FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Gladiator" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gladiator
Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painter's researched conception of a gladiatorial combat.
Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painter's researched conception of a gladiatorial combat.

Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs, "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other, wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the entertainment of spectators. These fights took place in arenas in many cities from the Roman Republic period through the Roman Empire. Look up gladiator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... Categories: Art stubs | Painting ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches. ... For other uses, see Arena (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The word comes from gladius, the Latin word for a short sword used by legionaries and some gladiators. This article is about the sword. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ...

Contents

History of gladiatorial combats

Origins

The origin of the gladiatorial games is not known for certain. There are two theories: that the Romans adopted gladiatorial fights from the Etruscans, and that the games came from Campania and Lucania. The evidence for the theory of Etruscan origin is a passage by the Greek writer Nicolaus of Damascus in the second half of the first century BCE describing the origins as Etruscan, an account by Isiodorus of Seville during the 600s relating the Latin word for gladiator manager, lanista, to the Etruscan word for 'executioner', and also likeness of the Roman god of hell, Charon, who accompanied the executed bodies as they exited the arena, to the Etruscan god of death, also named Charon. The theory that the games developed from a Campanian and Lucanian tradition is supported by frescoes dating to the fourth century BCE depicting funeral games in which pair of gladiators fought to the death to commemorate the death of an important individual. However, the Campanians could also have adapted this tradition from the Greeks who could have introduced funeral games with human sacrifices to the area in the eighth century BCE. Regardless of the origin, the Romans adopted the tradition of funeral games to display important people's status and power. Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... For the mountain in Canada named after Lucania, see Mount Lucania. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Michelangelos rendering of Charon. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The first recorded gladiatorial combats took place in Rome in 264 BCE, at the start of the First Punic War against Carthage. Decimus Iunius Brutus Scaeva staged it in honour of his dead father Brutus Pera. It was held between three pairs of slaves, and held in the cattle market (Forum Boarium). The ceremony was called a munus or “duty paid to a dead ancestor by his descendants, with the intention of keeping alive his memory” (Baker, Gladiator 10). These were held for notable people and were repeated every one to five years after the person’s death. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Forum Boarium was the cattle market of ancient Rome. ...


These games became popular throughout the Empire and were especially popular in Greece. So popular that there are many records of people in towns where prominent citizens died virtually extorting promises of gladiatorial games from the survivors. As a result the emperors eventually had to regulate how much could be spent on gladiatorial performances to prevent members of the elite from bankrupting themselves. The earliest known gladiatorial games not related to a funeral were held in 310 BC by the Campanians (Livy 9.40.17). These games re-enacted the Campanians' military success over the Samnites. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania...


Gradually, the funeral games transformed into public performances as the connection to funerals faded in the late second century BC. In the first century A.D., giving games was made a requirement of some public offices. Julius Caesar had so many Gladiators that the Senate, fearing the use such a "private army" could be put to, passed a law limiting private citizens to owning no more than 640 Gladiators.[1] The moment when a true split from the funeral backdrop occurred was after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Bad omens plagued the city and the games were seen as a method to please the gods and save Rome. A clear distinction between games organized by public officials (ludi) and those held by private citizens (munera) was set. The popularity of the games resulted in the construction of proper venues and transformation of others (such as the Roman Forum) into spaces for the spectacles. The amphitheaters built for the games were made of wood and were neither structurally sound, often being prone to collapse, nor did they survive the fires of Rome. Not until AD 70 and Vespasian's reign did plans for a stone venue for the games develop. The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) was unveiled in AD 80. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... The name amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is given to a public building of the Classical period (being particularly associated with ancient Rome) which was used for spectator sports, games and displays. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy: an exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...


Peak

Gladiator fights took place in amphitheatres (like the Colosseum) during the afternoon of a full day event. These events were carefully and precisely planned by an organizer on behalf of the emperor (editor). The combinations of animals and gladiator types were meticulously planned, such that the show would be most appealing to the audience. The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...


Gladiators would be publicly displayed in the Roman forum to large crowds one to two days prior to the actual event and programmes containing the gladiatorial and personal history of the fighters were passed out. Banquets for the gladiators were also held the evening before the games and many attended these as well. Even the criminals listed to fight (noxii) were often permitted to attend. State Banquet. ...


When the day of the event came, gladiator fights were preceded by animal-on-animal fights, animal hunts (venationes), and public executions of condemned criminals (damnati) during lunchtime. As it was considered bad taste to watch the executions, the upper classes would usually leave and return after lunch. The Emperor Claudius was often criticised because he usually stayed in the stadium to watch the executions. Under Nero, it became the practice to write plays adapted from myths in which people died and assigning the role of a character who would die to a condemned man. The audience would then watch the play, and the actual killing of the condemned man in the same manner as the fictional character. Before the afternoon fights began, a procession (pompa) was led into the arena containing the organizer, his servants, blacksmiths to show that the weapons were in order, servants carrying weaponry and armour, and the gladiators themselves. Next came the checking of the weapons to make sure they were real (probatio armorum) by the editor of the games. In Rome this would be by the emperor himself, or he could bestow the honour upon a guest. For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


Like today, the games had ticket scalpers or Ticket touts(Locarii), people who buy up seats and sell them on at an inflated price. Martial in his Epigrams wrote "Hermes divitiae locariorum" or “Hermes means riches for the ticket scalpers” so scalping/touting seems to have been a common practice. The mentioned Hermes was a famous Gladiator, not the deity, who was called Mercury by the Romans. Ticket resale is the act of reselling tickets for admission to events. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... Mercury is a god, also known as the god of trade, profit and commerce. ...


