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The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or "Baguettes"), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. The Girondists were a group of individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most brilliant exponents of their point of view were deputies from the Gironde. During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Gironde is a département in the southwest of France named after the Gironde Estuary. ...


These deputies were twelve in number, six of whom—the lawyers Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Marguerite Élie Guadet, Armand Gensonné, Jean Antoine Laffargue de Grangeneuve and Jean Jay, and the tradesman Jean François Ducos—sat both in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. In the Legislative Assembly, these represented a compact body of opinion which, though not as yet definitely republican, was considerably more advanced than the moderate royalism of the majority of the Parisian deputies. Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud (May 31, 1753 - October 31, 1793) was a French orator and revolutionary. ... Marguerite-Élie Guadet (July 20, 1753 - June 17, 1794), French Revolutionist, was born at St Emilion near Bordeaux. ... Armand Gensonné (August 10, 1758 - October 31, 1793) was a French politician. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Associated with these views was a group of deputies from elsewhere, of whom the most notable were Thomas Paine, the Marquis de Condorcet, Claude Fauchet, M. D. A. Lasource, Maximin Isnard, the Comte de Kersaint, Henri Larivière, and, above all, Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and Jérôme Pétion, elected mayor of Paris in succession to Jean Sylvain Bailly on November 16, 1791. Then of course Santa CLaus came and gave predsents to all of the exectued mem ers, wuuu babosada Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, and intellectual. ... Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... Claude Fauchet may be either of two notables: Claude Fauchet (1530-1601), French historian Claude Fauchet (1744-1793), French revolutionist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Maximin Isnard (1758 - 1825), French revolutionist, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the départment of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists. ... Armand-Guy-Simon de Coetnempren, comte de Kersaint (July 29, 1742 - December 4, 1793), French sailor and politician, was born at Paris. ... Jacques Pierre Brissot. ... Jean-Marie Roland Viscount Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière (February 18, 1734 - November 10, 1793) was a French statesman. ... Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Jean Sylvain Bailly Jean-Sylvain Bailly (September 15, 1736 – November 12, 1793), French astronomer and orator, was one of the leaders of the early part of the French Revolution. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Rise of the Girondins

Madame Roland, whose salon became their gathering-place, exercised a powerful influence on the spirit and policy of the Girondists; but such party cohesion as they possessed they owed to the energy of Brissot, who came to be regarded as their mouthpiece in the Assembly and in the Jacobin Club. Hence the name "Brissotins", coined by Camille Desmoulins, which was sometimes substituted for that of "Girondins", sometimes closely coupled with it. These first came into use strictly as party designations after the assembling of the National Convention (20 September 1792), to which a large proportion of the deputies from the Gironde who had sat in the Legislative Assembly were returned. Both names appeared as terms of opprobrium in speeches by the orators of the Jacobin Club, who freely denounced "the Royalists, the Federalists, the Brissotins, the Girondins and all the enemies of the democracy" (FA Aulard, La société des Jacobins, Recueil de documents (6 volumes, Paris, 1889, etc., V. 531)). Jean-Marie Roland Viscount Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière (February 18, 1734 - November 10, 1793) was a French statesman. ... A Salon of Ladies by Abraham Bosse A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... Portrait of Camille Desmoulins Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist Desmoulins (March 2, 1760 – April 5, 1794) was a French journalist and politician who played an important part in the French Revolution. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... François Victor Alphonse Aulard (July 19, 1849 - October 23, 1928), was a French historian. ...


