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Encyclopedia > Glass
Moldavite, a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice, Bohemia
Moldavite, a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice, Bohemia
A modern greenhouse in Wisley Garden, England, made from float glass
A modern greenhouse in Wisley Garden, England, made from float glass
Clear glass light bulb
Clear glass light bulb

Glass in the common sense refers to a hard, brittle, transparent solid, such as used for windows, many bottles, or eyewear, including soda-lime glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, isinglass (Muscovy-glass), or aluminium oxynitride. Look up Glass, glass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x717, 85 KB) Description: Moldavite from Besednice, Bohemia, Czech Republic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x717, 85 KB) Description: Moldavite from Besednice, Bohemia, Czech Republic. ... Moldavite from Besednice, Bohemia Moldavite is an olive-green or dull greenish vitreous substance formed by a meteorite impact. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... ÄŒeský Krumlov District (Czech: ) is a district (okres) within South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... The Royal Horticultural Societys garden at Wisley in the English county of Surrey south of London, is one of the three most visited paid gardens in the United Kingdom alongside Kew Gardens and Alnwick Garden. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1276, 92 KB) Description: en: de: Glühlampe der Marke Neolux mit klarem Glaskolben. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1276, 92 KB) Description: en: de: Glühlampe der Marke Neolux mit klarem Glaskolben. ... For devices such as table lamps and reading lamps, see Light fixture. ... Hard: see hardness. ... A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... A pair of modern glasses A pair of more traditional glasses Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn below the forehead and in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... Perspex redirects here. ... Sugar glass is not glass at all, but a mixure of sugar, corn syrup and water, which looks like glass when finished. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Aluminium oxynitride (AlON) is a transparent ceramic composed of aluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. ...


In the technical sense, glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing.[1][2][3][4][5] Most glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former.[6] The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ...


In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other silica-free amorphous solids. In addition, besides traditional melting techniques, any other means of preparation are considered, such as ion implantation, and the sol-gel method.[6] However, glass science commonly includes only inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines. Wax and paraffin are amorphous. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material can be implanted into another solid, thereby changing the physical properties of the solid. ... Sol gel is a colloidal suspension of silicon dioxide that is gelled to form a solid. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ...


The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art. For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light, and thus is usually considered a sub-field of photonics. ... Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory. ... Glass wool is similar to steel wool. ... It has been suggested that Fiber-reinforced plastic be merged into this article or section. ... Glass ball made By Tyler Hopkins. ...

Contents

General properties, uses, occurrence

Flat panel display, using thin sheets of special alkali-free glass
Flat panel display, using thin sheets of special alkali-free[7] glass

Ordinary glass is prevalent due to its transparency to visible light. This transparency is due to an absence of electronic transition states in the range of visible light. The homogeneity of the glass on length scales greater than the wavelength of visible light also contributes to its transparency as heterogeneities would cause light to be scattered, breaking up any coherent image transmission. Many household objects are made of glass. Drinking glasses, bowls and bottles are often made of glass, as are light bulbs, mirrors, aquaria, cathode ray tubes, computer flat panel displays, and windows. Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Conical flask For the episode of The X-Files, see The Erlenmeyer Flask. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 502px-TFT_Monitor_Flachbildschirm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 502px-TFT_Monitor_Flachbildschirm. ... Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays using cathode ray tubes, usually less than 10 cm (4 inches) thick. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... Glass stemware Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Drinkware Drinkware or Beverageware is a general term for the class of vessels from which people drink. ... A salad in a bowl sits next to a small pie in a pie dish Chawan, drinking bowls used in a Japanese tea ceremony Bowls used as construction tools in contemporary India. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... The cathode ray tube or CRT, invented by Karl Ferdinand Braun, is the display device used in most computer displays, televisions and oscilloscopes. ... Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays using cathode ray tubes, usually less than 10 cm (4 inches) thick. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ...


In research laboratories, flasks, test tubes, and other laboratory equipment are often made of borosilicate glass for its low coefficient of thermal expansion, giving greater resistance to thermal shock and greater accuracy in measurements. For high-temperature applications, quartz glass is used, although it is very difficult to work. Most laboratory glassware is mass-produced, but large laboratories also keep a glassblower on staff for preparing custom made glass equipment. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Erlenmeyer flasks from the Argonne National Laboratory glassblowing shop. ... A test tube (Sometimes culture tube) is a kind of laboratory glassware, composed of a fingerlike length of glass tubing, open at the top, sometimes with a rounded lip at the top, and a rounded U shaped bottom. ... Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Thermal shock and thermal loading refer to the disfuntion (and perhaps, crack) of a material due to the heating, especially non-stationary and non-uniform. ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ... Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production or series production) is the production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines. ... Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ...


Sometimes, glass is created naturally from volcanic lava, lightning strikes, or meteorite impacts (e.g., Lechatelierite, Fulgurite, Darwin Glass, Volcanic Glass). If the lava is felsic this glass is called obsidian, and is usually black with impurities. Obsidian is a raw material for flintknappers, who have used it to make extremely sharp glass knives since the stone age. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Lechatelierite is silica glass, amorphous SiO2. ... fulgurite Fulgurites (from the Latin fulgur meaning thunderbolt) are natural hollow carrot-shaped glass tubes formed in quartzose sand or soil by lightning strikes. ... Darwin Glass is a natural glass found to the east of Mount Darwin in the area known as the Darwin Meteorite impact crater in West Coast Tasmania just east of the West Coast Range. ... Top stone is obsidian, below that is pumice and in lower right hand is rhyolite (light color) Obsidian is a type of naturally occurring glass, produced from volcanoes when the right kind of lava cools rapidly, e. ... Felsic is a term used in geology to refer to silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silica, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... A flintknapper is an individual who shapes flint or other stone through the process of knapping or lithic reduction no shit sherlock, to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls. ... In electron microscopy, glass knives are used to make the ultrathin sections needed for imaging. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ...


Glass sometimes occurs in nature resulting from human activity, for example trinitite (from nuclear testing) and beach glass. Sample of Trinitite. ...


Glass in buildings

Extensive use of float glass sheets in apartments in Bristol, England.
Extensive use of float glass sheets in apartments in Bristol, England.

Glass is commonly used in buildings as transparent windows, internal glazed partitions, and as architectural features. It is also possible to use glass as a structural material, for example, in beams and columns, as well as in the form of "fins" for wind reinforcement, which are visible in many glass frontages like large shop windows. Safe load capacity is, however, limited; although glass has a high theoretical yield stress, it is very susceptible to brittle (sudden) failure, and has a tendency to shatter upon localized impact. This particularly limits its use in columns, as there is a risk of vehicles or other heavy objects colliding with and shattering the structural element. One well-known example of a structure made entirely from glass is the northern entrance to Buchanan Street subway station in Glasgow. Architectural glass has been used in buildings since the 11th century. ... Glazing, in architecture, is a transparent part of a wall, usually made of glass or plastic (acrylic and polycarbonate). ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Buchanan Street subway station is a station on the Glasgow Subway in Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Glass in buildings can be of a safety type, including wired, heat strengthened (tempered) and laminated glass. Glass fibre insulation is common in roofs and walls. Foamed glass, made from waste glass, can be used as lightweight, closed-cell insulation. As insulation, glass (e.g., fiberglass) is also used. In the form of long, fluffy-looking sheets, it is commonly found in homes. Fiberglass insulation is used particularly in attics, and is given an R-rating, denoting the insulating ability. Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ...