During gladatorial combat, it was preferable for gladiators not to kill each other; technically, they were slaves, and therefore were quite valuable. Gladiators were instructed to inflict non-lethal wounds upon each other, and often lived long, rather successful lives, purchasing their freedom after three years. However, accidents did happen at times resulting in death, and gladiators who failed to display bravery in combat could be executed by order of the emperor. After fights, the bodies of the gladiators were disposed of depending of the status of the fighter. The bodies of noxii and damnati were either buried or thrown into rivers, this being the traditional Roman disposal method for the bodies of executed criminals while other Gladiators were often buried with honours by their "union" (collegia) or friends. The cutting up of the bodies to feed the animals is a common misconception and is mentioned only by Suetonius as an extraordinary and unheard of action that Caligula ordered to be done only once. Animal carcasses were either disposed of or distributed to the poor for sustenance. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


The Stone Pine, a conifer native to the Iberian Peninsula was often planted near the local amphitheatre in foreign countries. The aromatic pinecones were traditionally burnt in bowls (tazze = cups) to mask the smell of the arena. The word “arena” means sand, a reference to the thick layer of sand on the floor for the purpose of soaking up the blood. Binomial name Pinus pinea L. The Stone Pine (Pinus pinea; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native of southern Europe, primarily the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ...


Julius Caesar in 59 BC started a daily newspaper called the Acta Diurna (daily acts) that reported gladiator news. It carried news of gladiatorial contests, games, astrological omens, notable marriages, births and deaths, public appointments, and trials and executions. The Acta's content varied over time depending on the Emperor's whims and the tastes of the public. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Decline

Gladiator games were not loved by all emperors and people throughout Roman history. The enthusiasm for the spectacle by Augustus, Caligula, and Nero contrasted the apathy of Tiberius and the discontent of Cicero, Seneca, and Tertullian. As well, barbarian attack on the provinces during the third century AD led to an economic recession and decreased funds for such shows. Some emperors, such as Gordianus I, Gordianus III, and Probus did continue to organize costly performances, but privately funded shows, especially those in the provinces, declined. In the Eastern Empire invasion had much less of an effect on the economy and gladiator shows prevailed. The gradual downfall in the east has been attributed to the effect of Christians on the gore-filled games. Although Christians saw the combats as murder they had no objection to the killing and bloodshed in itself but rather objected to the moral harm done to the spectators. They also saw the arena as a place of martyrdom and both refused to participate as spectators and sought for an end to the Gladiator shows although they had no objection to the continuation of animal-on-animal fights and animal hunts (venationes). Constantine issued an edict in AD 325 which briefly ended the games. Speculation that the edict was a permanent ban is rebuked by the presence of uncontested games only three years later. In AD 367 Valentinianus I placed a ban on sentencing Christians to the arena, but the sentencing of non-Christians remained unchanged. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in AD 393 under the reign of Theodosius. The emperor himself sought to ban heathen festivals, but gladiator shows continued. Their programmes, however, were very limited due to financial reasons and the audience dwindled as many converted to Christianity. Honorius, Theodosius' son, finally decreed the end of gladiatorial contests in 399 AD. The last known gladiator competition in the city of Rome occurred on January 1, 404 AD.
It is speculated that gladiator fights were no longer practiced by AD 440, as they were not mentioned by Bishop Salvianus in a pamphlet attacking public shows. It would seem only appropriate for the inclusion of gladiator games had they still occurred. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Look up Constantine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ... See: Flavius Augustus Honorius, western Roman emperor 395-423 Saint Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury 627-655 Pope Honorius I, pope 625-638 Pope Honorius II, pope 1124-1130 Pope Honorius III, pope 1216-1227 Pope Honorius IV, pope 1285-1287 Antipope Honorius II, 1061-1064 This is a disambiguation page...


Life as a gladiator

Origins

Gladiators could have been either prisoners of war, slaves or criminals condemned to gladiator schools (ad ludum gladiatorium). There were also a number of volunteer gladiators (auctoratus). These were either sons of prominent men perhaps looking for a radical change, poor men attracted by the potential for fame or relinquishing themselves from poverty, or even men with a monetary purpose, such as Sisinnes who sought to earn money to buy a friend's freedom. All gladiators kept the monetary prizes that they won in the arena and Titus is on record for paying a freed slave 1,000 gold aurei to return for a single match. These men came from all different backgrounds but were soon united as they entered the training schools. By the end of the Republic, about half of the gladiators were volunteers (auctorati), who took on the status of a slave for an agreed-upon period of time, similar to the indentured servitude that was common in the late second millennium. Sometimes people were forced to fight in one off events. Caligula was known for forcing anyone he did not like to fight, including spectators who annoyed him at the games (Cassius Dio 59.10, 13-14).
One of the benefits of becoming a Gladiator for slaves and criminals is that they were then allowed to have relationships with women and although they themselves could never become Roman citizens, if they gained their freedom, their marriages then were legally recognised and their children could then become citizens. [2] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... The aureus (pl. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


Gladiators were very proud of their ethnic origins and made sure their true origin was known to the public if they fought under a title suggesting another ethnic group. Even in death they made sure their race was incribed on their headstone. After Judea was “pacified” there was a large increase in the number of Jewish Gladiators as it was common practice under Titus and Vespasian to sentence Jewish rebels and criminals to Gladiatorial schools. [3] For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


Left handed Gladiators were popular and a rare novelty, their fights were always advertised as a special event. As with modern-day "lefty" fencers, tennis players and other sportsman, these left handers had a large advantage as they were trained to fight a right hander who were themselves not trained to defend against a left hander. Mentions of left handedness on gravestones have been found.