In the Legislative Assembly, the Girondists represented the principle of democratic revolution within and of patriotic defiance to the European powers without. They were all-powerful in the Jacobin Club, where Brissot's influence had not yet been ousted by Robespierre, and they did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popular passion and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the Revolution. They compelled the king in 1792 to choose a ministry composed of their partisans—among them Roland, Charles François Dumouriez, Étienne Clavière and Joseph Servan de Gerbey; and it was they who forced the declaration of war against Habsburg Austria. In all this there was no apparent line of cleavage between La Gironde and The Mountain. Montagnards and Girondists alike were fundamentally opposed to the monarchy; both were democrats as well as republicans; both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realize their ideals; in spite of the accusation of "federalism" freely brought against them, the Girondists desired as little as the Montagnards to break up the unity of France. Yet from the first the leaders of the two parties stood in avowed opposition, in the Jacobin Club as in the Assembly. Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... Charles François Dumouriez. ... Étienne Clavière (1735 - December 8, 1793) was a French financier and politician. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...


Temperament largely accounts for the party dividing line. The Girondists were radicals, doctrinaires and theorists rather than men of action; they initially encouraged the armed petitions which resulted, to their dismay, in the émeute of June 20; but Roland, turning the ministry of the exterior into a publishing office for tracts on the civic virtues, while in the provinces riotous mobs were burning the châteaux unchecked, is more typical of their spirit. They did not share the ferocious fanaticism or the ruthless opportunism of the future Montagnard organisers of the Reign of Terror. As the Revolution developed, the Girondists trembled at the anarchic forces they had helped to unchain, and tried in vain to curb them. The overthrow of the monarchy on 10 August 1792 and the September Massacres of 1792 occurred while they still nominally controlled the government, but the Girondists tried to distance themselves from the results of the September massacres. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Château de Chenonceau A rural château in France. ... The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about ten months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... Anarchy (from Greek: anarchía, no authority) has a popular meaning of disorder[1]. However it has a more precise meaning in political philosophy to describe any human society which exists without a state. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The September Massacres were a wave of violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. ...


Fall of the Girondists

The crisis of the Girondists' fate followed swiftly. They proposed the suspension of the king and the summoning of the National Convention; but they had only consented to overthrow the monarchy when they found that Louis XVI was impervious to their counsels. Once the republic was established, they were anxious to arrest the revolutionary movement which they had helped to set in motion. As Daunou shrewdly observes in his Mémoires, they were too cultivated and too polished to retain their popularity long in times of disturbance, and were therefore the more inclined to work for the establishment of order, which would mean the guarantee of their own power. Thus the Girondists, who had been the radicals of the Legislative Assembly, became the conservatives of the Convention. Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


But they were soon to have practical experience of the fate that overtakes those who attempt to arrest in mid-career a revolution they themselves have set in motion. The ignorant populace, for whom the promised social millennium had by no means dawned, saw in an attitude seemingly so inconsistent obvious proof of corrupt motives, and there were plenty of prophets of misrule to encourage the delusion: orators of the clubs and the street corners, for whom the restoration of order would have meant a return to obscurity. Moreover, the Septembriseurs—Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites—realised that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive. Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to include them in the proscription lists of September 1792; The Mountain to a man desired their overthrow. A millennium (pl. ... Georges Jacques Danton (October 26, 1759 - April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution. ... Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 – July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born French scientist and physician who made much of his career in the United Kingdom, but is best known as an activist in the French Revolution. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ...


The crisis came in March 1793. The Girondists, who had a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council and filled the ministry, believed themselves invincible. Their orators had no serious rivals in the hostile camp; their system was established in the purest reason. But the Montagnards made up by their fanatical, or desperate, energy and boldness for what they lacked in talent or in numbers. This was especially fruitful because while the largest groups in the convention were the Jacobins and Brissotins, uncommitted delegates accounted for almost half the total number. The Jacobins' rhetoric had behind them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections (mass assemblies in districts) and the National Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre. And as the motive power of this formidable mechanism of force they could rely on the native suspiciousness of the Parisian populace, exaggerated now into madness by famine and the menace of foreign invasion. The Girondists played into their hands. At the trial of Louis XVI the bulk of them had voted for the "appeal to the people", and so laid themselves open to the charge of "royalism"; they denounced the domination of Paris and summoned provincial levies to their aid, and so fell under suspicion of "federalism", though they rejected Buzot's proposal to transfer the Convention to Versailles. They strengthened the revolutionary Commune by decreeing its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign of popular opposition; they increased the prestige of Marat by prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where his acquittal was a foregone conclusion. A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... Founded in Paris after the fall of the Bastille in July 1789, the National Guard passed from the historical stage in the wake of the destruction of the Paris Commune in May 1871. ... François Nicolas Leonard Buzot (March 1, 1760 - June 18, 1794), was a French Revolutionary leader. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ...


