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Encyclopedia > Glass harmonica
An Armonica.

The glass harmonica, also known as glass armonica, '"hydrocrystalophone" or simply armonica (derived from "armonia", the Italian word for harmony) is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction idiophones). Image File history File links Armonica. ... Image File history File links Armonica. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Look up Bowl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact. ... An idiophone is any musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, without the use of strings or membranes. ...

Contents

Image File history File links Stars-GlassArmonica. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ...

Name

The word "glass harmonica" (also written 'glassharmonica') refers to any instrument played by rubbing glass or crystal goblets or bowls. When Benjamin Franklin invented his mechanical version of the instrument, he called it the "armonica", based on the Italian word "armonia", which means "harmony". The German name for Franklin's instrument is Glasharmonika. The free reed wind instrument called harmonica was not invented until 1821, sixty years later. The instrument consisting of a set of wine glasses (usually tuned with water) is generally known in English as "musical glasses" or "glass harp". It can also be referred to as a "ghost fiddle". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Glass Harp was a Youngstown, Ohio based power trio consisting of guitarist Phil Keaggy, drummer John Sferra and bassist Dan Pecchio. ...

Glass harmonica being played in Rome, Italy. The rims of wine glasses filled with water are rubbed by the player's fingers to create the notes.
Glass harmonica being played in Rome, Italy. The rims of wine glasses filled with water are rubbed by the player's fingers to create the notes.

Because its sounding portion is made of glass, the glass harmonica is a crystallophone. The phenomenon of rubbing a wet finger around the rim of a wine goblet to produce tones is documented back to Renaissance times; Galileo considered the phenomenon (in his Two New Sciences), as did Athanasius Kircher. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 1378 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 436 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 1378 pixel, file size: 1. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A glass harmonica A crystallophone is a musical instrument that produces sound from glass. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Athanasius Kircher (sometimes spelt Kirchner) (May 2, 1601?–27 November 1680) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ...



The Irish musician Richard Puckeridge is typically credited as the first to play a such glasses (see angelic organ) by rubbing his fingers around the rims.[1] Beginning in the 1740s, he performed in London on a set of upright goblets filled with varying amounts of water. During the same decade, Christoph Willibald Gluck also attracted attention performing in England on a similar instrument. Angelic organ is the first name of instrument made of wine glasses. ... Christoph Willibald (von) Gluck (July 2, 1714 - November 15, 1787) was a German composer, one of the most important opera composers of the Classical music era, particularly remembered for Orfeo ed Euridice. ...


Benjamin Franklin's armonica

Benjamin Franklin invented a radically new arrangement of the glasses in 1761 after seeing water-filled wine glasses played by William Deleval. (By this time, both Puckeridge and his instrument had perished in a fire.) Franklin, who called his invention the "armonica" after the Italian word for harmony, worked with London glassblower Charles James to build one, and it had its world premiere in early 1762, played by Marianne Davies. Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Marianne Davies was the first person to publically perform on the glass harmonica (also known as the armonica), an instrument consisting of variously sized and tuned glass bowls that rotate on a common shaft, played by touching the spinning glass with wet fingers. ...


In Franklin's version, 37 bowls were mounted horizontally nested on an iron spindle. The whole spindle turned by means of a foot-operated treadle. The sound was produced by touching the rims of the bowls with moistened fingers. Rims were painted different colors according to the pitch of the note. As were dark blue, Bs purple, Cs red, Ds orange, Es yellow, Fs green, Gs blue, and accidentals white. With the Franklin design it is possible to play ten glasses simultaneously if desired, a technique that is very difficult if not impossible to execute using upright goblets. Franklin also advocated the use of a small amount of powdered chalk on the fingers which helped produce a clear tone in the same way rosin is applied to the bows of string instruments.


Some attempted improvements on the armonica included adding keyboards, placing pads between the bowls to reduce vibration,[2] and using violin bows. These variations never caught on because they did not sound as pleasant.