Research on the remains of 70 Murmillos and Retiariae gladiators found at an ancient site in Ephesus has shown that, contrary to popular belief, Gladiators were probably overweight and also ate a high energy vegetarian diet consisting of mainly barley, beans and dried fruit. Fabian Kanz of the Austrian Archaeological Institute said he believed gladiators "cultivated layers of fat to protect their vital organs from the cutting blows of their opponents". Gladiators were sometimes known as hordearii, which means "eaters of barley." Although considered an inferior grain to Wheat (a punishment for Legionaries was to replace their wheat ration with barley), gladiators probably preferred it as Romans believed that barley contributed to strength and covered the arteries with a layer of fat which helped to reduce bleeding. Other findings from the research indicate Gladiators fought barefoot in sand.[4] A murmillo in a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme The murmillo was a class of gladiator during the Roman Imperial age. ... One of many Gladiators were the Retiarius The Retiarius carried a throwing net and three-pronged trident. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot is the practice of not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ...


Training

Prospective gladiators (novicius) upon entering a gladiator school swore an oath (sacramentum) giving their lives to the gods of the underworld and vowing to accept, without protest, humiliation by any means. Volunteers also signed a contract (auctoramentum) with a gladiator manager (lanista) stating how often they were to perform, which weapons they would use, and how much they would earn. Prospectives also went under a physical examination by a doctor to determine if they were both physically capable of the rigorous training and aesthetically pleasing. Once accepted the novicius usually had his debts forgiven and was given a sign up fee. For as long as he was a Gladiator he was well fed and received high quality medical care. Overall, gladiators were united as members of a familia gladiatoria and became second to the prestige of the school. They also joined unions (collegia) formed to ensure proper burials for fallen members and compensation for their families.


Training was under teachers called “Doctores” and involved the learning of a series of “numbers”, which were broken down into various phases much as a play is a series of acts broken down into scenes. Sometimes fans complained that a gladiator fought too “mechanically” when he followed the “numbers” too closely. Gladiators would even be taught how to die correctly. Each type of gladiator had its own teacher; doctore secutorum, doctore thracicum, etc. Although gladiators in times of need helped train legionaries, they were not usually good soldiers themselves as a result of this choreographed style of training. Within a training-school there was a competitive hierarchy of grades (paloi) through which individuals were promoted. They trained using two meter poles (palus) buried in the ground. The levels were named for the training pole and were primus palus, secundus palus, and so on. It was also rare for a novicius to train in more than one gladiatorial style. Once a gladiator had finished training but not yet fought in an arena he was called a “Tiro”. Choreography (also known as dance composition) is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ...


There were four schools (ludi) in Rome: ludus magnus (the most important), ludus dacus, ludus gallicus, and ludus matutinus (school for gladiators dealing with animals). The schools had barracks for the gladiators with small cells and a large training ground. The most impressive had seating for spectators to watch the men train and some even had boxes for the emperor.


Typical combat

The Gladiator Mosaic at the Galleria Borghese, showing the latter stages of various combats, late Roman period.

The announcement for the coming shows were often made by painting the program on the walls of the city. Sometimes the results of featured fighters were added to the advertisement after the matches. A "v" stood for "vicit" meaning he won. A "p" stood for "periit" meaning he was killed. A "m" stood for "missus", meaning he lost but was spared. Image File history File links Borghese_gladiator_1_mosaic_dn_r2_c2. ... Image File history File links Borghese_gladiator_1_mosaic_dn_r2_c2. ... The Villa Borghese Pinciana (begun 1605) houses the Galleria Borghese. ...


An average game had between ten and thirteen pairs (Ordinarii) of gladiators, with a single bout lasting around ten to fifteen minutes. They were usually of differing types. However, sponsor or audience could request other combinations like several gladiators fighting together (Catervarii) or specific gladiators against each other. As a rule Gladiators only fought others from within the same school or troupe (ad ludum gladiatorium) but sometimes specific Gladiators would be requested to fight one from another troupe (Postulaticii). Sometimes a lanista had to rely on substitutes (supposititii) if the requested gladiator was already dead or incapacitated. The Emperor could have his own gladiators (Fiscales). The largest contest of gladiators ever given was by the emperor Trajan in Dacia as part of a victory celebration in 107 AD and included 5,000 pairs of fighters. A Secutor defeating a Retiarius. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now...


During the fights musicians played accompaniments altering their tempo to match that of the combat in the style now familiar with music in action movies. Typical instruments were a long straight trumpet (tubicen), a large curved instrument (lituus) similar to an exaggerated French horn and a water-organ (organum). The Romans loved burlesque and pantomime and these musicians were often dressed as animals with names such as "flute playing bear" (Ursus tibicen) and "horn-blowing chicken" (Pullus cornicen), names sometimes found displayed on contemporary mosaics. The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Photograph of Sally Rand, 1934. ... The Christmas Pantomime colour lithograph bookcover, 1890 Pantomime (informally, panto) refers to a theatrical genre, traditionally found in Great Britain, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and Ireland, which is usually performed around the Christmas and New Year holiday season. ...


Like today’s athletes Gladiators did product endorsements. Particularly successful Gladiators would endorse goods in the arena before commencing a fight and have their names promoting products on the Roman equivalent of billboards.[5] In promotion and advertising, a testimonial or endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a public figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. ...

A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex.
A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex.

