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Encyclopedia > Glacier Peak
Glacier Peak

East slope of Glacier Peak with Cool (left), Chocolate (descending from summit), North Guardian and Dusty Glaciers (right)
Elevation 10,541 feet (3,213 m)[1]
Location Washington, USA
Range Cascade Range
Prominence 7,519 ft (2,292 m)[1]
Coordinates 48°6′45.05″N, 121°6′49.70″W
Topo map USGS Glacier Peak East
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Cascade Volcanic Arc
Age of rock Pleistocene
Last eruption ~17th-18th Century
First ascent 1898 by Thomas Gerdine
Easiest route Rock/ice climb on Sitkum Glacier

Glacier Peak (known in the Sauk Indian dialect of Lushootseed as "Tda-ko-buh-ba" or "Takobia" [2]) is the most remote of the five major volcanoes in the Cascade Volcanic Belt in Washington. It is not prominently visible from any major population center, and so its attractions, as well as its hazards, tend to be overlooked. Yet since the end of the last ice age, Glacier Peak has produced some of the largest and most explosive eruptions in the state. During this time period, Glacier Peak has erupted multiple times during at least six separate episodes, most recently about 200-300 years ago. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Glacier Peak Description: Glacier Peak (10541 feet), Cool, Chocolate (center), North Guardian and Dusty Glaciers (l to r). ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


The stunning snow-capped volcanoes of Washington have long been recognized by Native Americans in their language and legends, and they immediately caught the eyes of U.S. and European explorers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. By the 1790s, Mounts Baker, Rainier, and St. Helens were noted and named in the first written descriptions of the Columbia River and Puget Sound regions. In 1805, Lewis and Clark noted Mount Adams. By the mid-19th century, each of these four volcanoes had their place on a published map. For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Mount Baker (elevation 10,778 feet, 3,285 m) is a glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascades of Washington State in the United States about 30 miles (50km) due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County. ... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ... For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ... Mt. ...


Glacier Peak wasn't known by settlers to be a volcano until the 1850s, when Native Americans mentioned to naturalist George Gibbs that "another smaller peak to the north of Mount Rainier once smoked." Not until 1898 did Glacier Peak appear on a published map under its current name. George Gibbs may refer to: George Gibbs, 1st Baron Wraxall (1873–1931), British Member of Parliament and baron of peerage George Gibbs, 2nd Baron Wraxall (1928–2001), British baron of peerage and kidnapping victim George Gibbs (geologist) (1815–1873), American geologist and ethnologist George F. Gibbs (1846–1924), secretary to... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ...


Glacier Peak is situated in Snohomish County, only 70 miles (112 km) northeast of Seattle — closer to that city than any volcano except Mount Rainier. But unlike Mount Rainier, it rises only a few thousand feet above neighboring peaks, and from coastal communities it appears merely as a high point along a snowy saw-toothed skyline. Yet Glacier Peak has been one of the most active of Washington's volcanoes. Snohomish County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ...


Since the continental ice sheets receded from the region, Glacier Peak has erupted repeatedly during at least six episodes. Two of these eruptions were among the largest in Washington during the past 15,000 years. This article is about water ice. ...

Glacier Peak from the southeast
Glacier Peak from the southeast

Contents

USGS photo of Glacier Peak, Washington, USA Source URL: http://wrgis. ... USGS photo of Glacier Peak, Washington, USA Source URL: http://wrgis. ...

Eruptive history

Glacier Peak is actually a small stratovolcano despite its elevation of 10,541 feet (3,213 meters); it is perched atop a ridge and the volcanic part is no higher than 1,600-3,200 feet (500-1,000) meters above the ridge.


Glacier Peak and Mount St. Helens are the only volcanoes in Washington that have generated large, explosive eruptions in the past 15,000 years. Their violent behavior results from the type of molten rock (magma) they produce. Dacite, the typical magma type of Mount St. Helens and Glacier Peak, is too viscous to flow easily out of the eruptive vent; it must be pressed out under high pressure. As it approaches the surface, expanding gas bubbles within the magma burst and break it into countless fragments. These fragments are collectively known as tephra; the smallest make up what is called volcanic ash. Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Grey, red, black, altered white/tan, flow-banded pumice dacite Dacite (IPA: ) is an igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ... Ash plume from Mt Cleveland, a stratovolcano Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash consists of very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ...


About 13,100 years ago, Glacier Peak generated a sequence of nine tephra eruptions within a period of less than a few hundred years. The largest ejected more than five times as much tephra as the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and was one of the largest in the Cascade Range since the end of the last ice age. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ...


Some of the tephra from these eruptions fell back onto the volcano and avalanched down its flanks. Much of the rest rose high into the atmosphere and drifted hundreds to thousands of miles downwind. Deposits from these eruptions are more than a foot thick near Chelan, Washington, and an inch thick in western Montana. Chelan is a city located in Chelan County, Washington. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Since these events, Glacier Peak has produced several tephra eruptions, all of much smaller volume.