In the suspicious temper of the times this vacillating policy was doubly fatal. Marat never ceased his denunciations of the faction des hommes d'Etat ("faction of the men of the State"), by which France was being betrayed to her ruin, and his parrot cry of Nous sommes trahis! ("We are betrayed!") was re-echoed from group to group in the streets of Paris. The Girondists, for all their fine phrases, were sold to the enemy, as Lafayette, Dumouriez and a hundred others—once popular favourites—had been sold. Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ...


The hostility of Paris to the Girondists received a fateful advertisement by the election, on 15 February 1793, of the ex-Girondist Jean-Nicolas Pache (1746 - 1823) to the mayoralty. Pache had twice been minister of war in the Girondist government; but his incompetence had laid him open to strong criticism, and on 4 February 1793 he had been superseded by a vote of the Convention. This was enough to secure him the suffrages of the Paris electors ten days later, and the Mountain was strengthened by the accession of an ally whose one idea was to use his new power to revenge himself on his former colleagues. Pache, with Pierre Gaspard Chaumette, procureur of the Commune, and Jacques René Hébert, deputy procureur, controlled the armed organisation of the Paris Sections, and prepared to turn this against the Convention. The abortive émeute of 10 March warned the Girondists of their danger, but the Commission of Twelve appointed on 18 May, the arrest of Marat and Hébert, and other precautionary measures, were defeated by the popular risings of 27 and 31 May, and, finally, on 2 June 1793, François Hanriot with the National Guards purged the Convention of the Girondists. Isnard's threat, uttered on 25 May, to march France upon Paris had been met by Paris marching upon the Convention. is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Nicolas Pache (1746 - November 18, 1823), French politician, was born in Paris, of Swiss parentage, the son of the concièrge of the hotel of Marshal de Castries. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Pierre Gaspard Chamette (1763 - April 13, 1794) was a French revolutionary. ... Jacques René Hébert Jacques René Hébert (November 15, 1757 - March 24, 1794) was editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... François Hanriot (1761 - July 28, 1794), French revolutionist, was born at Nanterre (Seine) of poor parentage. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Girondists and the Terror

The list drawn up by Hanriot, and endorsed by a decree of the intimidated Convention, included twenty-two Girondist deputies and ten members of the Commission of Twelve, who were ordered to be detained at their lodgings "under the safeguard of the people". Some submitted, among them Gensonné, Guadet, Vergniaud, Pétion, Birotteau and Boyer-Fonfrède. Others, including Brissot, Louvet, Buzot, Lasource, Grangeneuve, Larivière and Bergoing, escaped from Paris and, joined later by Guadet, Pétion and Birotteau, set to work to organise a movement of the provinces against the capital. This attempt to stir up civil war determined the wavering and frightened Convention. On 13 June 1793 it voted that the city of Paris had deserved well of the country, and ordered the imprisonment of the detained deputies, the filling up of their places in the Assembly by their suppleants, and the initiation of vigorous measures against the movement in the provinces. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The excuse for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the First Coalition, on the west by the Royalist insurrection of La Vendée, and the need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil war. The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday only served to increase the unpopularity of the Girondists and to seal their fate. On 28 July 1793 a decree of the Convention proscribed, as traitors and enemies of their country, twenty-one deputies, the final list of those sent for trial comprising the names of Antiboul, Boilleau the younger, Boyer-Fonfrêde, Brissot, Carra, Duchastel, the younger Ducos, Dufriche de Valazé, Duprat, Fauchet, Gardien, Gensonné, Lacaze, Lasource, Lauze-Deperret, Lehardi, Lesterpt-Beauvais, the elder Minvielle, Sillery, Vergniaud and Viger, of whom five were deputies from the Gironde. The names of thirty-nine others were included in the final acte d'accusation, accepted by the Convention on 24 October 1793, which stated the crimes for which they were to be tried as their perfidious ambition, their hatred of Paris, their "federalism" and, above all, their responsibility for the attempt of their escaped colleagues to provoke civil war. The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendée... Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Girondists on Trial