Some matches were advertised as “sine missione” (without release) meaning “to the death”. The referees allowed these fights to continue as long as it took to get a result. Although already a rare event, Augustus outlawed “sine missiones” due to the expense of compensating the “Lanistas” but they were later reintroduced. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A murmillo in a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme The murmillo was a class of gladiator during the Roman Imperial age. ... The Thraex or Thracian wore the usual loincloth and belt, and protected the right arm with a manica. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


When one gladiator was wounded the spectators would yell out one of several traditional cheers such as "habet, hoc habet” (he’s had it) or "habet, peractum est” (he's had it, it's all over), the referee would then end the fight by separating the combatants with his staff. A gladiator could also acknowledge defeat by raising a finger (ad digitum), The referee would then step in, stopping the combat, and refer the decision of the defeated gladiator’s fate to the games sponsor (munerarius) who would decide whether he should live or die after taking the audiences wishes into account or considering how well he had fought. If a gladiator was killed it was normal practice for the games sponsor to pay compensation to the owner (Lanista) of up to 100 times the gladiator`s value. For the death of a popular gladiator this could be many millions of dollars in today`s values.


Fights were generally not to the death during the Republic, but gladiators were still killed or maimed accidentally. Claudius was infamous for rarely sparing the life of a defeated Retiarius. He liked to watch his face as he died as the Retiarius was the only gladiator that never wore a helmet. Suetonius recounts a combat where the death of an opponent was called a murder. "Once a band of five retiarii in tunics (retiarius tunicatus), matched against the same number of secutores, yielded without a struggle; but when their death was ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors. Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel murder." (Lives of the Twelve Caesars XXX.3) For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... One of many Gladiators were the Retiarius The Retiarius carried a throwing net and three-pronged trident. ... Secutor Knife handle in the form of a secutor, showing the distinctive shield, helmet and sword. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


The figure of a referee is frequently depicted on mosaics as standing in the background, sometimes accompanied by an assistant and carrying a staff with which to hold back a Gladiator after his opponent signified submission. This implies contests were fought with fixed rules. We know from mosaics, and from surviving skeletons that Gladiators primarily aimed for the head and the major arteries under the arm and behind the knee. A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ...


As with modern sports, spectators liked to support “sides” (factiones) which they called the “great shields” and the “little shields”. The “great shields” were lightly armoured defensive fighter types. Whereas the “little shields” were the more aggressive heavily armoured fighter types. Fighting without a shield would have been classed as a “great shield” due to fighting style. “Little shields” always had an advantage early in a match (as attested by the odds given by contemporary Bookmakers) but the longer the match lasted the greater the advantage for the “great shield” as his opponent tired much more quickly due to heavier armour and also as they usually had helmets with more restricted vision. A bookmaker, bookie or turf accountant, is an organization or a person that takes bets and may pay winnings depending upon results and, depending on the nature of the bet, the odds. ...


Gladiators were paid each time they fought. The winner of a match received from the editor a palm branch and additionally an award such as a golden bowl, crown or a sum of money in the form of gold coins. A laurel crown was awarded for an especially outstanding performance. The victor then ran around the perimeter of the amphitheatre, waving the palm. Gladiators were also allowed to keep any money or gold they received as a prize. The ultimate prize awarded to gladiators was a permanent discharge from the obligation to fight. As a symbol of this award, the editor gave the gladiator a wooden sword (rudis), Martial (Spect. 27) mentions a particularly famous match between two gladiators named Priscus and Verus, who fought so evenly and bravely for so long that when they both acknowledged defeat at the same instant, the emperor Titus awarded victory to both and gave wooden swords (rudes) to each. There was no rule as to what a gladiator would have to do in order to win his freedom, but usually if a gladiator won five fights, or especially distinguished himself in a particular fight, he won the rudis and his freedom. A famous Secutor nicknamed Flamma was awarded the rudis four times but he chose to remain a gladiator. He was killed in his 34th fight. Flamma's gravestone in Sicily is particularly informative as it includes his record: Flamma, secutor, lived 30 years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times, defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality. Delicatus made this for his deserving comrade-in-arms.[6] Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


It is known that the audience (or sponsor or emperor) pointed their thumbs a certain way if they wanted the loser to be killed (called a pollice verso, literally "with turned thumb"), but it is not clear which way they actually pointed. A thumbs up (called pollux infestus) was an insult to Romans so is unlikely to have meant sparing a life. The clear "thumbs up" and "thumbs down" image is not a product of historical sources, but of Hollywood and epic films such as Quo Vadis. It is thought they may have raised their fist with the thumb inside it (pollice compresso, literally "compressed thumbs") if they wanted the loser to live. One popular belief is that the "thumbs down" meant lower your weapon, and let the loser live and a thumbs up sign pointed towards the throat or chest, signaled the gladiator to stab him there. Some scholars believe that a hand movement was involved as the notion of "turning" does not seem to fit the action of merely extending a thumb. One of the few sources to allude to the use of the "thumbs up" and "thumbs down" gestures in the Roman arena comes from Satire III of Juvenal (3.34-37)[7] and seems to indicate that, contrary to modern usage, the thumbs down signified that the losing gladiator was to be spared and that the thumbs up meant he was to be killed. This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... ... The epic film is a film genre typically featuring expensive production values and dramatic themes. ... Quo Vadis (the title is Latin, meaning Where are you going?), is a 1951 Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman soldier, returning from the wars, who falls in love with a Christian and becomes intrigued by her religion. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the late 1st century and early 2nd century. ...