Technological applications

Uses of glass for scientific purposes range from applications such as DNA microarrays to large sized neodymium doped glass lasers and glass fibres
Uses of glass for scientific purposes range from applications such as DNA microarrays to large sized neodymium doped glass lasers and glass fibres
The Hubble Space Telescope orbiting above earth, containing optical instruments
The Hubble Space Telescope orbiting above earth, containing optical instruments


Pure SiO2 glass (the same chemical compound as quartz, or, in its polycrystalline form, sand) does not absorb UV light and is used for applications that require transparency in this region. Large natural single crystals of quartz are pure silicon dioxide, and upon crushing are used for high quality specialty glasses. Synthetic amorphous silica, an almost 100 % pure form of quartz, is the raw material for the most expensive specialty glasses, such as optical fiber core. Undersea cables have sections doped with erbium, which amplify transmitted signals by laser emission from within the glass itself. Amorphous SiO2 is also used as a dielectric material in integrated circuits due to the smooth and electrically neutral interface it forms with silicon. It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x766, 76 KB) Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-82. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x766, 76 KB) Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-82. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... ]]s are polycrystalline. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... The multitude of layers in a submarine communications cable is revealed by its Cross section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... In telecommunication, an optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to convert it to an electrical signal, or amplify it electrically, and reconvert it to an optical signal. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A dielectric is a nonconducting substance, i. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ...


Optical instruments such as glasses, cameras, microscopes, telescopes, and planetaria are based on glass lenses, mirrors, and prisms. The glasses used for making these instruments are categorized using a six-digit glass code, or alternatively a letter-number code from the Schott Glass catalogue. For example, BK7 is a low-dispersion borosilicate crown glass, and SF10 is a high-dispersion dense flint glass. The glasses are arranged by composition, refractive index, and Abbe number. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... For other uses, see Camera (disambiguation). ... An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ... Eight Inch refracting telescope. ... For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... This article is about the optical device. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... A glass code is a method of classifying glasses for optical use, such as the manufacture of lenses and prisms. ... Schott Glass AG is a manufacturer of high-quality industrial glass products, such as fiber-optics and components used in flat panel displays. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Crown glass is a type of optical glass used in lenses. ... Flint glass is an optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number. ... In physics and optics, the Abbe number, also known as the V-number or constringence of a transparent material is a measure of the materials dispersion (variation of refractive index with wavelength). ...


Glass polymerization is a technique that can be used to incorporate additives that modify the properties of glass that would otherwise be destroyed during high temperature preparation. Sol gel is an example of glass polymerization and enables embedding of organic and bioactive molecules, to add a new level of functionality to glass.[8] An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Sol gel is an inorganic, catalytic silicon oxide gel, used for its negative tone photosensitive properties. ...


Glass production

Main articles: Glass production and Float glass

Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ...

Glass production history

Glass melting technology has passed through several stages:[9]

  • Glass was manufactured in open pits, ca. 3000 B.C. until the invention of the blowpipe in ca. 250 B.C.
  • The mobile wood-fired melting pot furnace was used until around the 17th century by traveling glass manufacturers.
  • Around 1688, a process for casting glass was developed, which led to glass becoming a much more commonly used material.[citation needed]
  • The local pot furnace, fired by wood and coal was used between 1600 and 1850.
  • The invention of the glass pressing machine in 1827 allowed the mass production of inexpensive glass products.[citation needed]
  • The gas-heated melting pot and tank furnaces dating from 1860, followed by the electric furnace of 1910.
  • Hand-blown sheet glass was replaced in the 20th century by rolled plate glass.[citation needed]

This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Cylinder blown sheet is a type of hand-blown window glass. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ...

Glass ingredients

Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial glass production
Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial glass production

Pure silica (SiO2) has a "glass melting point"— at a viscosity of 10 Pa·s (100 P)— of over 2300 °C (4200 °F). While pure silica can be made into glass for special applications (see fused quartz), other substances are added to common glass to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which lowers the melting point to about 1500 °C (2700 °F) in soda-lime glass; "soda" refers to the original source of sodium carbonate in the soda ash obtained from certain plants. However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (calcium oxide (CaO), generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.[9] Soda-lime glasses account for about 90 percent of manufactured glass. For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The pascal second (symbol Pa·s) is the SI unit of dynamic viscosity. ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... Look up soda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ...


As well as soda and lime, most common glass has other ingredients added to change its properties. Lead glass, such as lead crystal or flint glass, is more 'brilliant' because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more "sparkles", while boron may be added to change the thermal and electrical properties, as in Pyrex. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion, and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern glasses. Large amounts of iron are used in glass that absorbs infrared energy, such as heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths (biologically damaging ionizing radiation). General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Lead crystal beads Lead crystal, (also called crystal), is lead glass that has been hand or machine cut with facets. ... Flint glass is an optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... // For the programming language, see Pyrex (programming language). ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide (IUPAC) is a white, crystalline powder. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lanthanum(III) oxide is a white solid. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Cerium(IV) oxide, ceric oxide, ceria, or sometimes simply cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is a pale yellow-white powder, CeO2. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


Besides the chemicals mentioned, in some furnaces recycled glass ("cullet") is added, originating from the same factory or other sources. Cullet leads to savings not only in the raw materials, but also in the energy consumption of the glass furnace. However, impurities in the cullet may lead to product and equipment failure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide are added to reduce the bubble content in the glass.[9] Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Antimony trioxide is the most important commercial compound of antimony. ...


A further raw material used in the production of soda-lime and fiber glass is calumite, which is a glassy granular by-product of the iron making industry, containing mainly silica, calcium oxide, alumina, magnesium oxide (and traces of iron oxide).[10]


For obtaining the desired glass composition, the correct raw material mixture (batch) must be determined by glass batch calculation.


Contemporary glass production

Following the glass batch preparation and mixing the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces and day tanks.[9] Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ...


After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles) the glass is formed. Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, which created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods. Further glass forming techniques are summarized in the table Glass forming techniques. Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Lionel Alexander Bethune Pilkington, (7 January 1920–5 May 1995) (Sir Alastair Pilkington) and his associate Kenneth Bickerstaff developed the first commercially successful implementation of float glass even though the float glass process was patented three times before their own patent was issued. ...


Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses. Annealing, in glassblowing and lampworking, is the process of heating, and then slowly cooling glass to increase softness (ductility) and durability. ...


Various surface treatment techniques, coatings, or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshields), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating). A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. ... A vandalized telephone booth with toughened glass Toughened glass or tempered glass is a type of glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter into small fragments when broken. ... Strictly, Bulletproof glass would be glass that is capable of stopping all manner of bullets fired at it. ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... Anti-reflective coatings are a type of optical coating applied to lenses and other devices to reduce reflection from optical surfaces. ...


Glassmaking in the laboratory

A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Failed laboratory glass melting test. The striations must be avoided through good homogenization.
Failed laboratory glass melting test. The striations must be avoided through good homogenization.

New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali oxides and hydroxides, alkaline earth oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition).[11] Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating SeO2. Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as Al(OH) 3 over Al2O3. Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing.[11][12] Download high resolution version (1143x1226, 461 KB)A vitrification experiment. ... Download high resolution version (1143x1226, 461 KB)A vitrification experiment. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a one of nine United States Department of Energy multiprogram national laboratories. ... Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as Chemistry, agricultural science, food technology, sociology and cell biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... Boron oxide is a colourless or white solid, also known as Diboron trioxide, formula B2O3. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , U.S. Permissible Exposure Limit 5 ppm IDLH (NIOSH) 100 ppm Flash point non-flammable RTECS number WS4550000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... Alumina redirects here. ... Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as Chemistry, agricultural science, food technology, sociology and cell biology. ... Annealing, in glassblowing and lampworking, is the process of heating, and then slowly cooling glass to increase softness (ductility) and durability. ...


See also: Optical lens design, Fabrication and testing of optical components Optical lens design is the science/art of calculating the various lens construction parameters (variables) that will meet or at least approach desired performance requirements while staying within required constraint values. ...


