the dispute in this case.[13] is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In February 2007, the Serious Fraud Office in the UK launched an investigation into allegations of GSK being involved in the discredited oil-for-food sanctions regime in Iraq. They are accused of paying bribes to Saddam Hussein's regime.[14]


Paroxetine

On December 22, 2006, a US court decided in Hoorman, et al. v. SmithKline Beecham Corp that individuals who purchased Paxil(R) or Paxil CR(TM) (paroxetine) for a minor child may be eligible for benefits under a $63.8 million Proposed Settlement.[15] The lawsuit won the argument that GSK promoted Paxil(R) or Paxil CR(TM) for prescription to children and adolescents while withholding and concealing material information about the medication's safety and effectiveness for minors. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paroxetine (paroxetine hydrochloride; trade names Paxil® (United States), Seroxat® (UK), Aropax® (Australia)) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ...


The lawsuit stemmed from a consumer advocate protest against Paroxetine manufacturer GSK. Since the FDA approved paroxetine in 1992, approximately 5,000 U.S. citizens – and thousands more worldwide – have sued GSK. Most of these people feel they were not sufficiently warned in advance of the drug's side effects and addictive properties.


According to the Paxil Protest website, http://www.paxilprotest.com, hundreds more lawsuits have been filed against GSK.[16] The Paxil Protest website was launched August 8, 2005 to offer both information about the protest and information on Paxil previously unavailable to the public. Just three weeks after its launch, the site received more than a quarter of a million hits. The original Paxil Protest website was removed from the internet in 2006. It is understood that the action to take down the site was undertaken as part of a confidentiality agreement or 'gagging order' which the owner of the site entered into as part of a settlement of his action against GlaxoSmithKline. (However, in March 2007, the website Seroxat Secrets [1]discovered that an archive of Paxil Protest site [2] was still available on the internet via Archive.org) Gagging orders are common in such cases and can extend to documents that defendants wish to remain hidden from the public. However in some cases, such documents can become public at a later date, such as those made public by Dr. Peter Breggin in February of 2006.[17]


In January 2007, according to the Seroxat Secrets website,[18] the national group litigation in the United Kingdom, on behalf of several hundred people who allege withdrawal reactions through their use of the drug Seroxat, against GlaxoSmithKline plc, moved a step closer to the High Court in London, with the confirmation that Public Funding had been reinstated following a decision by the Public Interest Appeal Panel. The issue at the heart of this particular action claims Seroxat is a defective drug in that it has a propensity to cause a withdrawal reaction. Hugh James Solicitors have confirmed this news.[19]


In March 2008 The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency concluded that GSK should have warned of the possible ill effects of taking Seroxat a lot sooner[20]. GSK could not be prosecuted under the old legislation, but the law has now been changed.


Ribena

On March 27, 2007, GSK pleaded guilty in an Auckland District Court to 15 charges relating to misleading conduct brought against them under the Fair Trading Act by New Zealand's Commerce Commission. The charges related to a popular blackcurrant fruit drink Ribena which the company had lead consumers to believe contained high levels of vitamin C. As part of a school science project, two 14-year-old school girls (Anna Devathasan and Jenny Suo) from Pakuranga College in Auckland (New Zealand) discovered that ready-to-drink juice sold in 100ml containers contained very little vitamin C. Approaches by the two teens to the company didn't resolve the issue but after the matter was publicised on a national consumer affairs television show (Fair Go) the matter came to the attention of the Commerce Commission (a government funded 'consumer watch-dog'). The commission's testing found that ready-to-drink Ribena contained no detectable vitamin C. Binomial name L. The Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a species of Ribes berry native to central and northern Europe and northern Asia. ... Ribena (trademark) is a brand of uncarbonated soft drink made by GlaxoSmithKline, containing blackcurrant juice. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Pakuranga College is a secondary school in south east Auckland, New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Fair Go is a New Zealand consumer affairs television program anchored by Kevin Milne. ...


The company was fined $217,000 for the 15 charges. The number of charges was reduced from 88 and covered a period from March 2002 to March 2006. GSK maintains that it did not intend to mislead consumers and that the advertising claims were based on testing procedures that have since been changed. It was ordered to run an advertising campaign to provide the facts after it admitted misleading the public about the vitamin C component in its Ribena drink. Through its lawyer, Adam Ross, the company accepted Commerce Commission allegations that claims that ready-to-drink Ribena contained 7mg of vitamin C per 100ml, or 44 per cent of the recommended daily intake, were incorrect. The company also agreed television advertising claiming the blackcurrants in Ribena had four times the vitamin C of oranges, while literally true, were likely to mislead consumers about the relative levels of vitamin C in Ribena.[21]


See also

Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques (R.I.T.) was founded in Genval, Belgium, as a penicillin factory in 1945 by Dr Pieter De Somer, the former rector of the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium). ... Quest Diagnostics Incorporated (NYSE: DGX) is one of the leading providers of clinical laboratory services in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ The Shell Technology for Development Award Worldware Business Award
  2. ^ http://www.icharter.org/list/corporate_citizenship/index.html
  3. ^ http://www.workingmother.com/web?service=vpage/859
  4. ^ Secrets of the drug trials. BBC (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  5. ^ Committee staff report to the chairman and ranking member. Committee on Finance United States Senate. The intimidation of Dr John Buse and the diabetes drug Avandia. November 2007.. United States Congressional committee. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  6. ^ Speakers at Carolina. Retrieved on 2008-01-22.
  7. ^ About the American Diabetes Association. American Diabetes Association.
  8. ^ GSK accused of trying to intimidate critic. The Guardian.
  9. ^ Attorney General Lockyer Announces $14 Million National Settlement with GlaxoSmithKline to Resolve Patent Fraud, Antitrust Allegations. California Attorney General.
  10. ^ BBC"Glaxo 'won't be driven out of UK'". 17 May 2006
  11. ^ Trials of Aplaviroc Halted in Treatment-Naive Patients Journal Watch September 15, 2005
  12. ^ Glaxo Will Cut AIDS Drug Prices For Poor Nations Chemical & Engineering News. June 1, 2006
  13. ^ GSK settles largest tax dispute in history for $3.1bn Times UK Online Sept 12 2006
  14. ^ Guardian Unlimited February 14, 2007
  15. ^ Pediatric Settlement Paxil Pediatric Settlement Web site
  16. ^ National Paxil Protest invites antidepressant drugs victims to join public outcry against GlaxoSmithKline National Paxil Protest invites antidepressant drugs victims to join public outcry against GSK September 06, 2005
  17. ^ A press releasy by Dr. Peter Breggin
  18. ^ seroxat secrets website
  19. ^ Hugh James Solicitors seroxat news
  20. ^ 'Suicide' pills firm slammed
  21. ^ Judge orders Ribena to fess up

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Diabetes Association, or the ADA, is an American health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... The California Attorney General is the State Attorney General of the government of the state of California in the USA. The officers duty is to ensure that the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced (California Constitution, Article V, Section 13. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

External links


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