The now famous gladiatorial salute “Ave Caesar, morituri te salutant” or “Hail Ceasar, they who are about to die salute you” is another product of movies. This salute was only mentioned by Suetonius (Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius, XXI, 12­14) as happening once, spoken by condemned men (damnati) to Claudius at a Naumachia (a staged Naval battle) and he used the word “imperator” or Emperor not Ceasar. Tacitus also wrote of this event: “although they were criminals, they fought with the spirit of brave men. Their (the survivors') reward was exemption from the penalty of wholesale execution”. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... A modern naumachia held in the Civic Arena of Milan in 1807 The naumachia (in Latin naumachia, from the Ancient Greek ναυμαχία/naumachía, literally naval combat) in the Ancient Roman world referred to both the re-enactment of naval battles and the basin (or more broadly, the complex) in which... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...

A rudarius (umpire) with his wand of office. A mosaic at Bignor Roman Villa.
A rudarius (umpire) with his wand of office. A mosaic at Bignor Roman Villa.[8]

After a Gladiator's defeat, if the crowd gave the signal for him to die there was a ritual to be observed. With one knee on the ground, the loser grasped the thigh of the victor, who, while holding the helmet or head of his opponent, plunged his sword into his neck or cut his throat depending on his weapon (Martial). To die well a Gladiator was not allowed to ask for mercy and was not allowed to scream when killed. Recent research suggests that gladiators adhered to a code of discipline, and were not as savage as once thought — they did not resort to violence and mutilation which could occur on the battlefields of the day. If defeated but mortally wounded the Gladiator was not killed in front of the audience but was taken from the arena to be executed "humanely" with a hammer on the forehead in private.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (737 × 1038 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gladiator User:Gaius Cornelius Bignor Roman... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (737 × 1038 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gladiator User:Gaius Cornelius Bignor Roman... Bignor Roman Villa was a large Roman courtyard villa which has been excavated and put on public display on the Bignor estate in the English county of West Sussex. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ...


After the death of a Gladiator in combat, two attendants impersonating Charon (the God of the dead) and Hermes (messenger to the Gods) would approach the body. Charon would strike the body with a mallet and Hermes would then prod the body with a hot poker disguised as a wand to see whether the gladiator was really dead or not. The body was then placed on a "couch of Libitina" by bearers (libitinarii) in larger games and taken from the arena through the Libitinarian Gate. In lesser games the libitinarii often used hooks to drag the body. Attendants then spread a fresh layer of sand (arena) to soak up the blood. Libitina was the goddess of funerals. After stripping the armour, the Gladiators body was then taken to a nearby morgue (spoliarium) where by custom, as final proof the fight was not "fixed", officials slit the man's throat to ensure that he was truly dead.[10] Charon may refer to: Charon (mythology) - the figure from Greek, and later Christian mythology, who ferried the dead across the river Acheron in the underworld Hades and Hell, respectively. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Libitina was the goddess of death, corpses and funerals. ...


Although it is thought that only 10 percent of Gladiators actually died in combat, Gladiators rarely lived past age 30 unless they were particularly outstanding and accomplished victors. At a time when around 60 percent of Roman citizens died, from all causes, before age 20 this indicates that Gladiators in fact tended to live longer than the general populace which is attributed to the extra care they received. Reasonable estimates show that they fought on average two to three times yearly, but there are some exceptions such as some men fighting all nine days during one of Trajan's shows. George Villes, a French historian, estimated the chances of survival for a third century AD gladiator at 3:1.


The result of a fight was often commemorated with a representation of the fighters with an inscription (i.e. Astyanax defeated Kalendio). If one was killed a circle with a diagonal line through it (usually Ø but sometimes excluding the line within the circle) was inscribed over the defeated man's head.


Slave revolts

Rome had to fight three Servile Wars, the last being against one of the most famous gladiators — Spartacus who became the leader of a group of escaped gladiators and slaves. His revolt, which began in 73 BC, was crushed by Marcus Crassus two years later in 71 BC. After this, gladiators were deported from Rome and other cities during times of social disturbances, for fear that they might organize and rebel again. As well, armouries within the schools were closely guarded and gladiators who were potential threats were chained. The Servile Wars were a series of slave revolts that plagued the late Roman Republic. ... This article is about the historical figure. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ...


Roman attitudes towards gladiators

The Romans' attitude towards the gladiators was ambiguous: on the one hand to be a Gladiator was the ultimate social disgrace and in fact they were legally designated as infamia (loss of certain public rights);[11] but on the other hand, some successful gladiators rose to celebrity status and even those of senatorial and equites families seemed to join up as gladiators (the Larinum decree under Tiberius banned those of such status from becoming gladiators, which implies that this must have been happening)[12]. Being a Lanista was a very lucrative business, but it also was viewed as among the lowest professions on the social scale and well below prostitution, although paradoxically if the Lanista had other sources of income he carried no stigma at all. Likewise if the Gladiator took no fee for fighting then the legal stigma of infamia did not apply and the Gladiator legally lost no social status although still remaining publicly disgraced. Larino is a town (it. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Whore redirects here. ... Look up stigma on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Even lower on the social scale were Gladiators considered effeminate. They appear to have fought primarily as Retiarii or retiarius tunicatus for the tunic they wore to differentiate them from normal retiarii. Although mentioned by Juvenal, Seneca and Suetonius very little detail is given. They are referred to as training in an “indecent part of the gladiator's school” and fighting in a “disgraceful type of armament”. Despite the popularity of Retiarii their armament was still thought scandalous due to the Gladiators bare chest and face being visible. Juvenal mentions the trainers practice of separating "from their fellow retiarii the wearers of the ill-famed tunic”.[13] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the late 1st century and early 2nd century. ... Seneca may refer to: Roman figures (any links to Seneca in Roman pages should be relinked to one of these two) Marcus (or Lucius) Annaeus Seneca also called rhetor, Roman orator and father of Seneca the philosopher and dramatist. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


Outside the intellectual circle of people such as Pliny the Younger (whose dislike for gladiatorial shows may have been more class- than conscience-based), there was widespread acceptance of gladiatorial shows and little qualm as to their brutality. Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ...


