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Encyclopedia > Glasses
A pair of modern glasses
A pair of modern glasses

Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A lens. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... A bifocal corrective eyeglasses lens A corrective lens is a lens worn on or before the eye, used to treat myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. ... Also see Personal protective equipment: Eye protection. ... UV coating is the name given to various processes and coverings that utilize or protect against ultraviolet radiation. ...


Modern glasses are typically supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and by temples placed over the ears. Historical types include the pince-nez, monocle, and lorgnette. For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt wearing pince-nez Pince-nez (also known as Oxford glasses) are a style of spectacles, popular in the 19th century, which are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose. ... The first cover of The New Yorker, 1925: Eustace Tilley quizzes a butterfly A monocle is a type of corrective lens used to correct the vision in only one eye. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Eyeglass frames are commonly made from metal, horn or plastic. Lenses were originally made from glass, but many are now made from various types of plastic, including CR-39 or polycarbonate. These materials reduce the danger of breakage and weigh less than glass lenses. Some plastics also have more advantageous optical properties than glass, such as better transmission of visible light and greater absorption of ultraviolet light.[1] Some plastics have a greater index of refraction than most types of glass; this is useful in the making of corrective lenses shaped to correct various vision abnormalities such as myopia, allowing thinner lenses for a given prescription. Scratch-resistant coatings can be applied to most plastic lenses giving them similar scratch resistance to glass. Hydrophobic coatings designed to ease cleaning are also available, as are anti-reflective coatings intended to improve night vision and make the wearer's eyes more visible.[2] A pair of modern horn-rimmed glasses Horn-rimmed glasses are a type of eyeglasses with frames made of horn, tortoise shell, or plastic that simulates either material. ... This article is about the material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CR-39, or allyl diglycol polycarbonate, is a plastic polymer commonly used in the manufacture of eyeglass lenses. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The refractive index of a material is the factor by which electromagnetic radiation is slowed down (relative to vacuum) when it travels inside the material. ... This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders. ... Normal vision. ... Using a phoropter to determine a prescription for eyeglasses An eyeglass prescription is a written order by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist to an optician for eyeglasses. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... Anti-reflective coatings are a type of optical coating applied to lenses and other devices to reduce reflection from optical surfaces. ...


Polycarbonate lenses are the lightest and most shatter-resistant, making them the best for impact protection,[1] yet offer poor optics due to high dispersion, having a low Abbe number of 31. CR-39 lenses are the most common plastic lenses due to their low weight, high scratch resistance, and low transparency for ultra violet and infrared radiation. In physics and optics, the Abbe number, also known as the V-number or constringence of a transparent material is a measure of the materials dispersion (variation of refractive index with wavelength). ...


Not all glasses are designed solely for vision correction, but rather for protection, viewing visual information (such as stereoscopy) or simply just for aesthetic or fashion values. Safety glasses are a kind of eye protection against flying debris or against visible and near visible light or radiation. Sunglasses allow better vision in bright daylight, and may protect against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light. Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... Also see Personal protective equipment: Eye protection. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ... Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) Sunglasses are a visual aid, variously termed spectacles or glasses, which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened to prevent strong light from reaching the eyes. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...

Contents

History

Precursors

Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence, painted by Tomaso da Modena in 1352

The first suspected recorded use of a corrective lens may have been by the emperor Nero in the 1st century, who was known to watch the gladiatorial games using an emerald.[3] Detail of portrait of Hugh de Provence, 1352. ... Detail of portrait of Hugh de Provence, 1352. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Corrective lenses were said to be used by Abbas Ibn Firnas in the 9th century.[4] He had devised a way to finish sand into glass; which until this time, was secret to the Egyptians. These glasses could be shaped and polished into round rocks used for viewing - known as reading stones. Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... A reading stone was an approximately hemispherical transparent object placed on top of text to magnify the letters so that people with presbyopia could read the text more easily. ...