Another supposed improvement was to have the glasses rotate into a trough of water. However, William Zeitler put this idea to the test by rotating an armonica cup into a basin of water: the water has the same effect as putting water in a wine glass — it changes the pitch. With several dozen glasses, each a different diameter and thus rotating with a different depth, the result would be musical cacophony.[3] It also made it much harder to make the glass speak, and muffled the sound.


In 1975, an original armonica was acquired by the Bakken Museum in Minneapolis, Minnesota and put on display.[4] It was purchased through a musical instrument dealer in France, from the descendants of Mme. Brillon de Jouy, a neighbor of Benjamin Franklin's from 1777 to 1785, when he lived in the Paris suburb of Passy.[4] Some 18th and 19th century specimens of the armonica have survived into the 21st century. Franz Mesmer also played the armonica and used it as an integral part of his Mesmerism. A picture of the Bakken The Bakken Museum is a museum located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on the shores of Lake Calhoun. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ...


An original Franklin armonica is on display at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This is also the home of the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial.[5] Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ...


Works

Mozart, Beethoven, Donizetti, Richard Strauss, and Camille Saint-Saëns all composed works for the glass harmonica. European monarchs indulged in it, and even Marie Antoinette had taken lessons on it as a child from Marianne Davies. One of the best known pieces is the Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy from the ballet The Nutcracker; Tchaikovsky's first draft called for glass harmonica, but he changed it to the newly-invented celesta before the work's premiere performance in 1892.[6] Bologna Mozart - Mozart age 21 in 1777, see also: face only Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820 Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and one of the pillars of European classical music. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, and Symphony No. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... (left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ...


Purported dangers

The instrument's popularity did not last far beyond the 18th century. Some claim this was due to strange rumors that using the instrument caused both musicians and their listeners to go insane. (It is a matter of conjecture how pervasive that belief was; all the commonly cited examples of this rumor are German, if not confined to Vienna.). This was not true nor are the other superstitions listed below. The only danger from the old lead glass type of Glassharmonic was the possibility of lead poisoning from rubbing the glass. Today as made by the Finkenbeiner, this is no longer a problem as the glass is made from the purest Quartz.(see http://www.finkenbeiner.com/GLASSHARMONICA.htm)


One example of fear from playing the glass harmonica was noted by a German musicologist Friedrich Rochlitz in Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung where it is stated that "the armonica excessively stimulates the nerves, plunges the player into a nagging depression and hence into a dark and melancholy mood that is apt method for slow self-annihilation. If you are suffering from any nervous disorder, you should not play it; if you are not yet ill you should not play it; if you are feeling melancholy you should not play it." A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. ...


One armonica player, Marianne Kirchgessner died at the age of 39 of pneumonia or an illness much like it. See her obituary, written by her manager Heinrich Bossler in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung May 10, 1809. However, others, including Franklin, lived long lives. By 1820 the glass armonica had disappeared from public performance, perhaps because musical fashions were changing — music was moving out of the relatively small aristocratic halls of Mozart's day into the increasingly large concert halls of Beethoven and his successors, and the delicate sound of the armonica simply could not be heard. The harpsichord disappeared at about the same time — perhaps for the same reason. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ...


A modern version of the "purported dangers" claims that players suffered lead poisoning because armonicas were (and some still are) made of lead glass. However, there is no known scientific basis for the theory that merely touching lead glass can cause lead poisoning. [citation needed] It is known that lead poisoning was common in the 18th and early 19th centuries for both armonica players and non-players alike: doctors prescribed lead compounds for a long list of ailments, lead oxide was used as a preservative in food and beverages, food was cooked in tin/lead pots which gave off lead fumes--the tin protected the food, and acidic beverages were commonly drunk from lead pewter vessels. Even if armonica players of Franklin's day somehow received trace amounts of lead from their instruments, that would likely have been dwarfed by the lead they were receiving from other sources.[7] Lead poisoning is a medical condition, also known as saturnism, plumbism or painters colic, caused by increased blood lead levels. ...