Many ancient writers give specific instances and detailed accounts of the combats that provide invaluable insight into Roman attitudes: “Many ladies of distinction, however, and senators, disgraced themselves by appearing in the amphitheatre” (Tacitus 15.32). The Roman historian, Cassius Dio (62.17.3), writes of a festival that Nero held in honour of his mother: “....There was another exhibition that was at once most disgraceful and most shocking, when men and women not only of the equestrian but even of the senatorial order appeared as performers in the orchestra, in the Circus, and in the hunting-theatre, like those who are held in lowest esteem; they drove horses, killed wild beasts and fought as gladiators, some willingly and some sore against their will". Emperor Marcus Aurelius believed Gladiator shows to be boring, but also saw the Gladiators themselves as privileged athletes and so took extraordinary measures to prevent bloodshed and death (Cassius Dio 71.29.4) For example he decreed that swords have a blunt point and banned iron blades. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...


Gladiators often developed large followings of women, who apparently saw them as sexual objects. There is an inscription on a wall in Pompeii that says the Thracian gladiator Celadus was "suspirum et decus puellarum", literally "the sigh and glory of the girls." It was socially unacceptable for citizen women to have sexual contact with a gladiator. Faustina the Younger, the mother of the emperor Commodus, was said to have conceived Commodus with a gladiator, but Commodus likely invented this story himself. Despite or because of the prohibition many rich women sought intimate contact with gladiators and there are several instances of historians mentioning Senators wives running off to live with Gladiators. The ancient celebrity and the festivity before the fights gave the women an opportunity to meet them. Faustina the Younger Annia Galeria Faustina, the Younger, (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ...


Despite the extreme dangers and hardships of the profession, some gladiators were volunteers (called auctorati) who fought for money; effectively this career was a sort of last chance for people who had fallen into financial troubles. Indeed, their combat skills were such that, when he had no alternative, Gaius Marius had gladiators train the legionaries in single combat. They were also frequently depicted in art, the Gladiator Mosaic, or a Bignor Roman villa showing Cupids as gladiators. Souvenir bowls were also produced depicting named gladiators in combat. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Part of the Gladiator Mosaic. ... Bignor is a village and civil parish in the Chichester district of West Sussex, England, about six miles north of Arundel. ... The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... It has been suggested that Cupid (holiday character) be merged into this article or section. ...


Female gladiators

Main article: Female gladiator

Female gladiators also existed.[14] The Emperor Domitian liked to stage torchlit fights between dwarves and women, according to Suetonius in "The Twelve Caesars". From depictions it appears they fought bare-chested and rarely wore helmets no matter what type of Gladiator they fought as. Gladiatrix links here. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Suetonius - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Women apparently fought at night, and this being the time that the games main events were held indicates the possible importance or rarity of female Gladiators. Most modern scholars consider female Gladiators a novelty act due to the sparse writings about them but those ancient historians that do mention them do so “casually” which suggests that female gladiators were "more widespread than direct evidence might otherwise indicate" [15]. Women also often fought as Venetores (wild animal hunting) but these are not considered true Gladiators.


Dio Cassius (62.3.1) mentions that not only women but children fought in a gladiatorial event that Nero sponsored in 66 AD. It is known the emperor Nero also forced the wives of some Roman senators into amphitheatres, presumably to fight. Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ...


A 1st or 2nd century Marble relief from Halicarnassus suggests that some women fought in heavy armour. Both women are depicted as provocatrices in combat. The inscription names them as “Amazon” and “Achillia” and mentions that both received a honourable discharge (missio) from the arena despite fighting each other (both deemed to have won). Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ...


Mark Vesley, a Roman social historian speculates that as Gladiatorial schools were not fit places for women, they may have studied under private tutors in the collegia iuvenum. These schools were for training high ranking males over the age of 14 in martial arts but Vesley found three references to women training there as well including one who died..."To the divine shades of Valeria Iucunda, who belonged to the body of the iuvenes. She lived 17 years, 9 months".


A female Roman skeleton unearthed in Southwark, London in 2001 was identified as a female gladiator, but this was on the basis that although wealthy she was buried as an outcast outside the main cemetery, had pottery lamps of Anubis (ie Mercury ie the gladiatorial master of ceremonies), a lamp with a depiction of a fallen gladiator engraved and bowls containing burnt pinecones from a Stone Pine placed in the grave. The only Stone Pines in Britain at the time were those planted around the London amphitheatre as the pinecones of this particular species were traditionally burnt during games. Most experts believe the identification to be erroneous but the Museum of London states it is "70 percent probable" that the Great Dover Street Woman was a gladiator. Hedley Swain, head of early history at the Museum states: "No single piece of evidence says that she is a gladiator. Instead, there’s simply a group of circumstantial evidence that makes it an intriguing idea". She is now on display at the end of the Roman London section of the Museum of London. This gladiator was the subject of a program on the UK's Channel 4.[16] Interior showing the Mayors state coach The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Palaeolithic to the present day. ... Interior showing the Mayors state coach The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Palaeolithic to the present day. ... This article is about the British television station. ...