Sunglasses, in the form of flat panes of smoky quartz, protected the eyes from glare and were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. However, they did not offer any corrective powers.[5] Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) Sunglasses are a visual aid, variously termed spectacles or glasses, which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened to prevent strong light from reaching the eyes. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Minerals | Quartz varieties ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Invention of eyeglasses

The 'Glasses Apostle' by Conrad von Soest (1403)
The 'Glasses Apostle' by Conrad von Soest (1403)

Around 1284 in Italy, Salvino D'Armate is credited with inventing the first wearable eye glasses.[6] The earliest pictorial evidence for the use of eyeglasses, however, is Tomaso da Modena's 1352 portrait of the cardinal Hugh de Provence reading in a scriptorium. Another early example would be a depiction of eyeglasses found north of the Alpes in an altarpiece of the church of Bad Wildungen, Germany, in 1403. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Salvino DArmati (or son of Armato) of Florence is credited with inventing eyeglasses sometime in the thirteenth century, perhaps around 1284. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... Bad Wildungen is a state-run spa and a small town in Waldeck-Frankenberg district in Hesse, Germany. ...


Many theories abound for to whom the credit for the invention of traditional eyeglasses belong. In 1676, Francesco Redi, a professor of medicine at the University of Pisa, wrote that he possessed a 1289 manuscript whose author complains that he would be unable to read or write were it not for the recent invention of glasses. He also produced a record of a sermon given in 1305, in which the speaker, a Dominican monk named Fra Giordano da Rivalto, remarked that glasses had been invented less than twenty years previously, and that he had met the inventor. Based on this evidence, Redi credited another Dominican monk, Fra Alessandro da Spina of Pisa, with the re-invention of glasses after their original inventor kept them a secret, a claim contained in da Spina's obituary record.[7] Redi is featured in many modern-day science textbooks due to his experiment. ... The University of Pisa (Italian Università di Pisa) is one of the most renowned Italian universities. ...


Other stories, possibly legendary, credit Roger Bacon with the invention. Bacon is known to have made the first recorded reference to the magnifying properties of lenses in 1262.[8] His treatise De iride ("On the Rainbow"), which was written while he was a student of Robert Grosseteste, no later than 1235, mentions using optics to "read the smallest letters at incredible distances". While the exact date and inventor may be forever disputed, it is almost certainly clear that spectacles were invented between 1280 and 1300 in Italy. For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ...


These early spectacles had convex lenses that could correct the presbyopia (farsightedness) that commonly develops as a symptom of aging. Nicholas of Cusa is believed to have discovered the benefits of concave lens in the treatment of myopia (nearsightedness). However, it was not until 1604 that Johannes Kepler published in his treatise on optics and astronomy, the first correct explanation as to why convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. A lens. ... Presbyopia (Greek word presbyteros (πρεσβύτερος), meaning elder) is the eyes diminished ability to focus that occurs with aging. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401– August 11, 1464) was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. ... A lens. ... Normal vision. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


Later developments

A portrait of Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, 1580–1645
A portrait of Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, 1580–1645

The American scientist Benjamin Franklin, who suffered from both myopia and presbyopia, invented bifocals in 1784 to avoid having to regularly switch between two pairs of glasses.[9] The first lenses for correcting astigmatism were constructed by the British astronomer George Airy in 1825.[9] Download high resolution version (772x1156, 581 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (772x1156, 581 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (born September 17, 1580 - September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the Siglo de Oro. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Bifocals are eyeglasses whose corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct optical powers. ... Astigmatism is an affliction of the eye, where vision is blurred by an irregularly shaped cornea. ... George Biddell Airy Sir George Biddell Airy (July 27, 1801 – January 2, 1892) was British Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Over time, the construction of spectacle frames also evolved. Early eyepieces were designed to be either held in place by hand or by exerting pressure on the nose (pince-nez). Girolamo Savonarola suggested that eyepieces could be held in place by a ribbon passed over the wearer's head, this in turn secured by the weight of a hat. The modern style of glasses, held by temples passing over the ears, was developed in 1727 by the British optician Edward Scarlett. These designs were not immediately successful, however, and various styles with attached handles such as "scissors glasses" and lorgnettes remained fashionable throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century. Theodore Roosevelt wearing pince-nez Pince-nez (also known as Oxford glasses) are a style of spectacles, popular in the 19th century, which are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... For other uses, see Hat (disambiguation). ...