Silica-free glasses

Besides common silica-based glasses, many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses, including plastics (e.g., acrylic glass), carbon, metals, carbon dioxide (see below), phosphates, borates, chalcogenides, fluorides, germanates (glasses based on GeO2), tellurites (glasses based on TeO2), antimonates (glasses based on Sb2O3), arsenates (glasses based on As2O3), titanates (glasses based on TiO2), tantalates (glasses based on Ta2O5), nitrates, carbonates and many other substances.[6] The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Perspex redirects here. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Amorphous metal Amorphous Metals are metals whose structure defies the typical crystalline nature of most metals and alloys. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Borates in chemistry are chemical compounds containing boron bonded to three oxygen atoms written as B(OR)3. ... A Chalcogenide glass is a glass containing a chalcogenide element (sulphur, selenium or tellurium) as a substantial constituent. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Ball-and-stick model of the carbonate ion, CO32− For other meanings, see Carbonate (disambiguation) In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or ester of carbonic acid. ...


Some glasses that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre optics and other specialized technical applications. These include fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate, aluminosilicate, phosphate and chalcogenide glasses. Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals that have the basic structure and composition of AlSiO4. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... A Chalcogenide glass is a glass containing a chalcogenide element (sulphur, selenium or tellurium) as a substantial constituent. ...


Under extremes of pressure and temperature solids may exhibit large structural and physical changes which can lead to polyamorphic phase transitions.[13] In 2006 Italian scientists created an amorphous phase of carbon dioxide using extreme pressure. The substance was named amorphous carbonia(a-CO2) and exhibits an atomic structure resembling that of Silica.[14] In materials science polyamorphism is the ability of a substance to exist in several different amorphous modifications. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO2, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to amorphous silica glass. ...


The physics of glass

The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). No long range order is present, however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.
The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). No long range order is present, however there is local ordering with respect to the tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.

The standard definition of a glass (or vitreous solid) requires the solid phase to be formed by rapid melt quenching.[2][3][4] Glass is therefore formed via a supercooled liquid and cooled sufficiently rapidly (relative to the characteristic crystallisation time) from its molten state through its glass transition temperature, Tg, that the supercooled disordered atomic configuration at Tg, is frozen into the solid state. Generally, the structure of a glass exists in a metastable state with respect to its crystalline form, although in certain circumstances, for example in atactic polymers, there is no crystalline analogue of the amorphous phase [15]. By definition as an amorphous solid, the atomic structure of a glass lacks any long range translational periodicity. However, by virtue of the local chemical bonding constraints glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra[16]. It is deemed that the bonding structure of glasses, although disordered, has the same symmetry signature (Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimensionality) as for crystalline materials[17]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... Vitreous refers to a material in an amorphous, glassy state (in contrast to a crystalline state). ... Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without its becoming solid. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... Metastability in molecules is the ability of a non-equilibrium chemical state to persist for a long period of time. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... In atactic macromolecules every substituent belonging to a repeating unit is placed randomly at either side of the backbone. ... Wax and paraffin are amorphous. ... In geometry, a translation slides an object by a vector a: Ta(p) = p + a. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... In mathematics, the Hausdorff dimension is an extended non-negative real number associated to any metric space. ...


Glass versus a supercooled liquid

Glass is generally treated as an amorphous solid rather than a liquid, though both views can be justified.[18] However, the notion that glass flows to an appreciable extent over extended periods of time is not supported by empirical research or theoretical analysis (see viscosity of amorphous materials). From a more commonsense point of view, glass should be considered a solid since it is rigid according to everyday experience.[19] Wax and paraffin are amorphous. ... Viscosity of amorphous materials: Viscous flow in amorphous materials (e. ...


Some people believe glass is a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition [18][20] where certain thermodynamic variables such as volume, entropy and enthalpy are continuous through the glass transition temperature. However, the glass transition temperature may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous. Despite this, thermodynamic phase transition theory does not entirely hold for glass, and hence the glass transition cannot be classed as a genuine thermodynamic phase transition.[4] This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... In thermodynamics, state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables describe the momentary condition of a system. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ... In physics, thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Although the atomic structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure in a supercooled liquid, glass is generally classed as solid below its glass transition temperature.[21] There is also the problem that a supercooled liquid is still a liquid and not a solid but it is below the freezing point of the material and will crystallize almost instantly if a crystal is added as a core. The change in heat capacity at a glass transition and a melting transition of comparable materials are typically of the same order of magnitude indicating that the change in active degrees of freedom is comparable as well. Both in a glass and in a crystal it is mostly only the vibrational degrees of freedom that remain active, whereas rotational and translational motion becomes impossible explaining why glasses and crystalline materials are hard. For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without its becoming solid. ... CORE may refer to: The Congress of Racial Equality in the USA. The Coordinated Online Register of Electors in the United Kingdom. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A simplistic view of a materials glass transition temperature (Tg) is the temperature below which molecules have very little mobility. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The phrase degrees of freedom is used in three different branches of science: in physics and physical chemistry, in mechanical and aerospace engineering, and in statistics. ... Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... In physics, a translation is the operation changing the positions of all objects according to the formula where is a constant vector. ...


Behavior of antique glass

The observation that old windows are often thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a matter of centuries. It is then assumed that the glass was once uniform, but has flowed to its new shape, which is a property of liquid. The likely source of this unfounded belief is that when panes of glass were commonly made by glassblowers, the technique used was to spin molten glass so as to create a round, mostly flat and even plate (the Crown glass process, described above). This plate was then cut to fit a window. The pieces were not, however, absolutely flat; the edges of the disk would be thicker because of centripetal force relaxation. When actually installed in a window frame, the glass would be placed thicker side down for the sake of stability and visual sparkle.[22] Occasionally such glass has been found thinner side down or on either side of the window's edge, as would be caused by carelessness at the time of installation. Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... Crown glass was an early type of window glass. ... The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a circular path at constant speed. ...


Mass production of glass window panes in the early twentieth century caused a similar effect. In glass factories, molten glass was poured onto a large cooling table and allowed to spread. The resulting glass is thicker at the location of the pour, located at the center of the large sheet. These sheets were cut into smaller window panes with nonuniform thickness. Modern glass intended for windows is produced as float glass and is very uniform in thickness. Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ...


Several other points exemplify the misconception of the 'cathedral glass' theory:

  • Writing in the American Journal of Physics,[23] physicist Edgar D. Zanotto states "...the predicted relaxation time for GeO2 at room temperature is 1032 years. Hence, the relaxation period (characteristic flow time) of cathedral glasses would be even longer".
  • If medieval glass has flowed perceptibly, then ancient Roman and Egyptian objects should have flowed proportionately more — but this is not observed. Similarly, prehistoric obsidian blades should have lost their edge; this is not observed either (although obsidian may have a different viscosity from window glass).[18]
  • If glass flows at a rate that allows changes to be seen with the naked eye after centuries, then the effect should be noticeable in antique telescopes. Any slight deformation in the antique telescopic lenses would lead to a dramatic decrease in optical performance, a phenomenon that is not observed.[18]
  • There are many examples of centuries old glass shelving which has not bent, even though it is under much higher stress from gravitational loads than vertical window glass.

Some glasses have a glass transition temperature close to or below room temperature. The behaviour of a material that has a glass transition close to room temperature depends upon the timescale during which the material is manipulated. If the material is hit it may break like a solid glass, however if the material is left on a table for a week it may flow like a liquid. This simply means that for the fast timescale its transition temperature is above room temperature, but for the slow one it is below. The shift in temperature with timescale is not very large however as indicated by the transition of polypropylene glycol of -72 °C and -71 °C over different timescales. [15] To observe window glass flowing as liquid at room temperature we would have to wait a much longer time than the universe exists. Therefore it is safe to consider a glass a solid far enough below its transition temperature: Cathedral glass does not flow because its glass transition temperature is many hundreds of degrees above room temperature. Close to this temperature there are interesting time-dependent properties. One of these is known as aging. Many polymers that we use in daily life such as rubber, polystyrene and polypropylene are in a glassy state but they are not too far below their glass transition temperature. Their mechanical properties may well change over time and this is serious concern when applying these materials in construction. The American Journal of Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers devoted to the educational and cultural aspects of physics. ... Dr. Edgar Dutra Zanotto, PhD., is a Materials Engineer from UFSCar - Universidade Federal de São Carlos (Federal University of Sao Carlos - Brazil). He currently teaches glass related subjects in that University for both graduation and post-graduation as he is the head of LaMaV, the Vitreous Materials Laboratory. ... Relaxation time is a general physics concept for the characteristic time in which a system relaxes under certain changes in external conditions. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic...