Emperors as gladiators

Caligula, Titus, Hadrian, Lucius Verus, and Didius Julianus were said to have performed in the arena. It is uncertain if these performances were one-time-only or repeated appearances and there is question regarding the risk as the emperors chose their opponents and no one was likely to injure an emperor. Commodus, however, is known for his passion for public performance and is remembered for his participation in gladiatorial shows. He often hunted wild animals from the stands and was so impressive that it is said that he rarely needed a second spear to kill his prey. He also chased animals in the arena and donned gladiator apparel and fought under the title of "Hercules". He is often depicted this way in art. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Didius Julianus Marcus Severus Didius Julianus (133–193) was emperor of the Roman Empire from 28 March until 1 June 193. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ...


Gladiators in modern popular culture

Gladiator helmet in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
Gladiator helmet in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1196 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gladiator Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1196 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gladiator Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...

Novels

Gladiators of the Empire was released. The first book in the series, Sand of the Arena by James Duffy (McBooks Press, 2005; hardcover, ISBN 1590131118; paperback ISBN 159013124X) presents a detailed, historically-accurate look at life in a training ludus and the visceral struggles of the arena, all through the eyes of a young Roman who volunteers as a gladiator. The training and use of venatores (arena animal hunters, sometimes called bestiarii) is also shown in great detail through an Ethiopian character named Lindani. The book was well received by historical fiction readers and literary critics. Book 2 in the series, Fight For Rome by James Duffy (McBooks Press, 2007; hardcover, ISBN 1590131126) follows the gladiator troupe as they are conscripted into the Roman legions during the civil war of 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors. Gladiators fighting as mercenaries alongside the legions, or used by their owners to bolster their political gangs (eg Clodius and Milo), was recorded in a number of historic battles and instances. Relief of bestiarii and animals (cast from EUR Museum) Among Ancient Romans, bestiarii were those who combated with beasts, or were exposed to them. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Clodius is the Roman nomen Claudius altered to a spelling that would have sounded plebeian to Roman ears. ... Look up Milo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Films and television

Gladiators feature frequently in many epic films and television series set in this period. These include films such as Spartacus (1960), Gladiator (2000) and Demetrius and the Gladiators (1954), Quo Vadis, as well as the television series A.D. (1985) (which features a female gladiator), and Rome. D. W. Griffith set out to depict the splendor of ancient Babylon in Intolerance. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ... Gladiator is a 2000 movie directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Russell Crowe and Joaquin Phoenix. ... Demetrius and the Gladiators was a 1954 drama film that was a sequel to The Robe. ... Quo Vadis (the title is Latin, meaning Where are you going?), is a 1951 Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman soldier, returning from the wars, who falls in love with a Christian and becomes intrigued by her religion. ... Rome is a multiple Emmy Award-winning historical drama, produced in Italy for television by the BBC (UK), HBO (USA), and RAI (Italy). ...


Video games

Known video games to explore several aspects of Rome and its gladiatorial games include KOEI's Colosseum: Road to Freedom, CAPCOM's Shadow of Rome, Acclaim's Gladiator: Sword of Vengeance , SEGA's Spartan: Total Warrior, Gladius also Oblivion had a roman themed arena in its main city it is exactly how a roman gladiator would of trained and fought This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gladius is a role-playing game released in 2003 for the Xbox, PlayStation 2, and GameCube video game consoles. ...


Science fiction and fantasy

Gladiator themes have inspired science fiction, being depicted in the film The Running Man. Battletech, Quake, and Unreal are several video games that feature players in futuristic, gladiator-styled skirmishes, with users dueling it out between each other or in teams. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Running Man (1982) is a science fiction novel by Stephen King, written under the pseudonym of Richard Bachman. ... BattleTech is a wargaming and science fiction franchise, launched by FASA Corporation and currently owned by WizKids. ... For an overview of the Quake game franchise go to Quake series. ... Unreal is a first-person shooter computer game developed by Epic Games and published by GT Interactive (now owned by Atari) on May 22, 1998. ...


In many fictional universes, gladiator games have the same reputation as the ones portrayed by Hollywood; violent exercises of brutality to appease and entertain a crowd, with little to no hope of survival for the gladiators.


Reality entertainment

Due to current human rights and liability issues, it is now impossible to revive gladiator fights in the Ancient Roman sense, (where the fight concludes with serious bodily injury or death). Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ...


During the 1990s, there was a U.S. game show called American Gladiators (and eventually several international versions) where contestants and the show's resident "Gladiators" matched up in contests of strength and agility. The show is programed for a revival in 2008. American Gladiators is a competition TV show. ...


Also in the 1990's World Wrestling Entertainment popularized a rather wild style of wrestling which some compared to gladiator combat. However, the competitors on American Gladiators never directly attacked each other but did face the established stadium gladiators, and WWE fights are openly acknowledged to be staged performances, as opposed to actual competition. World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ...


In California, Corcoran State Prison became infamous in 1997 when it was discovered that the guards were staging informal "gladiator" fights with the prisoners (some of which were videotaped). Such fights differ from true gladiator fights in that they were not state-sponsored or approved. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... California State Prison, Corcoran (CSP-C) is a state penitentiary in California, USA. It is located in the city of Corcoran, in Kings County. ...


Gladiatorial imagery is also associated with the Ultimate Fighting Championship, whose opening credits in their broadcasts feature a gladiator preparing for battle. This article covers the organization itself. ...


See also

Relief of bestiarii and animals (cast from EUR Museum) Among Ancient Romans, bestiarii were those who combated with beasts, or were exposed to them. ... A Secutor defeating a Retiarius. ... Gladiator is a 2000 historical action drama film. ... The Far Arena is a 1979 novel by Richard Sapir, writing under the slightly modified pen name of Richard Ben Sapir. ...