View from Liberty Cap across the Suiattle River Valley
View from Liberty Cap across the Suiattle River Valley

During most of Glacier Peak's eruptive episodes, lava domes have extruded onto the volcano's summit or steep flanks. Parts of these domes collapsed repeatedly to produce pyroclastic flows and ash clouds. The remnants of prehistoric lava domes make up Glacier Peak's main summit as well as its "false summit" known as Disappointment Peak. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover the valley floors east and west of the volcano. Ridges east of the summit are mantled by deposits from ash clouds. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ...


Past eruptions have severely affected river valleys that head on Glacier Peak. Pyroclastic flows mixed with melted snow and glacial ice to form rapidly flowing slurries of rock and mud known as lahars. Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ...


About 13,100 years ago, dozens of eruption-generated lahars churned down the White Chuck, Suiattle, and Sauk Rivers, inundating valley floors. Lahars then flowed down both the North Fork Stillaguamish (then an outlet of the upper Sauk River) and Skagit Rivers to the sea. In the Stillaguamish River valley at Arlington, more than 60 miles (98 km) downstream from Glacier Peak, lahars deposited more than seven feet of sediment. Shortly after the eruptions ended, the upper Sauk's course via the Stillaguamish was abandoned and the Sauk River began to drain only into the Skagit River, as it does today. The Sauk River is a tributary of the Skagit River, approximately 45 mi (72 km) long, in northwestern Washington in the United States. ... The Skagit River (pronounced ) is a river in southwestern British Columbia in Canada and northwestern Washington in the United States, approximately 150 mi (240 km) long. ... The Stillaguamish River is a river in northwest Washington in the United States, approximately 20 mi (32 km) long. ... Arlington is a city located in northern Snohomish County, Washington, USA, bordered by the city of Marysville to the south. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


About 5,900 years ago and 1,800 years ago, dome-building eruptions generated lahars that extended once again to the sea, this time only along the Skagit River. In small eruptions since 1,800 years ago, lahars have extended the entire length of the White Chuck River and part way down the Suiattle.


Lahars can also be generated by landslides (also called flank collapses or debris avalanches) on volcanoes, as has happened repeatedly at Glacier Peak's neighbor to the north, Mount Baker. At Mount Baker, lahars from numerous landslides, some without accompanying eruptive activity, have affected valley floors near the volcano. A few much larger landslides during eruptive periods generated lahars that flowed hundreds of feet deep through upper valleys and reached the sea. At Glacier Peak landslide-generated lahars have occurred less frequently than at Mount Baker.


Glaciers

Eleven significant glaciers mantle Glacier Peak. When C.E. Rusk first saw these glaciers in 1906 they were beginning to retreat, but were still very advanced. The average retreat of Glacier Peak glaciers from the Little Ice Age to the 1958 positions was 5,381 feet (1,640 m). Richard Hubley noted that North Cascade glaciers began to advance in the early 1950s, after 30 years of rapid retreat. The advance was in response to a sharp rise in winter precipitation and a decline in summer temperature beginning in 1944. Ten of the fifteen glaciers around Glacier Peak advanced, including all of the glaciers directly on the mountain's slopes. Advances of Glacier Peak glaciers ranged from 50 to 1,575 feet (15 to 480 m) and culminated in 1978. All 11 Glacier Peak glaciers that advanced during the 1950-1979 period emplaced identifiable maximum advance terminal moraines. From 1984-2005, the average retreat of eight Glacier Peak glaciers from their recent maximum positions was 1,017 feet (310 m). Milk Lake Glacier, on the north flank of the mountain, melted away altogether in the 1990s.[3] The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


See also

“Cascades” redirects here. ... A crater lake that simply goes by the name Crater Lake, in Oregon, USA Heaven Lake (Chonji / Tianchi), North Korea / China Cuicocha, Ecuador Lake formed after 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA Mount Wenchi crater lake, Ethiopia Nemrut, Turkey Volcán Irazú, Costa Rica This page... The Glacier Peak Wilderness, created by Congress in the original 1964 wilderness legislation, is located within portions of Chelan, Washington, and Skagit Counties in the North Cascades of Washington State, USA. The area, 572,000 acres (2315 km²) in size, 35 miles (56 kilometers) long and 20 miles (32 kilometers... Lassen Peak[1] (also known as Mount Lassen) is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range. ... Mt. ... Mount Baker (elevation 10,778 feet, 3,285 m) is a glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascades of Washington State in the United States about 30 miles (50km) due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County. ... The Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in Washington State extends more than 140 miles along the western slopes of the Cascade Range from the Canadian border to the northern boundary of Mount Rainier National Park. ... This article is about the tallest mountain in Oregon. ... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ... For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena. ... For the city, see Mount Shasta, California. ... Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska is the highest peak of North America. ... Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska is the highest mountain peak of the United States of America. ...