Physical properties

The following table lists some physical properties of common glasses. Unless otherwise stated, the technical glass compositions and many experimentally determined properties are taken from one large study.[24] Unless stated otherwise, the properties of fused silica (quartz glass) and germania glass are derived from the SciGlass glass database by forming the arithmetic mean of all the experimental values from different authors (in general more than 10 independent sources for quartz glass and Tg of germanium oxide glass). Those values marked in italic font have been interpolated from sililar glass compositions (see Calculation of glass properties) due to the lack of experimental data. Fused quartz is a man-made material manufactured principally from sands. ... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (or simply the mean) of a list of numbers is the sum of all the members of the list divided by the number of items in the list. ... Glass properties can be calculated through statistical analysis of glass databases such as SciGlass and Interglad. ...

Properties Soda-lime glass (for containers)[25] Borosilicate (low expansion, similar to Pyrex, Duran) Glass wool (for thermal insulation) Special optical glass (similar to
Lead crystal)
Fused silica Germania glass Germanium selenide glass
Chemical
composition,
wt%
74 SiO2, 13 Na2O, 10.5 CaO, 1.3 Al2O3, 0.3 K2O, 0.2 SO3, 0.2 MgO, 0.01 TiO2, 0.04 Fe2O3 81 SiO2, 12.5 B2O3, 4 Na2O, 2.2 Al2O3, 0.02 CaO, 0.06 K2O 63 SiO2, 16 Na2O, 8 CaO, 3.3 B2O3, 5 Al2O3, 3.5 MgO, 0.8 K2O, 0.3 Fe2O3, 0.2 SO3 41.2 SiO2, 34.1 PbO, 12.4 BaO, 6.3 ZnO, 3.0 K2O, 2.5 CaO, 0.35 Sb2O3, 0.2 As2O3 SiO2 GeO2 GeSe2
Viscosity
log(η, Pa·s) = A +
B / (T in °C - To)
550-1450°C:
A = -2.309
B = 3922
To = 291
550-1450°C:
A = -2.834
B = 6668
To = 108
550-1400°C:
A = -2.323
B = 3232
To = 318
500-690°C:
A = -35.59
B = 60930
To = -741
1140-2320°C:
A = -7.766
B = 27913
To = -271.7
515-1540°C:
A = -11.044
B = 30979
To = -837
Glass transition
temperature, Tg, °C
573 536 551 ~540 1140 526 ± 27[26][27][28] 395 [29]
Coefficient of
thermal expansion,
ppm/K, ~100-300°C
9 3.5 10 7 0.55 7.3
Density
at 20°C, g/cm3
2.52 2.235 2.550 3.86 2.203 3.65 [30] 4.16 [29]
Refractive index nD[31] at 20°C 1.518 1.473 1.531 1.650 1.459 1.608
Dispersion at 20°C,
104×(nF-nC)[31]
86.7 72.3 89.5 169 67.8 146
Young's modulus
at 20°C, GPa
72 65 75 67 72 43.3 [32]
Shear modulus
at 20°C, GPa
29.8 28.2 26.8 31.3
Liquidus
temperature, °C
1040 1070[33] 1715 1115
Heat
capacity at 20°C,
J/(mol·K)
49 50 50 51 44 52
Surface tension,
at ~1300°C, mJ/m2
315 370 290
Chemical durability,
Hydrolytic class,
after ISO 719[34]
3 1 3

Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... Hello Please take a look at my one of a kind custom pyrex glass dildos made in upstate Ny all hand sculpted not machined. ... // For the programming language, see Pyrex (programming language). ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Lead crystal beads Lead crystal, (also called crystal), is lead glass that has been hand or machine cut with facets. ... Fused quartz is a man-made material manufactured principally from sands. ... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Alumina redirects here. ... Potassium oxide is a compound of potassium and oxygen used mainly as a intermediate in inorganic synthesis. ... “SO3” redirects here. ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Flash point non-flammable Related Compounds Other cations Titanium(II) oxide Titanium(III) oxide Titanium(III,IV) oxide Zirconium dioxide Hafnium dioxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... Boron oxide is one of the oxides of boron. ... Lead(II) oxide or litharge is a yellow oxide of lead of formula PbO, created by heating lead in air. ... ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Antimony trioxide is the most important commercial compound of antimony. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The Liquidus Temperature, TL or Tliq, is mostly used for glasses and alloys. ... The Liquidus Temperature, TL or Tliq, is mostly used for glasses and alloys. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This box:      Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...

Color

Common soda-lime float glass appears green in thick sections because of Fe2+ impurities.
Common soda-lime float glass appears green in thick sections because of Fe2+ impurities.
Main article: Glass_production#Colors

Colors in glass may be obtained by addition of coloring ions that are homogeneously distributed and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such as in photochromic glasses).[6] Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%[24] produce a green tint which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid of scientific instruments. Further FeO and Cr2O3 additions may be used for the production of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black.[35] Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green tint given by iron(II) oxide. Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to UV radiation. ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Chromium(III) oxide, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of chromium, chemical formula Cr2O3. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) is a chemical compound also known as manganese dioxide or manganese oxide. ...


History

Roman Cage Cup from the 4th century A.D.
Roman Cage Cup from the 4th century A.D.
Roman glass
Roman glass
see also category Glass history

Naturally occurring glass, especially obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded. According to Pliny the Elder, Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques at the site of the Belus River. Agricola, De re metallica, reported a traditional serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2056x2476, 546 KB) Roman glass baker from second half of the 4th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2056x2476, 546 KB) Roman glass baker from second half of the 4th century. ... Cage Cup, Greek diatreton, also vas diatretum, a Roman luxury glass vessel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 927 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glass Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 927 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glass Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Georg Agricola the father of mineralogy De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals)) is a book cataloging the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published in 1556. ...

"The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place, the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to prop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucent liquid, and thus was the origin of glass."[36] Niter is a mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, which see for more info. ...

This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production, however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of Roman glass due to its low impurity levels. But in general archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or Old Kingdom Egypt.[37] Due to Egypt's favourable environment for preservation, the majority of well-studied early glass is found in Egypt, although some of this is likely to have been imported. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BC, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working slags or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.[38] Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... Vitreous refers to a material in an amorphous, glassy state (in contrast to a crystalline state). ...


During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt and Western Asia there was an explosion in glass-making technology. Archaeological finds from this period include coloured glass ingots, vessels (often coloured and shaped in imitation of highly prized wares of semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and Egyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). The earliest vessels were 'core-wound', produced by winding a ductile rope of metal round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it with repeated reheatings. Threads of thin glass of different colours made with admixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns, which could be drawn into festoons with a metal raking tools. The vessel would then be rolled flat ('marvered') on a slab in order to press the decorative threads into its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod was subsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventually removed from the centre of the vessel, after which the core material was scraped out. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glass production, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working. This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... An ingot is a mass of metal or semiconducting material, heated past the melting point, and then recast, typically into the form of a bar or block. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt (at least 2 M, approximately ten times the salt level of ocean water). ... Species Batis argillicola Batis californica Batis fruticosa Batis maritima Batis spinosa Batis vermiculatus The unrelated tumbleweed or Russian thistle, for the genus Salsola, is also often called saltwort. ... Anneal may refer to: Annealing (metallurgy), a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. ... Inlay: Decorative technique of inserting pieces of coloured materials to form patterns or pictures. ...