The trial of the twenty-one, which began before the Revolutionary Tribunal on 24 October 1793, was a mere farce, the verdict a foregone conclusion. On 31 October they were borne to the guillotine in five tumbrils, the corpse of Dufriche de Valazé -- who had killed himself -- being carried with them. They met death with great courage, singing the refrain Plutôt la mort que l'esclavage. October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right The guillotine is a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation. ...


Of those who escaped to the provinces the greater number, after wandering about singly or in groups, were either captured and executed or committed suicide, among them Barbaroux, Buzot, Condorcet, Grangeneuve, Guadet, Kersaint, Pétion, Rabaut de Saint-Etienne and Rebecqui. Roland had killed himself at Rouen on 15 November 1793, a week after the execution of his wife. Among the very few who finally escaped was Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai, whose Mémoires give a thrilling picture of the sufferings of the fugitives. Incidentally they prove, too, that the sentiment of France was for the time against the Girondists, who were proscribed even in their chief centre, the city of Bordeaux. Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Etienne (1743 - December 5, 1793), French revolutionist, was born at Nîmes, the son of Paul Rabaut, the additional surname of Saint-Etienne being assumed from a small property near Nîmes. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jean dArc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai (June 12, 1760 - August 25, 1797), was a French writer and politician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Girondists as Martyrs

The survivors of the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the fall of Robespierre on July 27, 1794, but it was not until 5 March 1795 that they were formally reinstated. On October 3 of the same year (11 Vendémiaire, year III) a solemn fête in honour of the Girondist "martyrs of liberty" was celebrated in the Convention. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the day. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vendémiaire was the first month in the French Republican Calendar. ... Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ...


Further reading

Of the special works on the Girondists Lamartine's Histoire des Girondins (2 volumes, Paris, 1847, new edition 1902, in 6 volumes) is rhetoric rather than history and is untrustworthy; the Histoire des Girondins, by A. Gramier de Cassagnac (Paris, 1860) led to the publication of a Protestation by J. Guadet, a nephew of the Girondist orator, which was followed by his Les Girondins, leur vie privée, leur vie publique, leur proscription et leur mort (2 volumes, Paris, 1861, new edition 1890), with which compare Alary, Les Girondins par Guadet (Bordeaux, 1863); also Charles Vatel, Charlotte Corday et les Girondins: pièces classées et annotées (3 volumes, Paris, 1864 - 1872). Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ...


See also

This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in France. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Please update as needed.
  • Robert Sobel The French Revolution (1967)

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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Girondist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1606 words)
The Girondists were more a group of fuckers who were pussy french individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common than an organized political party, and the name was at first somewhat loosely applied to them because the most brilliant exponents of their point of view were deputies from the Gironde.
On the spirit and policy of the Girondists Madame Roland, whose salon became their gathering-place, exercised a powerful influence; but such party cohesion as they possessed they owed to the energy of Brissot, who came to be regarded as their mouthpiece in the Assembly and in the Jacobin Club.
The hostility of Paris to the Girondists received a fateful advertisement by the election, on 15 February 1793, of the ex-Girondist Jean-Nicolas Pache (1746 - 1823) to the mayoralty.
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