In the early 20th century, Moritz von Rohr at Zeiss (with the assistance of H. Boegehold and A. Sonnefeld[10]), developed the Zeiss Punktal spherical point-focus lenses that dominated the eyeglass lens field for many years. Moritz von Rohr (1868–1940) was an optical scientist at Carl Zeiss in Jena. ... Carl Zeiss in middle age. ...


Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses and laser corrective eye surgery, glasses remain very common and their technology has not stood still. For instance, it is now possible to purchase frames made of special memory metal alloys that return to their correct shape after being bent. Other frames have spring-loaded hinges. Either of these designs offers dramatically better ability to withstand the stresses of daily wear and the occasional accident. Modern frames are also often made from strong, light-weight materials such as titanium alloys, which were not available in earlier times. A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... A shape memory alloy (SMA) (also known as memory metal or smart wire) is a metal that remembers its geometry. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...

Whale bone framed spectacles worn by a member of the Ferrers Household circa 1460

On May 1, 1992 the United States Federal Trade Commission declared (section 456.2) that optometrists be required to provide the patient with a complete prescription immediately following an eye exam, effectively giving the patient the choice of where to purchase their glasses.[11] The result was greater competition between the glasses manufacturers and thus lower prices for consumers. This trend has been accelerated by the proliferation of Internet technology, giving consumers the chance to bypass traditional distribution channels and buy glasses directly from the manufacturers.[12] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The title Earl Ferrers was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1711 for the 13th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Types

Corrective

Image of the city of Seattle as seen through a corrective lens, showing the effect of refraction.
Image of the city of Seattle as seen through a corrective lens, showing the effect of refraction.

Corrective lenses modify the focal length of the eye to alleviate the effects of nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism. As people age, the eye's crystalline lens loses elasticity, resulting in presbyopia, which limits their ability to change focus. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 2658 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lens (optics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 2658 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lens (optics) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... A bifocal corrective eyeglasses lens A corrective lens is a lens worn on or before the eye, used to treat myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. ... Refraction error is an error in the focussing of light by the human eye. ... Normal vision. ... Hyperopia, also known as hypermetropia or colloquially as farsightedness or longsightedness, is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short or when the lens cannot become round enough), causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases causing... Astigmatism is an affliction of the eye, where vision is blurred by an irregularly shaped cornea. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Presbyopia (Greek word presbyteros (πρεσβύτερος), meaning elder) is the eyes diminished ability to focus that occurs with aging. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ...


The power of a lens is generally measured in diopters. Over-the-counter reading glasses are typically rated at +1.00 to +4.00 diopters. Glasses correcting for myopia will have negative diopter strengths. Lenses made to conform to the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist are called prescription lenses and are used to make prescription glasses. A dioptre (also diopter) is a unit of curvature equal to one per metre; that is, inverse metres, or 1/(metres). ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... Optometrists are primary care practitioners for vision and ocular health concerns. ... Using a phoropter to determine a prescription for eyeglasses An eyeglass prescription is a written order by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist to an optician for eyeglasses. ...


Safety

Main article: Eye protection
Safety glasses with side shields
Safety glasses with side shields

Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials of various impact resistance, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1 millimeter thickness at the thinnest point, regardless of material. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. For example, those used in medicine may be expected to protect against blood splatter while safety glasses in a factory might have stronger lenses and a stronger frame with additional shields at the temples. The lenses of safety glasses can also be shaped for correction. Also see Personal protective equipment: Eye protection. ... Download high resolution version (1917x1416, 495 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1917x1416, 495 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The American National Standards Institute has established standard ANSI Z87.1 for safety glasses in the United States, and similar standards have been established elsewhere.