By the 15th century BC extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asia and Egypt. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing of glass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved for the large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areas therefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingots such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey. A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ...


Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilisations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up again in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the ninth century BC, when the techniques for making colourless glass were discovered. In Egypt glass-making did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formed vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the fore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenistic period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniques developed during this period include 'slumping' viscous (but not fully molten) glass over a mould in order to form a dish and 'millefiori' (meaning 'thousand flowers') technique, where canes of multi-coloured glass were sliced and the slices arranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was also during this period that colourless or decoloured glass began to be prized and methods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully. The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... Murano Millefiori Pendant Millefiori is a glasswork technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware. ...


During the first century BC glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Palestinian coast, revolutionising the industry and laying the way for the explosion of glass production that occurred throughout the Roman world. Over the next 1000 years glass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe and beyond. A glass pipe made by lampworking Hand-blown glass beads and pendants Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ...


Romans

A full discussion of Roman glass making and working can be found on the Roman glass page.


Anglo-Saxon world

Evidence for glass making, working and use in the 5th to 8th centuries in England is discussed in the Anglo-Saxon glass page. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. ...


Islamic world

In the medieval Islamic world, the first clear, colourless, high-purity glasses were produced by Muslim chemists, architects and engineers in the 9th century. Examples include Silica glass and colourless high-purity glass invented by Abbas Ibn Firnas (810-887), who was the first to produce glass from sand and stones.[39] The Arab poet al-Buhturi (820-897) described the clarity of such glass, "Its colour hides the glass as if it is standing in it without a container."[40] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... silica glass is used to make the cores of fibre optic cables. ... Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Arabic poetry is poetry composed and written down in the Arabic language either by Arab people or non-Arabs. ... Buhturi al-Walid ibn Ubaid Allah (820 - 897) was an Arabian poet born at Manbij (Hierapolis) in Syria, between Aleppoand the Euphrates. ...


Stained glass was also first produced by Muslim architects in Southwest Asia using coloured glass rather than stone. In the 8th century, the Arab chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book.[41] Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ...


The parabolic mirror was first described by Ibn Sahl in his On the Burning Instruments in the 10th century, and later described again in Ibn al-Haytham's On Burning Mirrors and Book of Optics (1021).[42] By the 11th century, clear glass mirrors were being produced in Islamic Spain. The first glass factories were also built by Muslim craftsmen in the Islamic world. The first glass factories in Christian Europe were later built in the 11th century by Muslim Egyptian craftsmen in Corinth, Greece.[43] A parabolic reflector (also known as a parabolic dish or a parabolic mirror) is a reflective device formed in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution. ... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Medieval Europe

A 16th-century stained glass window
A 16th-century stained glass window

Glass objects from the 7th and 8th centuries have been found on the island of Torcello near Venice. These form an important link between Roman times and the later importance of that city in the production of the material. Around 1000 AD, an important technical breakthrough was made in Northern Europe when soda glass, produced from white pebbles and burnt vegetation was replaced by glass made from a much more readily available material: potash obtained from wood ashes. From this point on, northern glass differed significantly from that made in the Mediterranean area, where soda remained in common use.[44] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (728x626, 163 KB) Les Andelys, church Notre Dame, stain glass, 16th century, Normandy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (728x626, 163 KB) Les Andelys, church Notre Dame, stain glass, 16th century, Normandy. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Torcello is a quiet island at the northern end of the Venetian Lagoon. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ...


Until the 12th century, stained glass -- glass to which metallic or other impurities had been added for coloring -- was not widely used. Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


The 11th century saw the emergence in Germany of new ways of making sheet glass by blowing spheres. The spheres were swung out to form cylinders and then cut while still hot, after which the sheets were flattened. This technique was perfected in 13th century Venice. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


The Crown glass process was used up to the mid-19th century. In this process, the glassblower would spin approximately 9 pounds (4 kg) of molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter. The disk would then be cut into panes. Crown glass is either of two kinds of glass. ... A glass pipe made by lampworking Hand-blown glass beads and pendants Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French IPA: ) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Late medieval Northern Europe

Glass making in late medieval Northern Europe is discussed in the article on Forest glass.


Murano glassmaking

Main articles: Murano glass and Venetian Glass

The center for glassmaking from the 14th century was the island of Murano, which developed many new techniques and became the center of a lucrative export trade in dinnerware, mirrors, and other luxury items. What made Venetian Murano glass significantly different was that the local quartz pebbles were almost pure silica, and were ground into a fine clear sand that was combined with soda ash obtained from the Levant, for which the Venetians held the sole monopoly. The clearest and finest glass is tinted in two ways: firstly, a small or large amount of a natural coloring agent is ground and melted with the glass. Many of these coloring agents still exist today; for a list of coloring agents, see below. Black glass was called obsidianus after obsidian stone. A second method is apparently to produce a black glass which, when held to the light, will show the true color that this glass will give to another glass when used as a dye. [45] Murano glass has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. ... Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ... Some dishware Dishware is a general term for objects—dishes—from which people eat or serve food, such as plates and bowls. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... Murano glass has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ...


The Venetian ability to produce this superior form of glass resulted in a trade advantage over other glass producing lands. Murano’s reputation as a center for glassmaking was born when the Venetian Republic, fearing fire might burn down the city’s mostly wood buildings, ordered glassmakers to move their foundries to Murano in 1291. Murano's glassmakers were soon the island’s most prominent citizens. Glassmakers were not allowed to leave the Republic. Many took a risk and set up glass furnaces in surrounding cities and as far afield as England and the Netherlands. A shop with boats, Murano Murano is usually described as an island in the Venetian Lagoon, although like Venice itself it is actually an archipelago of islands linked by bridges. ...


Glass art

Main article: Glass art
A vase being created at the Reijmyre glassworks, Sweden
A vase being created at the Reijmyre glassworks, Sweden
Paperweight with items inside the glass, Corning Museum of Glass
Paperweight with items inside the glass, Corning Museum of Glass

Beginning in the late 20th century, glass started to become highly collectible as art. Works of art in glass can be seen in a variety of museums, including the Chrysler Museum, the Museum of Glass in Tacoma, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Toledo Museum of Art, and Corning Museum of Glass, in Corning, NY, which houses the world's largest collection of glass art and history, with more than 45,000 objects in its collection.[46] Glass ball made By Tyler Hopkins. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Chinese vase A vase with a sunflower pattern A modern designed vase The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. ... Kosta Glasbruk (later known as Kosta Boda) is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XIIs army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Stael von Holstein, in 1742. ... Paperweights made for the collector are of solid glass, generally having a flat base and a domed top, which acts Rick Ayotte Fruit Weight something like a lens to magnify and make the parts within move in an interesting and attractive way as it is handled. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Corning, New York is the name of two places in Steuben County, New York, although it most frequently means the City of Corning. ...


Several of the most common techniques for producing glass art include: blowing, kiln-casting, fusing, slumping, pate-de-verre, flame-working, hot-sculpting and cold-working. Cold work includes traditional stained glass work as well as other methods of shaping glass at room temperature. Glass can also be cut with a diamond saw, or copper wheels embedded with abrasives, and polished to give gleaming facets; the technique used in creating waterford crystal [47]. Art is sometimes etched into glass via the use of acid, caustic, or abrasive substances. Traditionally this was done after the glass was blown or cast. In the 1920s a new mould-etch process was invented, in which art was etched directly into the mould, so that each cast piece emerged from the mould with the image already on the surface of the glass. This reduced manufacturing costs and, combined with a wider use of colored glass, led to cheap glassware in the 1930s, which later became known as Depression glass[48]. As the types of acids used in this process are extremely hazardous, abrasive methods have gained popularity. A glass pipe made by lampworking Hand-blown glass beads and pendants Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... The world-famous Waterford Crystal Ball is lowered in Times Square, New York City, on New Years Eve Waterford Crystal is a trademark brand of crystal glassware produced in Waterford, Ireland, by the company Waterford Wedgwood plc. ...