Cited references

  1. ^ a b Glacier Peak on Bivouac.com
  2. ^ Bedal, Jean Fish; Bedal, Edith (2000). Two Voices – A History of the Sauk and Suiattle People, and Sauk Country Experiences. Astriba R. Blukis Onat. 
  3. ^ Pelto, Mauri S.. North Cascade Glacier Climate Project. Retrieved on 2006-06-06.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Glacier Peak
  • USGS: Glacier Peak - History and Hazards of a Cascade Volcano
  • CVO Menu - Glacier Peak, Washington
  • Glacier Peak at Peakware.com
  • Glacier Peak on SummitPost.org
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – The Mountaineers Collection Photographic albums and text documenting the Mountaineers official annual outings undertaken by club members from 1907-1951, primarily on the Olympic Peninsula, in Mount Rainier National Park and on Glacier Peak.
  • Glacier Peak is at coordinates 48°06′45″N 121°06′50″W / 48.11251, -121.11381 (Glacier Peak)Coordinates: 48°06′45″N 121°06′50″W / 48.11251, -121.11381 (Glacier Peak)


Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Mount Silverthrone is a deeply dissected caldera complex in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, located at the northern end of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt containing rhyolitic, dacitic and andesitic lava domes, lava flows and breccia. ... Plinth Peak is a dormant volcano in British Columbia, Canada. ... Mount Meager (sometimes mistakenly spelled Meagre or Meagher) is a potentially active complex volcano in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, above the west flank of the Lillooet River and just south of the Lillooet Icecap. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Aerial photo of Mount Rainier from the west, taken July 2005 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages on the English... Mount Baker (elevation 10,778 feet, 3,285 m) is a glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascades of Washington State in the United States about 30 miles (50km) due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County. ... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ... For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena. ... Mt. ... This article is about the tallest mountain in Oregon. ... For other mountains named Mount Jefferson, see Mount Jefferson Mount Jefferson is a possibly extinct stratovolcano in the Cascade Range and is the second-highest mountain in Oregon. ... The Three Sisters are three volcanic peaks of the Cascade Range, located about 15 miles SW from the nearest town of Sisters, Oregon. ... Broken Top is an extinct stratovolcano highly eroded by glaciation. ... Mount Bachelor is a stratovolcano (called Bachelor Butte until the 1980s) built atop a shield volcano in the Cascade Range of central Oregon. ... Map of Newberry Volcano and surroundings Newberry Volcano 7,985 ft (2,434 m) high is a large shield volcano located 40 miles (60 km) east of the Cascade Range and about 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Bend, Oregon. ... Mount Thielsen is a stratovolcano in southern Oregon that has been so deeply eroded by glaciers that there is no summit crater and the upper part of the mountain is more or less a horn. ... Mount Mazama is a destroyed stratovolcano in the Oregon part of the Cascade Volcanic Belt and the Cascade Range. ... A crater lake that simply goes by the name Crater Lake, in Oregon, USA Heaven Lake (Chonji / Tianchi), North Korea / China Cuicocha, Ecuador Lake formed after 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA Mount Wenchi crater lake, Ethiopia Nemrut, Turkey Volcán Irazú, Costa Rica This page... Mount McLoughlin is a stratovolcano in the southern Oregon part of the Cascade Range. ... Penis Pump juice. ... For the city, see Mount Shasta, California. ... Shastina is the highest satellite cone of Mount Shasta, and one of four overlapping volcanic cones which together form the most voluminous stratovolcano in the Cascade Range. ... Mount Tehama is the name given to a now destroyed volcano in the Cascades, also known as Brokeoff Volcano, centred on the Lassen volcanic center. ... Lassen Peak[1] (also known as Mount Lassen) is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CVO Website - Glacier Peak Volcano, Washington (0 words)
Glacier Peak is probably best known as the source of voluminous tephra eruptions dated to 11,250 years B.P. Two tephra layers produced at this time have been identified as far as 800-1,000 kilometers to the east, and are widely used by geologists, anthropologists, and paleoecologists to date late Pleistocene sediments.
Glacier Peak and Mount St. Helens are the only volcanoes in Washington State that have generated large, explosive eruptions in the past 15,000 years.
Glacier Peak, geographically the most remote of the Cascade volcanoes, is a Pleistocene and Holocene composite volcano composed chiefly of dacite, with a minor amount of basalt erupted from satellitic vents (Tabor and Crowder, 1969; Beget, 1982, 1983).
survey (0 words)
Glacier Peak is an Ideal choice for such a comprehensive survey of glacier termini changes because of the diversity of glacier behavior.
The average retreat of Glacier Peak glaciers from the LIA to the 1958 positions was 1640 m.
This was the largest advance of the Glacier Peak glaciers, probably due to the nature of the steep, narrow valley down which the glacier flows from 1960 m to the terminus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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