Wraparound safety glasses
Wraparound safety glasses

Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. They may provide less eye protection than goggles or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. Recent safety glasses have tended to be given a more stylish design, in order to encourage their use. The pictured wraparound safety glasses are evidence of this style change with the close fitting nature of the wraparound dispensing with the need for side shields. Corrective glasses with plastic lenses can be used in the place of safety glasses in many environments; this is one advantage that they have over contact lenses. Download high resolution version (1845x1341, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1845x1341, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Watersport goggles Blowtorching goggles and safety helmet Goggles and safety glasses are forms of protective eyewear that usually enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes. ... A pair of contact lenses, positioned with the concave side facing upward. ...


There are also safety glasses for welding, which are styled like wraparound sunglasses, but with much darker lenses, for use in welding where a full sized welding helmet is inconvenient or uncomfortable. These are often called "flash goggles", because they provide protection from welding flash. Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


Nylon frames are usually used for protection eyewear for sports beacause of their lightweight and flexible properties. They are able to bend slightly and return to their original shape instead of breaking when pressure is applied to them. Nylon frames can become very brittle with age and they can be difficult to adjust.


Sunglasses

Scratch-resistant sunglasses made using a NASA developed coating
Main article: Sunglasses

Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible and possibly ultraviolet light. Scratch resistant sunglasses produced by NASA spin off tecnology. ... Scratch resistant sunglasses produced by NASA spin off tecnology. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) Sunglasses are a visual aid, variously termed spectacles or glasses, which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened to prevent strong light from reaching the eyes. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


Glasses with photosensitive lenses, called photochromic lenses, become darker in the presence of UV light. Unfortunately, many car windshields block the passage of UV light, making photochromic lenses less effective whilst driving on bright days. Still, they offer the convenience of not having to carry both clear glasses and sunglasses to those who frequently go indoors and outdoors during the course of a day. Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to UV radiation. ...


Light polarization is an added feature that can be applied to sunglass lenses. Polarization filters remove horizontal rays of light, which can cause glare. Popular among fishermen and hunters, polarized sunglasses allow wearers to see into water when normally glare or reflected light would be seen. Polarized sunglasses may present some difficulties for pilots since reflections from water and other structures often used to gauge altitude may be removed, or instrument readings on liquid crystal displays may be blocked. In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ...


Yellow lenses are commonly used by golfers and shooters for their contrast enhancement and depth perception properties. Brown lenses are also common among golfers, but cause color distortion. Blue, purple, and green lenses offer no real benefits to vision enhancement and are mainly cosmetic. Some sunglasses with interchangeable lenses have optional clear lenses to protect the eyes during low light or night time activities and a colored lense with UV protection for times where sun protection is needed. Debate exists as to whether "blue blocking" or amber tinted lenses have a protective effect.


Sunglasses are often worn just for aesthetic purposes, or simply to hide the eyes. Examples of sunglasses that were popular for these reasons include teashades and mirrorshades. Mirrorshades are sunglasses with a special coating on the outside of the lenses to make them appear like small mirrors, although the wearer just sees things in a brown or grey tinted point of view, usually. ...


Special

Swimming goggles
Swimming goggles

The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue lens. 3D glasses made of cardboard and plastic are distributed at 3D movies. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters, with one lens polarized vertically and the other horizontally, with the two images required for stereo vision polarized the same way. The polarized 3D specs allow for color 3D, while the red-blue lenses produce a dull black-and-white picture with red and blue fringes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 372 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glasses Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 372 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glasses Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Lake Palanskoye in northern Kamchatka was formed when a large landslide disrupted the drainage pattern, forming a natural dam. ... In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ...