Objects made out of glass include not only traditional objects such as vessels (bowls, vases, bottles, and other containers), paperweights, marbles, beads, but an endless range of sculpture and installation art as well. Colored glass is often used, though sometimes the glass is painted, innumerable examples exist of the use of stained glass. Look up Bowl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chinese vase A vase with a sunflower pattern A modern designed vase The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Paperweights made for the collector are of solid glass, generally having a flat base and a domed top, which acts Rick Ayotte Fruit Weight something like a lens to magnify and make the parts within move in an interesting and attractive way as it is handled. ... Hand-made marbles from West Africa Different glass marbles from a glass-mill For other uses, see Marbles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bead (disambiguation). ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


The Harvard Museum of Natural History has a collection of extremely detailed models of flowers made of painted glass. These were lampworked by Leopold Blaschka and his son Rudolph, who never revealed the method he used to make them. The Blaschka Glass Flowers are still an inspiration to glassblowers today. [49] Harvard Museum of Natural History complex The Harvard Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Lampwork glass beads. ... The Glass Flowers at Harvard, formally The Ware Collection of Blaschka Glass Models of Plants, is a famous collection at the Harvard Museum of Natural History in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Glass Flowers at Harvard, formally The Ware Collection of Blaschka Glass Models of Plants, is a famous collection at the Harvard Museum of Natural History in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


See also

Aluminium oxynitride (AlON) is a transparent ceramic composed of aluminium, oxygen and nitrogen. ... Favrile iridescent glass is a type of art glass patented in 1880 by Louis Comfort Tiffany. ... Public glass waste collection point in a neighborhood area for separating clear, green and amber glass Glass recycling is the process of turning waste glass into usable products. ... There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ... A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. ... Opaline glass vases Opaline glass is a decorative style of glass made in France between 1810 and 1890. ...

References

  1. ^ ASTM definition of glass from 1945; also: DIN 1259, Glas - Begriffe für Glasarten und Glasgruppen, September 1986
  2. ^ a b Zallen, The Physics of Amorphous Solids, John Wiley, New York, (1983).
  3. ^ a b Cusack, The physics of structurally disordered matter: an introduction, Adam Hilger in association with the University of Sussex press (1987)
  4. ^ a b c Elliot, Physics of amorphous materials, Longman group ltd (1984)
  5. ^ Horst Scholze: "Glass - Nature, Structure, and Properties"; Springer, 1991, ISBN 0-387-97396-6
  6. ^ a b c d Werner Vogel: "Glass Chemistry"; Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K; 2nd revised edition (November 1994), ISBN 3540575723
  7. ^ See article: Samsung Corning Precision Glass, TFT-LCD Glass substrates
  8. ^ Sol-Gel Technologies Ltd.
  9. ^ a b c d B. H. W. S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, ISBN 3-527-20112-5, p 365-432.
  10. ^ Calumite Limited, United Kingdom
  11. ^ a b Glass melting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  12. ^ Glass melting in the laboratory
  13. ^ McMillan, P.F. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 14, 1506-1512 (2004)
  14. ^ carbon dioxide glass created in the lab 15 June 2006, www.newscientisttech.com. Retrieved 3 August 2006
  15. ^ a b "Folmer, J. C. W.; Franzen, Stefan." Study of polymer glasses by modulated differential scanning calorimetry in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education (2003), 80(7), 813-818. CODEN: JCEDA8 ISSN:0021-9584.
  16. ^ Salmon, P.S., Order within disorder, Nature Materials, 1(87), (2002)
  17. ^ M.I. Ojovan, W.E. Lee. Topologically disordered systems at the glass transition. J. Phys.: Condensed Matter, 18, 11507-11520 (2006)
  18. ^ a b c d Philip Gibbs. Is glass liquid or solid?. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  19. ^ "Philip Gibbs" Glass Worldwide, (may/june 2007), pp 14-18
  20. ^ Jim Loy. Glass Is A Liquid?. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  21. ^ Florin Neumann. Glass: Liquid or Solid -- Science vs. an Urban Legend. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  22. ^ Dr Karl's Homework: Glass Flows
  23. ^ "Do Cathedral Glasses Flow?" Am. J. Phys., 66 (May 1998), pp 392–396
  24. ^ a b "High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling"; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7
  25. ^ Soda-lime glass for containers is slightly different from soda-lime glass for windows (also called flat glass or float glass). Float glass has a higher magnesium oxide content as compared to container glass, and a lower silica and calcium oxide content. For further details see main article Soda-lime glass.
  26. ^ Leadbetter et al, Journal of non-crystalline solids, 7:37-52 (1972)
  27. ^ Micoulaut et al, Physical Review E, 73:031504 (2006)
  28. ^ 35 Tg data for GeO2 from SciGlass 6.7
  29. ^ a b Kotkata et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27 pp 623-627 (1994)
  30. ^ Salmon et al, Physical Review Letters, 96, 235502 (2006)
  31. ^ a b The subscript D indicates that the refractive index n was measured at a wavelength λ of 589.29 nm, F and C indicate 486.13 nm (blue) and 656.27 nm (red) respectively (see article Fraunhofer lines)
  32. ^ Hwa et al, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 94, 1, 37-41 (2005)
  33. ^ Valid for glass composition, wt%: 80.7 SiO2, 13.1 B2O3, 4.1 Na2O, 2.1 Al2O3; Reference: Baak N. T. E. A. and Rapp C. F., GB Patent No. 1132885 Cl C 03 C 3/04, Abridg. Specif., 1968; Assignee: Owens-Illinois, Inc. (US).
  34. ^ International Organization for Standardization, Procedure 719 (1985)
  35. ^ Substances Used in the Making of Coloured Glass 1st.glassman.com (David M Issitt). Retrieved 3 August 2006
  36. ^ Agricola, Georgius, De re metallica, translated by Herbert Clark Hoover and Lou Henry Hoover, Dover Publishing. De Re Metallica Trans. by Hoover Online Version Page 586 Retrieved = 12 September 2007
  37. ^ Glass Online: The History of Glass. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  38. ^ True glazing over a ceramic body was not used until many centuries after the production of the first glass.
  39. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), pp. 97-111 [100].

    "Ibn Firnas was a polymath: a physician, a rather bad poet, the first to make glass from stones, a student of music, and inventor of some sort of metronome." ASTM International is an international voluntary standards organization that develops and produces technical standards for materials, products, systems and services. ... DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. ... Samsung Corning Precision Glass is a company producing optical materials for the electronics industry. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... SciGlass (® ITC Inc. ... Solar Fraunhofer lines In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787--1826). ... Agricola can refer to a number of different topics and people,ha hja ha including: andrew is a turd The surname Agricola was often used as a Latin translation of one of these Germanic surnames: Bauer, Schneider, Schnitter, Hausmann, Huusman, Huysman, Huysmein. ... Georg Agricola the father of mineralogy De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals)) is a book cataloging the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published in 1556. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lynn Townsend White, Jr. ... Leonardo da Vinci, a polymath, is seen as the epitome of the related term, Renaissance Man A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats...