References

  1. ^ Rome Exposed
  2. ^ The Gladiator Brooklyn College Classics Department
  3. ^ Roman Civilization History 206 Bates College
  4. ^ Roman gladiators were fat vegetarians ABC Science April 5, 2004
  5. ^ Not Such a Wonderful Life: A Look at History in Gladiator IGN movies February 10, 2000
  6. ^ Flamma tombstone
  7. ^ http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/juvenal/3.shtml
  8. ^ Bignor Roman Villa Guide Book
  9. ^ "Head injuries of Roman gladiators", Forensic Science International, Volume 160, Issue 2–3, Pages 207–216 F. Kanz, K. Grossschmidt
  10. ^ Archaeology: Vox Populi Discover Magazine July 2006
  11. ^ Roman Law - Infamia Smiths Dictionary 1875 pp634‑636
  12. ^ http://www.personal.kent.edu/~bkharvey/roman/texts/sclaurin.htm
  13. ^ The Retiarius Tunicatus of Suetonius, Juvenal, and Petronius" (1989) by Steven M. Cerutti and L. Richardson, Jr., The American Journal of Philology, 110, P589-594
  14. ^ Female Gladiators of the Ancient Roman World Journal of Combative Sport July 2003
  15. ^ [Zoll, A. (2002) P.27. Gladiatrix: The true story of history’s unknown woman warrior. New York: Berkley Publishing Group]
  16. ^ http://www.channel4.com/community/showcards/G/Gladiator_Girl.html

Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... American Journal of Philology (AJP) is an academic journal founded in 1880 by the renowned classical scholar Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... for others of similar name, see Daniel Mannix (disambiguation) Daniel Pratt Mannix IV, usually called Daniel P. Mannix (October 27, 1911-January 29, 1997), was a Pennsylvania-born author and journalist whose best-known work is the 1967 novel The Fox and the Hound on which the Disney movie was... The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American is a nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites. ...

External links

‹The template Bloodsports is being considered for deletion.›  For other uses, see Blood sport (disambiguation). ... Contemporary picture of Bull-baiting Bait or Baiting is the act to worry or torment a chained or confined animal by setting dogs upon it for sport. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no relavent information If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Bear_baiting in the 18th century, engraving, 1796 Bear_baiting is a blood sport that was a popular entertainment from at least the 11th century in which a bear is secured to a post and then attacked by a number of dogs. ... Bull-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of bulls. ... Two dogs fighting Dog fighting is a physical fight between canines, sometimes involving the pitting of two dogs against each other for the entertainment of spectators, and for the purpose of gambling. ... Donkey Attacked by Staffords, Oil painting, Circa 1840 Donkey-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of donkeys. ... Duck-baiting by Henry Alken circa 1820 Duck-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of ducks. ... Hog-baiting, aka Hog dogging, Hog-dog fighting, or Hog-dog rodeo is a bloodsport involving the baiting of a hog or boar. ... Human-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of humans. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Westminster-Pit: A Turn-up between a Dog and Jacco Macacco, the Fighting Monkey by Samuel Alken Illustration, circa early 1800s Monkey-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of monkeys. ... Rat Baiting Pit Rat baiting is a bloodsport involving dogs killing rats in a pit. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coursing. ... Pigsticking, boar-hunting, or hog-hunting is a form of hunting in which wild boars are pursued on horseback and killed with spears. ... Trophy hunting is the selective seeking of wild game. ... A canned hunt is essentially a trophy hunt where the customer is guaranteed a kill by the simple expedient of the hosts pre-capturing the animal, and releasing it into an area where the hunter can take a shot at it, such as in a fenced-in area. ... Insect fights are basically fight clubs for bugs. ... Cricket fighting is a bloodsport involving the fighting of Crickets. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... Binomial name Regan, 1910 The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the most popular species of freshwater aquarium fish, native to the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and called pla-kad in its native Thailand. ... Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865-1866. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flying a Saker Falcon Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... Sport fishing is a popular attraction in Cabo San Lucas Sport fishing is a term (often used interchangeably with game fishing) that describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial value of the fishs flesh. ... Fighting spider Used matchbox serves as stable for fighting spiders in between derbies Spider fighting (pahibag sang damang in Hiligaynon) is a popular blood sport among rural Filipino children. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Filmtracks: Gladiator (Hans Zimmer/Lisa Gerrard) (2753 words)
Gladiator: (Hans Zimmer, Lisa Gerrard, and Klaus Badelt) The sounds of the projects of Hans Zimmer have been becoming increasingly difficult to predict in the past few years.
The last three tracks on the Gladiator album are a gem of a suite, and interestingly, the only hint of Hans Zimmer in that suite is the bar of thematic material kindly lifted from his own Backdraft score.
Gladiator: (Hans Zimmer and Lisa Gerrard) Hans Zimmer's collaboration with Lisa Gerrard is notable for the expansion of the texture of the music which, in Zimmer's case, is normally considerably more simplified.
Gladiator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2266 words)
Gladiators (Latin gladiatōrēs, 'swordsmen', from gladius 'sword') were professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other, wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the entertainment of spectators.
Further, since the victorious gladiator would often finish off the loser with a quick, lethal sword blow to the neck, it may be that the thumbs of the crowd would be turned to jab at their own necks, imitating this blow.
Gladiators who managed to win their freedom - often by request of the audience or sponsor - were given a rudis, a symbolic wooden sword, as a memento.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m