One kind of electronic 3D spectacles uses electronic shutters, while virtual reality glasses and helmets have separate video screens for each eye. It has been suggested that Leaf shutter be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ...


Variations

Glasses can be very simple, such as magnifying lenses which are used to treat mild hyperopia and presbyopia can be bought off the shelf, normally referred to as reading glasses. Most glasses are made to a particular prescription, based on degree of myopia or hyperopia combined with astigmatism. Lenses can be ground to specific prescriptions, but in some cases standard off-the-shelf prescriptions suffice, but require custom fitting to particular frames. Hyperopia, also known as hypermetropia or colloquially as farsightedness or longsightedness, is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short or when the lens cannot become round enough), causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases causing... Presbyopia (Greek word presbyteros (πρεσβύτερος), meaning elder) is the eyes diminished ability to focus that occurs with aging. ... In optics, astigmatism is when an optical system has different foci for rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes. ...


As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, bifocal or even trifocal to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. Some modern multifocal lenses, such as Progressive lenses (known as "no-line bifocals"), give a smooth transition between these different focal points and is unnoticeable by most wearers, while others have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. People may have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, television watching, and writing. Bifocals are eyeglasses that have corrective lenses containing two different lens powers. ... Trifocals are eyeglasses where the lenses have 3 regions to correct for distance, intermediate (arms length), and near vision. ... Progressive lenses, also called progressive addition lenses (PAL), progressive power lenses, graduated lenses and varifocal lenses, are corrective lenses used in eyeglasses to correct presbyopia and other disorders of accommodation. ...


Rimless

Three-piece rimless and semi-rimless glasses are common variations that differ from regular glasses in that their frames do not completely encircle the lenses. Three-piece rimless glasses have no frame around the lenses, and the bridge and temples are mounted directly onto the lenses. Semi-rimless (or half-rimless) glasses have a frame that only partially encircles the lenses (commonly the top portion), which are held in place most often by high strength nylon wire.[13] A rare and currently non commercial variation are rimless and frameless glasses attached to a piercing at the bridge of a wearers nose.[14] Such glasses have the visual look of the pince-nez. A bridge piercing is a body piercing through the bridge of the nose, usually directly between the eyes of the wearer. ... Theodore Roosevelt wearing pince-nez Pince-nez (also known as Oxford glasses) are a style of spectacles, popular in the 19th century, which are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose. ...


Glazing

Spectacle lenses are edged into the frame's rim using glazing machines operated by ophthalmic technicians. The edging process begins with a trace being taken of the frame's eye shape. In earlier days the trace was replicated onto a plastic pattern called a Former. Nowadays the process is patternless and the shape is sent to the edger electronically.


The lens, in the form of a round uncut, is positioned in the correct manner to match the prescription and a block is stuck to the lens and that block fits into a chuck in the edging machine. A diamond coated wheel spins as the edger replicates the frame's eye-shape to the uncut lens. A 'v' bevel is applied to allow the edge of the lens to fit into the frame rim.


Fashion

United States senator Barry Goldwater in Horn-rimmed glasses.
United States senator Barry Goldwater in Horn-rimmed glasses.

Glasses can be a major part of personal expression, from the extravagance of Elton John and Dame Edna Everage, from Groucho Marx to Buddy Holly. http://bioguide. ... http://bioguide. ... A pair of modern horn-rimmed glasses Horn-rimmed glasses are a type of eyeglasses with frames made of horn, tortoise shell, or plastic that simulates either material. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... Dame Edna Everage featuring on a billboard at the Myer department store in Melbourne. ... Julius Henry Marx, AKA Groucho Marx (October 2, 1890 – August 19, 1977), was an American comedian, working both with his siblings, the Marx Brothers, and on his own. ... Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959),[1] better known as Buddy Holly, was an American singer, songwriter, and a pioneer of rock and roll. ...