  40. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  41. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, The Manufacture of Coloured Glass, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  42. ^ Roshdi Rashed (1990), "A Pioneer in Anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on Burning Mirrors and Lenses", Isis 81 (3), p. 464-491 [464-468].
  43. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  44. ^ Donny L. Hamilton. Glass Conservation. Conservation Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  45. ^ Georg AgricolaDe Natura Fossilium, Textbook of Mineralogy, M.C. Bandy, J. Bandy, Mineralogical Society of America, 1955, Page 111 Section on Murano Glass, De Natura Fossilium Retrieved 12 September 2007
  46. ^ Corning Museum of Glass. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  47. ^ Waterford Crystal Vistors Centre. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  48. ^ Depression Glass. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  49. ^ the Harvard Museum of Natural History's page on the exhibit

Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Isis is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago devoted to the history of science, history of medicine, and the history of technology, as well as their cultural influences, featuring both original research articles as well as extensive book reviews and review essays. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Noel C. Stokes; The Glass and Glazing Handbook; Standards Australia; SAA HB125–1998
  • Brugmann, Birte. Glass Beads from Anglo-Saxon Graves: A Study on the Provenance and Chronology of Glass Beads from Anglo-Saxon Graves, Based on Visual Examination. Oxbow Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84217-104-6

External links

Look up Glass in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Glass

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the material. ... This article is about the material. ... The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... In thermodynamics, the Kauzmann Paradox is the apparent result that it is possible to obtain a supercooled liquid with an entropy lower than that of its corresponding crystal. ... AgInSbTe, or Silver-Indium-Antimony-Tellurium, is a phase change material from the group of chalcogenide glasses, used in rewritable optical discs and phase-change memory applications. ... BioGlass® is a commercially available type of bioactive glass It is also known as 45S5 glass. ... Borophosphosilicate glass, commonly known as BPSG, is a type of silicate glass that includes impurities of both boron and phosphorus. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... A Chalcogenide glass is a glass containing a chalcogenide element (sulphur, selenium or tellurium) as a substantial constituent. ... Cobalt Glass Bromo-Seltzer bottle Cobalt glass is a deep blue colored glass prepared by adding cobalt compounds to the molten glass. ... Cranberry glass (or Gold Ruby glass as it is known in Europe) is a red glass made by adding gold chloride to the molten glass. ... Crown glass is a type of optical glass used in lenses. ... Flint glass is an optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number. ... Fluorosilicate glass (FSG) is a dielectric used in between copper metal layers during silicon integrated circuit fabrication process. ... A sphere manufactured by NASA out of fused quartz for use in a gyroscope in the Gravity Probe B experiment. ... GeSbTe, or Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium, is a phase change material from the group of chalcogenide glasses, used in rewritable optical discs and phase-change memory applications. ... Cranberry glass (or Gold Ruby glass as it is known in Europe) is a red glass made by adding gold chloride to the molten glass. ... Lead glass is potassium silicate glass which has been impregnated with lead oxide (from 12% to 28% by weight) in its fabrication. ... Milk glass is a white, opaque variety of glass. ... Phosphosilicate glass, commonly referred to by the acronym PSG, is a silicate glass commonly used in semiconductor device fabrication for intermetal layers, i. ... Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to UV radiation. ... Silicate glasses have been commonly used in the field of semiconductor device fabrication as an insulator between active layers of the semiconductor device. ... Soda-lime glass is the kind of glass which is most widely used for various purposes. ... Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) (E452(i)) is a hexamer of composition (NaPO3)6. ... Soluble glass is a popular name for sodium silicate or potassium silicate. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... ZBLAN is a type of glass that is made of a mixture of Zirconium, Barium, Lanthium, Aluminum, and Sodium Flourides. ... Glass-ceramic is a mixture of glass and ceramic materials (mainly lithium-, silicon-, or aluminium-oxides) yielding a material that is impervious to even extreme temperature shocks. ... Bioactive glasses are a group of surface reactive glass-ceramics and include the original bioactive glass, Bioglass®. The biocompatibility of these glasses has led them to be investigated extensively for use as implant materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. ... Corningware is a brand of tempered glass and ceramic dishes made by Corning Glass Works. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Macor® is a machineable glass-ceramic developed and sold by Corning Inc. ... Annealing, in glassblowing and lampworking, is the process of heating, and then slowly cooling glass to increase softness (ductility) and durability. ... DC plasma (violet) enhances the growth of carbon nanotubes in this laboratory-scale PECVD apparatus. ... Glass properties can be calculated through statistical analysis of glass databases such as SciGlass and Interglad. ... Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material can be implanted into another solid, thereby changing the physical properties of the solid. ... The Liquidus Temperature, TL or Tliq, is mostly used for glasses and alloys. ... Sol gel is a colloidal suspension of silicon dioxide that is gelled to form a solid. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... Gradient index optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material. ... An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Optical lens design is the science/art of calculating the various lens construction parameters (variables) that will meet or at least approach desired performance requirements while staying within required constraint values. ... Photochromic lenses are lenses that darken on exposure to UV radiation. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... Anti-reflective coatings are a type of optical coating applied to lenses and other devices to reduce reflection from optical surfaces. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... Insulated Glazing Unit or Insulating Glass Unit (commonly referred to as IGU) is described as two or more lites of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with an air space between each lite. ... Sol gel is a colloidal suspension of silicon dioxide that is gelled to form a solid. ... A vandalized telephone booth with toughened glass Toughened glass or tempered glass is a type of glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter into small fragments when broken. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Since the beginning of scientific glass research in the 19th century thousands of glass property-composition datasets were published in the scientific literature, in patents, and other sources. ... Glass electrode is a potentiometric sensor made from glass of f specific composition. ... Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) are a class of materials commonly used in dentistry as filling materials and luting cements. ... Glass microspheres are spheres of glass technically manufactured with a diameter in the micrometer range (from 1 to 1000 (microns))[1], although the term is also used for a wider range of 100 nanometres to 5 millimetres. ... This article is about the material. ... It has been suggested that Fiber-reinforced plastic be merged into this article or section. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Panoramic (wrap-around) windshield on a 1959 Edsel Corsair. ... Float glass is made by melting raw materilas consisting of sand, limestone, soda ash, dolomite, iron oxide and salt cake. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Pressed glass is a form of glass made using a plunger to press molten glass into mold. ... glass cutter, showing hardened steel cutting wheel (far left), notches for snapping, and ball (on end of handle) for tapping A glass cutter is a hand tool which aids in the cutting (strictly, the controlled breaking) of flat or pane glass. ... Flame polishing is a method of polishing a material by exposing it to flame. ... Diamond turning is a process of mechanical machining of precision elements using Computer Numerical Control (CNC) lathes equipped with natural or synthetic diamond-tipped cutting elements. ... Architectural glass has been used in buildings since the 11th century. ... Lampwork glass beads. ... Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ... Blown plate is one of many types of hand-blown glass. ... Broad sheet is a type of hand-blown glass. ... Caneworking refers to a glassblowing technique that is used to add intricate patterns to vessels or other blown glass objects. ... Crown glass was an early type of window glass. ... Cylinder blown sheet is a type of hand-blown window glass. ... A lady on glass etching inside Mavalli Tiffin Room,in Bangalore Etching refers to the technique of creating art on the surface of glass by applying acidic, caustic, or abrasive substances. ... Fused glass is a term used to describe glass that has been fired (heat-processed) in a kiln at a range of high temperatures from 593º C (1100ºF) to 816º C (1500ºF). ... Lampwork glass beads. ... Machine drawn cylinder sheet was the first mechanical method for drawing window glass. ... Murano Millefiori Pendant Millefiori is a glasswork technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware. ... Polished plate is a type of hand-blown glass. ... Slumping is a categorical description of an area of techniques for the forming of glass through the use of heating glass to the point where it becomes plastic. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... For drilling in the earth, see Borehole. ... For other uses, including articles on self-injury, see Cutting (disambiguation). ... Figure 1. ... Anchor Hocking Glass Corportation is a glassware manufacture that merged the AnchorCap and Closure Corporations with the Hocking Glass Company in 1937. ... Asahi Glass Co. ... Baccarat Crystal is a manufacturer of fine crystal located in Baccarat, France. ... Blenko Glass Company, known for its artistic hand-blown glass, is located in Milton, West Virginia. ... Bodum, Inc. ... Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks in Smethwick, Staffordshire, England. ... Corning Incorporated NYSE: GLW is an American manufacturer of glass, ceramics and related materials, primarily for industrial and scientific applications. ... Based in Torrington in north Devon, England, Dartington Crystal manufactures beautiful crystal glassware using traditional Swedish glass blowing techniques. ... Vase, circa 1900 Daum is a crystal studio based in Nancy, France, founded in 1875 by Jean Daum (1825-1885). ... Edinburgh Crystal is a world-famous, high quality, cut glass manufactured since 1867. ... Fanavid is a brazilian glass manufacturer based in Guaralhos, São Paulo, Brazil. ... Fenton Art Glass Company is the largest manufacturer of handmade colored glass in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Franz Mayer and Co. ... Glaverbel Czech is a glass company in the Czech Republic. ... Holmegaard is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of Storstrøm. ... Hoya Corporation is a japanese company that manufacture optical products ranging from laser equipment to contact lenses. ... The Kingdom of Crystal (Swedish: Glasriket) is a geographical area today containing a total of 15 glassworks in the municipalities of Emmaboda, Nybro, Uppvidinge and Lessebo in southern Sweden. ... Kosta Glasbruk (later known as Kosta Boda) is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XIIs army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Stael von Holstein, in 1742. ... The Libbey Owens Ford Company (LOF) was a producer of automotive glass both for original equipment manufacturers and for replacement use, as well as specialty glass products used in aircraft, tanks, locomotives, and high-rise buildings. ... Aalto Vase Iittala is a Finnish design company specialising in houseware objects made on the principle of modern Scandinavian design. The Iittala Group consists of a number of businesses within its portfolio of operations: Arabia, Hackman, Iittala, BodaNova, Höganäs Keramik, Rörstrand and Hoyang-Polaris. ... link titleJohns Manville, a Berkshire Hathaway company (NYSE: BRK.A, BRK.B), is a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium-quality building and specialty products. ... Moser Glass is a luxury, high-quality glass manufacturer based in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. ... Mosser Glass was founded in Cambridge, Ohio in 1970 by Thomas R. Mosser whose family got their start in the business at the world-famous Cambridge Glass Company. ... Nippon Sheet Glass Co. ... Orrefors Glasbruk is glasswork from the Swedish town of Orrefors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Owens-Corning Corporation is the worlds largest manufacturer of fiberglass and related products. ... Owens-Illinois NYSE: OI is a Fortune 500 company that specializes in plastics and glass containers. ... PPG Industries NYSE: PPG was founded in 1883, under the name Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. ... Pilkington plc is the largest glass manufacturer in the United Kingdom. ... The QUINN group is headquartered in Derrylin, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. ... Riedel (pronounced Rhee-dl), is a manufacturer of high-quality crystal wine glasses and related crystal products based in Kufstein, Austria. ... St. ... Samsung Corning Precision Glass is a company producing optical materials for the electronics industry. ... Schott Glass AG is a manufacturer of high-quality industrial glass products, such as fiber-optics and components used in flat panel displays. ... Steuben Glass Works is an American art glass manufacturer, founded in the summer of 1903 by Fredrick C. Carder and Thomas G. Hawkes in Corning, New York. ... Sterlite Optical Technologies Ltd. ... Swarovski crystal beads Swarovski Wattens Der Firmengründer Daniel Swarovski (1862 † 1956) Swarovskistraße Wattens September 2007 Swarovski is the luxury brand name for the range of precision-cut lead crystal glass products produced by companies owned by Swarovski AG of Feldmeilen, near Zürich, Switzerland. ... Tyrone Crystal is a glassware manufacturing company in Dungannon, County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, which has an international reputation of producing fine quality glass products. ... In 1826 the old cistercian abbey of Val Saint-Lambert close to Seraing near Liège in Belgium was transformed into a radiant centre for the crystal industry. ... The Verreries de Bréhat - Glass Studio of Bréhat - are settled in the Citadel, old fortress of the small island of Bréhat, located a few hundred yards from the north coast of Britanny. ... The world-famous Waterford Crystal Ball is lowered in Times Square, New York City, on New Years Eve Waterford Crystal is a trademark brand of crystal glassware produced in Waterford, Ireland, by the company Waterford Wedgwood plc. ... World Kitchen, LLC is a kitchenware products maker and distributor based in Reston, Virginia. ... The Boston and Sandwich Glass Company was incorporated in 1826 to hold the glass factory built a year earlier in Sandwich, Massachusetts by Deming Jarves. ... The Cambridge Glass Company was chartered in 1873 by a group of Cambridge businessmen. ... Clayton and Bell commenced business in 1855 and soon became one of Englands most successful producers of stained glass windows. ... The Hazel-Atlas Glass Company was a large producer of machine-molded glass containers headquartered in Wheeling, West Virginia. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The root Glass Company in Terre Haute, Indiana was the one of the bottle supliers for Coca-Cola. ... The Worshipful Company of Glaziers and Painters of Glass is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... Frederick Caleb Carder (1863-1963), Born in Staffordshire, England, Carder became an American artist and glassmaker. ... Born in Liechtenstein in 1286 AD, he grew up as to be a farmer in Finland. ... Antonio Neri was a Florentine priest who published L’Arte Vetraria or The Art of Glass in 1612. ... Lionel Alexander Bethune Pilkington, (7 January 1920–5 May 1995) (Sir Alastair Pilkington) and his associate Kenneth Bickerstaff developed the first commercially successful implementation of float glass even though the float glass process was patented three times before their own patent was issued. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stanley Donald Stookey (born 23 May 1915 Hay Springs, Nebraska,USA - ) Created the first glass-ceramic Pyroceram for Corning Glass Works where he worked as a researcher. ... John M Whitall (November 4, 1800 – June 6, 1877) was a prominent sea captain, businessman and philanthropist in New Jersey and Pennsylvania involved in the spice and silk trade, glass-making, and missionary work. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Chevron beads Chevron beads are special glass beads, originally made for the slave trade in Africa by glassmakers in Italy. ... Corelle is a brand of glass dishware. ... Corningware is a brand of tempered glass and ceramic dishes made by Corning Glass Works. ... Cranberry glass (or Gold Ruby glass as it is known in Europe) is a red glass made by adding gold chloride to the molten glass. ... Cristallo is glass with a low lime content which is particularly prone to glass corrossion (otherwise known as glass disease). ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... Jade-ite Ball Jug Turquoise Blue Swedish Modern Bowl Set Ivory Glassware Fire King Mixing Bowls Examples of Jade-ite and Rainbow Fire-King is an Anchor Hocking brand of glass that is similar to Pyrex. ... Macor® is a machineable glass-ceramic developed and sold by Corning Inc. ... Murano glass has been a famous product of the Venetian island of Murano for centuries. ... // For the programming language, see Pyrex (programming language). ... Girl with Cherry Blossoms illustrates many types of glass employed by Tiffany including elaborate polychrome painting of the face, drapery glass for the dress, opalescent glass for the blossoms, streaky glass in the border, fracture-streamer glass in the background and what may be iridescent glass in the beads. ... Black Vitrolite panelling on the Daily Express building in Fleet Street, London Vitrolite was an opaque pigmented glass available in different colors that was used for tiles in buildings from the 1920s to the 1950s. ... Vycor is a glass made by Corning. ... The world-famous Waterford Crystal Ball is lowered in Times Square, New York City, on New Years Eve Waterford Crystal is a trademark brand of crystal glassware produced in Waterford, Ireland, by the company Waterford Wedgwood plc. ... A black light bulb. ...


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Glass Artists - Lampwork Beads & Fused Glass (640 words)
Glass work, whether fused glass jewelry components or lampwork beads, is a wonderful way to enhance your hand-crafted jewelry designs.
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