Modern revival

Finkenbeiner's glass harmonica

The glass armonica was re-invented by master glassblower and musician, Gerhard B. Finkenbeiner (1930–1999) in 1984. After thirty years of experimentation, Finkenbeiner's prototype consisted of clear glasses and glasses with gold bands. Those with gold bands indicate the equivalent of the black keys on the piano. Finkenbeiner Inc., of Waltham, Massachusetts, continues to produce these instruments commercially. Image File history File links Glass_Harmonica. ... Image File history File links Glass_Harmonica. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ...   Often called the true birthplace of the industrial revolution, Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Bernard Baschet invented a variation of the glass harmonica in 1952, the crystal organ or Cristal baschet, which consists of 52 chromatically-tuned glass rods that are rubbed with wet fingers. The main difference to the glass harmonica is that the rods, set horizontally, are attached to a heavy metal block to which the vibration is passed through a metal stem. The crystal organ is a fully acoustic instrument, and amplification is obtained using fiberglass cones fixed on wood and by a tall cut out metal part in the shape of a flame. Metallic rods resembling cat whiskers are placed under the instrument to increase the sound power of high-pitched sounds. The sound sculptor Bernard Baschet (of the Baschet Brothers was born in Paris in 1917. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Cristal Baschet is a musical instrument made from tuned glass rods. ...


Notable armonica players

Historical

Marianne Davies was the first person to publically perform on the glass harmonica (also known as the armonica), an instrument consisting of variously sized and tuned glass bowls that rotate on a common shaft, played by touching the spinning glass with wet fingers. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ...

Contemporary

  • Sascha Reckert (Germany)
  • Philipp Marguerre (Germany)
  • Thomas Bloch (France)
  • Cecilia Gniewek Brauer (United States)
  • Jean-Claude Chapuis (France)
  • Lynn Drye (United States)
  • Mayling Garcia (United States)
  • Martin Hilmer (Germany)
  • Dennis James (United States)
  • Alasdair Malloy (England)
  • Vera Meyer (United States)
  • Alisa Nakashian-Holsberg (United States)
  • Christa Schönfeldinger (Austria)
  • Dean Shostak (United States)
  • Carolinn Skyler (United States)
  • William Zeitler (United States)
  • Tom Waits (United States)

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Dennis James standing in front of Any Number, one of The Price Is Rights Pricing Games. ... William Zeitler is one of the worlds leading virtuoso performers on the armonica, or glass harmonica, an instrument invented by Benjamin Franklin. ... Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ...

Popular culture references

  • An add about a cleaning product used plates and cups in the style of a glass harmonica.
  • A short animation movie entitled "The glass harmonica" was directed by Andrei Khrjanovsky in 1968. It has been uploaded to YouTube: part 1 and part 2.
  • The instrument has been used in several film soundtracks, including Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles, Mansfield Park, and March of the Penguins (performed by Thomas Bloch who also played Ondes Martenot and cristal Baschet with Tom Waits, Marianne Faithfull, Radiohead, Vanessa Paradis, in "Amadeus" by Milos Forman - long version in 2001 -...).
  • As part of his role as Franz Mesmer in the 1994 movie Mesmer, Alan Rickman played the glass harmonica in several scenes.
  • A television commercial for Bombay Sapphire Gin featured a man playing a Christmas carol on a set of upright glasses presumably tuned with Bombay gin.
  • The main phrase to the album version of Björk's "Immature" (Homogenic) is played on a glass armonica by one Alasdair Malloy.
  • On MTV's airing of the special "Korn Unplugged", the song "Falling Away From Me" was set to the tune of a Glass Harmonica.

