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Encyclopedia > Glasnost

Contents

Definition

Russian term
Гла́сность
Translit: glasnost
English: openness

Glasnost  (Russian: Гла́сность IPA: [ˈglasnəsʲtʲ]) is politics of maximal "openness," "transparency" of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Ru-glasnost. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


This word came as transliteration of Russian word Гласность frequenlty used by Mikhail Gorbachev to specify a the politics he believed may help to reduce the corruption in the top of Communist Party and the Soviet government and moderate the abuse of administrative power in the Central Committee. The same word Glasnost means also the specific period in the history of USSR and then Russia (1990-2000) when freedom of information was not suppressed, and there was no censorship in the media of mass information. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ...


Glasnost in USSR and in Russia

This word appeared in 1985-1990 years as a part of the program of reforms called Perestroika[[1]] (перестройка).


program of reform introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985 whose goals included combating corruption and the abuse of privilege by the political classes. In the broadest sense, it aimed to liberalize freedom of the press gradually, and to allow for freedom of dissent. [1] The policy met resistance during the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, when authorities hid the true extent of the nuclear accident for several days. 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freedom Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to an idea (eg. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ...


Objectives

Through his policy of glasnost, Gorbachev pressured conservatives within the Communist Party who opposed perestroika, his programs of economic restructuring. By cultivating a spirit of intellectual and cultural openness which encouraged public debate and participation, Gorbachev hoped to increase the Soviet people's support for and participation in perestroika. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Areas of concern

While in the West the notion of "glasnost" is associated with freedom of speech, the main goal of this policy was to make the country's management transparent and open to debate, thus circumventing the narrow circle of apparatchiks who previously exercised complete control of the economy. Through reviewing the past or current mistakes being made, it was hoped that the Soviet people would back reforms such as perestroika. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Apparatchik (Russian: аппара́тчик, IPA: plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party or government; i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Glasnost gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of speech — a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. There was also a greater degree of freedom within the media. In the late 1980s, the Soviet government came under increased criticism, as did Leninist ideology (which Gorbachev had attempted to preserve as the foundation for reform), and members of the Soviet population were more outspoken in their view that the Soviet government had become a failure. Glasnost did indeed provide freedom of expression, far beyond what Gorbachev had intended, and changed citizens' views towards the government, which played a key role in the collapse of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ...


Effects

The Soviet destroyer Admiral Vinogradov on a goodwill trip to the United States in 1990. Hung along the side of the ship was a red banner proclaiming "Glad to see you America!".

Relaxation of censorship resulted in the Communist Party losing its grip on the media. Before long, much to the embarrassment of the authorities, the media began to expose severe social and economic problems which the Soviet government had long denied and covered up. Long-denied problems such as poor housing, food shortages, alcoholism, widespread pollution, creeping mortality rates and the second-rate position of women were now receiving increased attention. Moreover, under glasnost, the people were able to learn significantly more about the horrors committed by the government when Joseph Stalin was in power. Although Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin's personality cult, information about the true proportions of his atrocities was still suppressed. In all, the very positive view of Soviet life which had long been presented to the public by the official media was being rapidly dismantled, and the negative aspects of life in the Soviet Union were brought into the spotlight. This began to undermine the faith of the public in the Soviet system. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Marshal Shaposhnikov transitting the channel into Pearl Harbor in 2003 The Udaloy class are a series of anti-submarine destroyers built for the Soviet Navy - The Russian designation is Project 1155 Fregat (Frigate bird) // History and design The Project 1155 dates to the 1970s when it was concluded that it... Censorship is defined as the removal and withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ...


Political openness continued to produce unintended consequences. In elections to the regional assemblies of the Soviet Union's constituent republics, nationalists swept the board. As Gorbachev had weakened the system of internal political repression, the ability of the USSR's central Moscow government to impose its will on the USSR's constituent republics had been largely undermined. During the 1980s calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder. This was especially marked in the Baltic Republics of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin in 1940. Nationalist feeling also took hold in other Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan. An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Starting in the mid-1980s, the Baltic states used the reforms provided by glasnost to assert their rights to protect their environment and their historic monuments and, later, their claims to sovereignty and independence. When the Balts withstood outside threats, they exposed an irresolute Kremlin. Bolstering separatism in other Soviet republics, the Balts triggered multiple challenges to the Soviet Union. Supported by Russian leader Boris Yeltsin, the Baltic republics asserted their sovereignty. The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ...


The rise of nationalism under glasnost also reawakened simmering ethnic tensions throughout the union. For example, in February 1988, Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly ethnic Armenian region in the Azerbaijan SSR, passed a resolution calling for unification with the Armenian SSR. Violence against local Azeris was then reported on Soviet television, which provoked massacres of Armenians in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait. Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Cities in Azerbaijan ...


The freedoms generated under Glasnost enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the United States. Restrictions on travel were loosened, allowing increased business and cultural contact. For example, one key meeting location was near San Francisco in the Dakin Building, owned then by American philanthropist Henry Dakin who had extensive Russian contacts: Dakin Building The Dakin Building is an architectural award winning class A office building on the San Francisco Bay in Brisbane, California. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ...

During the late 1980s, as glasnost and perestroika led to the liquidation of the Soviet empire, the Dakin building was the location for a series of groups facilitating United States-Russian contacts. They included the Center for U.S.-U.S.S.R. Initiatives, which helped more than 1000 Americans visit the Soviet Union and more than 100 then-Soviet citizens visit the U.S.[2] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

While thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released in the spirit of glasnost, Gorbachev's original goal of using glasnost and perestroika to reform the Soviet Union was not achieved. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved following a failed coup by conservative elements who were opposed to Gorbachev's reforms. A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991, also known as the August Putsch, Vodka Putsch or August Coup, a group of hardliners within the Soviet Communist party briefly deposed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ...


See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Glasnost Bowl was an attempt to stage an American college football game in Moscow, USSR at the beginning of the 1989 season. ...

References

  1. ^ Gorbachev's Glasnost: The Soviet Media in the First Phase of Perestroika by Joseph Gibbs
  2. ^ Cyberspace, San Francisco Chronicle, Page A-14, November 20, 1995

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Glasnost - Encyclopedia Article (200 words)
Glasnost was one of Mikhail Gorbachev's policies introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985.
Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was in part to pressure conservatives within the party who opposed his policies of economic restructuring or perestroika.
Glasnost gave new freedom to the people, such as freedom of speech, which was a radical change because control of ideas had previously been a central part of the Soviet system.
Glasnost - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (710 words)
Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives within the Party who opposed his policies of economic restructuring, or perestroika.
Glasnost gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of speech — a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system.
Whilst thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released in the spirit of glasnost, Gorbachev's original goal of using glasnost and perestroika to reform the Soviet Union was not achieved.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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