For some celebrities, glasses form part of their identity. American Senator Barry Goldwater continued to wear lensless horn-rimmed spectacles after being fitted with contact lenses because he was not recognizable without his trademark glasses. British soap star Anne Kirkbride had the same problem: her character on Coronation Street, Deirdre Barlow, became so well-known for her big frames that she was expected to wear them at social gatherings and in international tours, even though Kirkbride has always worn contact lenses. Drew Carey continued to wear glasses for the same reason after getting corrective laser eye surgery. British comedic actor Eric Sykes, who became profoundly deaf as an adult, wears glasses that contain no lenses; they are actually a bone-conducting hearing aid. Masaharu Morimoto wears glasses to separate his professional persona as a chef from his stage persona as Iron Chef Japanese. John Lennon wore his round-lens 'Windsor' spectacles from some of his time with the Beatles to his murder in 1980. Rock band Weezer are known for some of the members wearing thick-rimmed glasses. Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Anne Kirkbride, in a still from an interview in 2000. ... Coronation Street is an award winning British soap opera. ... Deirdre Anne Barlow (née Hunt, formerly Langton and Rachid) is a long-running fictional character on the British soap opera Coronation Street. ... Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958) is an American comedian and actor. ... LASIK is the acronym for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, a type of refractive laser eye surgery performed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. ... Eric Sykes in the Sykes TV series (DVD) The Plank (DVD cover) Eric Sykes, CBE (born May 4, 1923 in Oldham, Lancashire) is a British comedic writer and actor. ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... Behind the ear aid For the song, see Flood (album). ... Masaharu Morimoto (森本正治 Morimoto Masaharu; born May 26, 1955 in Hiroshima, Japan) is a well-known Japanese chef, best-known as the third (and last) Iron Chef Japanese on the TV cooking show Iron Chef, and an Iron Chef on its spinoff, Iron Chef America. ... For other uses, see Chef (disambiguation). ... Iron Chef Hiroyuki Sakai With the above words begins each edition of Iron Chef, a Japanese television program produced by FujiTV. The original Japanese title is Ironmen of Cooking ). It began airing on October 10, 1993 as a half-hour show and after 23 episodes, it was expanded to a... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... For the albums, see Weezer (1994 album) and Weezer (2001 album). ...

Glasses can be used jokingly as a stereotype for intelligence.
Glasses can be used jokingly as a stereotype for intelligence.

In popular culture, glasses were all the disguise Superman and Wonder Woman needed to hide in plain view as alter egos Clark Kent and Diana Prince, respectively. An example of halo effect is seen in the stereotype that those who wear glasses are intelligent or, especially in teen culture, even geeks and nerds. Some people who find that wearing glasses may look nerdy turn to contact lenses instead, especially under peer pressure. Others turn to laser eye surgery, as do some would-be pilots. Image File history File links Maleglasses. ... Image File history File links Maleglasses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Wonder Woman is a fictional DC Comics superheroine created by William Moulton Marston. ... Alter Ego has multiple meanings: Alter Ego is a game for the Commodore 64 computer. ... For other uses, see Clark Kent (disambiguation). ... An early appearance of Wonder Woman Wonder Woman is a DC Comics superhero. ... The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence of interpretations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... The word geek has recently come to be used to refer to a person who is fascinated by knowledge and imagination, usually electronic or virtual in nature. ... For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation). ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ... Laser and non-laser surgery While the terms laser eye surgery and refractive surgery are commonly used as if they were interchangeable, this is not the case. ... The name PILOT is an acronym, and stands for Programmed Instruction, Learning, Or Teaching. ...


Another unpopular aspect of glasses is their inconvenience. Even through the creation of light frames, such as those made of titanium, very flexible frames, and new lens materials and optical coatings, glasses can still cause problems during rigorous sports. The lenses can become greasy or trap vapour when eating hot food, swimming, walking in rain or rapid temperature changes (such as walking into a warm building from cold temperatures outside), reducing visibility significantly. Scraping, fracturing, or breakage of the lenses require time-consuming and costly professional repair, though modern plastic lenses are almost indestructible and very scratch-resistant. General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... An optical coating is a thin layer of material placed on an optical component such as a lens or mirror which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light. ...