Interview with the Vampire is a vampire novel by Anne Rice written in 1973 and published in 1976. ... March of the Penguins is an Academy Award-winning documentary film by Luc Jacquet, co-produced by Bonne Pioche and the National Geographic Society. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ondes martenot demonstrated by inventor Maurice Martenot The Ondes Martenot (or Ondes-Martenot or Ondes martenot or Ondium Martenot or Martenot or ondes musicale) is an early electronic musical instrument with a keyboard and slide invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, and originally very similar in sound to the Theremin. ... The Cristal Baschet is a musical instrument made from tuned glass rods. ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... Alan Sidney Patrick Rickman (born February 21, 1946) is an acclaimed, award-winning English film, television and stage actor. ... Bombay Sapphire is a brand of gin distributed by Bacardi, launched in 1987, having been named via a competitive process whereby a number of leading Madison Avenue agencies were played off against each other. ... For other uses, see Björk (disambiguation). ... Singles from Homogenic Released: September 1997 Released: December 1997 Released: March 1998 Released: October 1998 Released: June 1999 Homogenic, released in September of 1997, is an album by Icelandic singer-songwriter/musician Björk. ... MTV (Music Television) is an American cable television network based in New York City. ... This article is about the band. ... Trio was a 1987 album featuring country and rock superstars Dolly Parton, Emmylou Harris and Linda Ronstadt. ... Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is a Grammy-winning and Academy Award-nominated American country singer, songwriter, composer, author, actress and philanthropist. ... Emmylou Harris on the cover of her collection Profile Emmylou Harris (born April 2, 1947) is a country music singer-songwriter and musician from Birmingham, Alabama, USA. // Early years Harris graduated from high school as class valedictorian and won a drama scholarship to the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. ... Linda Marie Ronstadt (born July 15, 1946 in Tucson, Arizona) is a popular vocalist with multiple Grammy Awards, numerous multi-platinum albums, an Emmy Award, a Tony Award nomination who has recorded over 30 studio albums. ... After the Gold Rush is a song written by Neil Young from the 1970 album of the same name. ... Neil Percival Young[1] OM (born November 12, 1945, Toronto, Ontario) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and film director from Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... A dozen years after the release of their original Trio album, the country music supergroup returned with another in the same vein. ... Mister Rogers Neighborhood or Mister Rogers is an American childrens television series that was created and hosted by Fred Rogers. ...

Literary references

  • In his novel Mason & Dixon Thomas Pynchon fictionally describes Franklin's armonica: "If Chimes could whisper, if Melodies could pass away, and their souls wander the Earth… if Ghosts danced at Ghost Ridottoes, 'twould require such Musick, Sentiment ever held back, ever at the edge of breaking forth, in Fragments, as Glass breaks."
  • In the manga and anime D.N.Angel, a living painting of a unicorn would constantly kidnap little girls to be playmates of the girl inside of the artwork. Whenever it arrived, the sound of a glass harmonica playing would be heard.
  • In Bruce Sterling's short story "We See Things Differently" (published in Semiotext(e) SF, 1989, and collected in his own collection, Globalhead, as well as The Norton Book of Science Fiction), the near-future rock musician/insurrectionary Tom Boston plays it in concert: "...legend said that its players went mad, their nerves shredded by its clarity of sound. It was a legend Boston was careful to exploit. He played the machine sparingly, with the air of a magician, of a Solomon unbottling demons. I was glad of his spare use, for its sound was so beautiful that it stung the brain."
  • The novel The Glass Harmonica by Louise Marley is speculative/historical fiction focusing on the glass harmonica. It describes Benjamin Franklin's invention of the armonica, the public debut of the armonica as played by Marianne Davies, and exposure of a young Mozart to the instrument. A future story arc describes the modern revival of the instrument and the superstitions regarding its potential effects on the nerves..

Mason & Dixon book cover Mason & Dixon, a post-modern novel by Thomas Pynchon first published in 1997, centers on the collaboration of the historical Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in their astronomical and surveying exploits in Cape Colony, Saint Helena, Great Britain and along the Mason-Dixon line in British... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... D•N•Angel is a manga by Yukiru Sugisaki ) which was later adapted into an anime and a PS2 game, subtitled Crimson Wings. Yukiru Sugisakis wildly popular D•N•Angel manga began its manga run in Japan in Asuka Magazine in 1997 and inspired a hit 26-episode anime... Michael Bruce Sterling (born April 14, 1954) is an American science fiction author, best known for his novels and his seminal work on the Mirrorshades anthology, which defined the cyberpunk genre. ... Louise Marley is an author of fantasy fiction and an opera singer. ... Marianne Davies was the first person to publically perform on the glass harmonica (also known as the armonica), an instrument consisting of variously sized and tuned glass bowls that rotate on a common shaft, played by touching the spinning glass with wet fingers. ...

References

  1. ^ Bloch, Thomas, http://www.finkenbeiner.com/gh.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  2. ^ Zeitler, William, The Music and the Magic of the Glass Armonica. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  3. ^ See http://www.glassarmonica.com/armonica/history/franklin/WaterTrough.php which includes a video demonstration.
  4. ^ a b The Bakken, Glass Armonica. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  5. ^ http://www2.fi.edu/exhibits/permanent/electricity.php
  6. ^ Sterki, P. (2000); Klingende Gläser; Peter Lang; NY; ISBN 3906764605, p. 97
  7. ^ See Finger, Stanley (2006); Doctor Franklin's Medicine; U of Pennsylvania Press; Philadelphia; ISBN 081223913X. Chapter 11, "The Perils of Lead" (p.181-198) discusses the pervasiveness of lead poisoning in Franklin's day and Franklin's own leadership in combating it.
  • An Extensive Bibliography. of resources about the armonica. Retrieved on January 16, 2007.
  • Franklin, Benjamin. Franklibn correspondence regarding the armonica. Retrieved on January 16, 2007.
  • Galileo, Galilei. Passage from 'Two New Sciences' by Galileo about the 'wet finger around the wine glass' phenomenon (1638). Retrieved on January 16, 2007.
  • wiseGEEK. What is a Glass Harmonica?. Retrieved on June 15, 2005.
  • King, A.H., "The Musical Glasses and Glass Harmonica", Royal Musical Association, Proceedings, Vol.72, (1945/1946), pp.97-122.

is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Instruction books

  • Bartl. About the Keyed Armonica.
  • Ford, Anne (1761). Instructions for playing on the music glasses (Method). London. A pdf copy. Retrieved on January 20, 2007.
  • Franklin, J. E. Introduction to the Knowledge of the Seraphim or Musical Glasses.
  • Hopkinson-Smith, Francis (1825). Tutor for the Grand Harmonicon. Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Ironmonger, David. Instructions for the Double and Single Harmonicon Glasses.
  • Muller, Johann Christian (aka John Christopher Moller). Anleitung zum Selbstunterricht auf der Harmonika.
  • Roellig, Leopold. Uber die Harmonika / Uber die Orphika.
  • Smith, James. Tutor for the Musical Glasses.
  • Wunsch, J. D. Practische - Schule fur die lange Harmonika.

January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

See also

Glass Harp was a Youngstown, Ohio based power trio consisting of guitarist Phil Keaggy, drummer John Sferra and bassist Dan Pecchio. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Artist sites

Audio and video


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glass harmonica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1132 words)
The glass harmonica, also known as glass armonica or simply armonica (derived from "armonia," the Italian word for harmony) is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction idiophones).
Because its sounding portion is made of glass, the glass harmonica is a crystallophone.
The glass armonica was re-invented by a German glassblower and musician, Gerhard B. Finkenbeiner (1930–1999) in 1984.
What is a Glass Harmonica? (597 words)
A glass harmonica, then, was a series of glass bowls tuned to particular notes, with holes drilled in their bottoms so that they could be 'strung' on a spindle.
The glass harmonica was quickly the rage in England and Europe, with Mozart and Beethoven being among the composers to write music for it.
The sounds produced by a glass harmonica are the same as are produced by Tibetan brass singing bowls (which are sounded by rubbing a wooden rod around the rim).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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