Apple, Inc. co-founder Stephen Wozniak had a pair of eyeglasses made with lenses in the shape of the well-known Apple logo. The lenses were made from a block of acrylic, laminated from layers in the usual rainbow colors, and machined into the appropriate outline, with a custom-made frame in the same shape. They were made by a Silicon Valley optician. Apple Inc. ... Stephen Wozniak (Polish: Woźniak, nickname (The) Woz or Wizard of Woz) (born August 11, 1950) is credited with initiating the entry of computers into private homes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up acrylic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other names

  • Pair of glasses (or just glasses) is commonly used in Britain and in North America. Compare with other meanings of the word glass.
  • Spectacles is sometimes used in Britain and occasionally in the U.S., in addition to use by professional opticians. Also in frequent use is the shortened form, specs.
  • Eye glasses or eyeglasses is a word used in North American English. In contrast, glass eye refers to a cosmetic prosthetic artificial eye that replaces a missing eye.
  • Frames is sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Lenses is also sometimes used to refer to framed eyepieces, although it is not common.
  • Cheaters is used in the hipster argot. Eyeglasses were a common part of the hipster persona, for example Dizzy Gillespie.
  • Bioptikon is used as a singular term for a pair of glasses, as in "the boy put on his bioptikon".

Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... This article is about the material. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... A prosthetic right eye, made from acrylic An ocular prosthetic or artificial eye replaces a missing natural eye following an enucleation or envisceration that was lost due to disease or injury. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hipster (contemporary subculture). ... Argot (French for slang) is primarily slang used by various groups, including but not limited to thieves and other criminals, to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... John Birks Dizzy Gillespie (October 21, 1917 – January 6, 1993) was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. ...

See also

Look up glasses in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... Using a phoropter to determine a prescription for eyeglasses An eyeglass prescription is a written order by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist to an optician for eyeglasses. ... A bifocal corrective eyeglasses lens A corrective lens is a lens worn on or before the eye, used to treat myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. ... Stephanie Pakrul, or StephTheGeek, a blogger. ... // The Beginnings of Geometrical Optics The Greek term τα όπτικά referred specifically to matters of vision[1], and hence early optics was concerned with the problem of how we see. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... In fictional stories, X-ray vision has generally been portrayed as the ability to see through layers of objects at the discretion of the holder of this superpower. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ...

References

  1. ^ a b DeFranco, Liz (April 2007). Polycarbonate Lenses: Tough as Nails. All About Vision. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  2. ^ DeFranco, Liz (May 2006). Do You Need Lens Coatings?. All About Vision. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  3. ^ Nero's Character. bible-history.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  4. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.
  5. ^ Ament, Phil (2006-12-04). Sunglasses History - The Invention of Sunglasses. The Great Idea Finder. Vaunt Design Group. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  6. ^ Bellis, Mary. The History of Eye Glasses or Spectacles. About.com:Inventors. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  7. ^ Famous Historical Statements up to 1600. Antique Spectacles. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  8. ^ ....Optics Highlights: II. Spectacles. University of Maryland, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  9. ^ a b Bellis, Mary. The Inventions and Scientific Achievements of Benjamin Franklin. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  10. ^ Eyeglass Lenses and Visual Aids from Industrial Production. Zeiss.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  11. ^ § 456.2 Separation of examination and dispensing (PDF). Federal Trade Commission 453. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  12. ^ Darlin, Damon (May 5, 2007). Do-It-Yourself Eyeglass Shopping on the Internet. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  13. ^ O’Keefe, Jackie (July/August 2003). The Newest Technologies in Rimless Eyewear. Vision Care Product News. Retrieved on 2006-01-09.
  14. ^ Pierced Glasses. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Glasses
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Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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