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Encyclopedia > Girl Power
A 2002 anime DVD

The phrase "Girl Power," as a term of empowerment, expressed a cultural phenomenon of the mid-late 1990s to the early 2000s and is also linked to third-wave feminism. Image File history File links GirlPowerCover. ... Image File history File links GirlPowerCover. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...

Contents

Origins

There is some question as to the origins and meaning of the phrase "Girl Power." The term was associated with the Plumstead pop-punk duo Shampoo. They released both an album and single titled Girl Power in early 1995 (despite the fact that they were quoted—tongue planted firmly in cheek—as saying, ""Girl Power is a load of rubbish, who the hell thought that one up anyway?"[1] Image File history File links Girlpowershampoo. ... Image File history File links Girlpowershampoo. ... Shampoo Shampoo were a female pop duo recording between 1993 and 2000. ... Plumstead (founded circa 980) is a district in the London Borough of Greenwich, with the eastern end of the site of the former Royal Arsenal at its northern boundary and Shooters Hill to the south. ... Shampoo Shampoo were a female pop duo recording between 1993 and 2000. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


However, it was Welsh indie band Helen Love who first recorded the words, on their debut single Formula One Racing Girls, released on the Damaged Goods label in 1993.[2] The song itself is a nod to Riot Grrrl and embraces the concept of Girl Power and female emancipation. This article is about the country. ... Helen Love are an indie band from Wales whose music is a combination of punk rock, bubblegum pop and disco dance music. ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ...


Meanings

Oxford English Dictionary

In 2001, the Oxford English Dictionary added the term Girl Power!, defining this phrase as "a self-reliant attitude among girls and young women manifested in ambition, assertiveness and individualism."[3] Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


The OED also gives an example of this term by quoting from "Angel Delight", an article in the March 24, 2001 issue of Dreamwatch about the television series Dark Angel: Dark Angel is an American cyberpunk science fiction television program, created by James Cameron and Charles H. Eglee, which ran from 2000 to 2002 on the FOX network. ...

After the Sarah Connors and Ellen Ripleys of the eighties, the nineties weren't so kind to the superwoman format—Xena Warrior Princess excepted. But it's a new millennium now, and while Charlie's Angels and Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon are kicking up a storm on movie screens, it's been down to James Cameron to bring empowered female warriors back to television screens. And tellingly, Cameron has done it by mixing the sober feminism of his Terminator and Aliens characters with the sexed-up Girl Power of a Britney Spears concert. The result is Dark Angel.[4]

Sarah Connor in Terminator 2: Judgement Day. ... Sigourney Weaver as Ellen Ripley Ellen Ripley is a fictional character, the protagonist in the Alien movie series. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For the television show, see Xena: Warrior Princess. ... Charlies Angels (2000) is an action/comedy feature film based on (and something of a sequel to) the 1970s television series Charlies Angels. ... For other uses, see Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (disambiguation). ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ... The Terminator (also known as Terminator in some early trailers and posters) is a 1984 science fiction/action film featuring former bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger in what would become his best-known role, and also starred Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn. ... Aliens is a 1986 science fiction movie directed by James Cameron and starring Sigourney Weaver, Michael Biehn, Lance Henriksen, Carrie Henn, Bill Paxton and Paul Reiser. ... Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is a Grammy Award-winning[1] American pop singer, dancer, actress, author and songwriter. ...

Other contexts

Girl Power had different meanings according to context. The brand of Girl Power espoused by Shampoo involved "coming home drunk in the midnight hour" ("Girl Power"), whilst the official book for the Spice Girls quotes them as saying: "Feminism has become a dirty word. Girl Power is just a nineties way of saying it. We can give feminism a kick up the arse. Women can be so powerful when they show solidarity." Feminists redirects here. ...


Girl power in popular culture

Spice Girls
Spice Girls

The phrase is most commonly associated with the mid-1990s British singing group the Spice Girls.[5][6] The group used the phrase as a slogan in interviews and on merchandise. Geri Halliwell (also known as "Ginger Spice") helped spread the phrase through her music, writing, and acting. In her music video, "Bag It Up", the phrase "Girl Power" was transformed into "Girl Powder", a product that transforms any male into an obedient servant. The Cheetah Girls also sing a song of the same name in the first Disney Channel Original Musical The Cheetah Girls. [7][8] Comes from a music video gallery. ... Comes from a music video gallery. ... The Spice Girls are an English all-female pop group, formed in London in 1994. ... Geraldine Estelle Geri Halliwell (born 6 August 1972) is an English pop singer and songwriter, television personality, writer, and actress, and became famous (under the nickname of Ginger Spice) in the late 1990s as a member of the girl group the Spice Girls. ... Audio sample Bag It Up is a pop–dance song recorded by Geri Halliwell. ... The Cheetah Girls may refer to: The Cheetah Girls (book series) by Deborah Gregory. ... The Cheetah Girls may refer to: The Cheetah Girls (book series) by Deborah Gregory. ...


Some have suggested that the phrase "Girl Power!" mirrored the growing interest in popular culture in "The Girl" during the late 1990s.[9] This interest was further reflected in the development of the academic discipline, Buffy studies. Professor Susan Hopkins, in her 2002 text, Girl Heroes: the New Force in Popular Culture, suggested a correlation between Girl Power, The Spice Girls, and female action heroes during the end of the 20th century. Hopkins explores the roles of Britney Spears; supermodels; Lara Croft; Xena; the Charlie's Angels of the 2000s; Sabrina, the Teenage Witch; Mulan; The Powerpuff Girls; and Buffy in relation to the phrase, girl power. [10] For other uses, see Girl (disambiguation). ... One of many scholarly books published about the fictional Buffyverse; Blood Relations: Chosen Families in Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. Buffy Studies is a subset of the academic field of cultural studies. ... The book, Girl Heroes: The New Force In Popular Culture (2002), by Dr. Susan Hopkins (a Lecturer in The School of Journalism and Communication, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia), is a cultural analysis of the contemporary archetype of the girl hero in popular culture. ... The Spice Girls were a British vocal girl band. ... Arnold Schwarzenegger-example of an action hero An action hero is any heroic character that lacks the superhuman powers that would normally be connoted in the term superhero. Instead of fighting crime using latent or expressed superpowers, they are normal people who use special devices (not limited to gadgetry and... Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is a Grammy Award-winning[1] American pop singer, dancer, actress, author and songwriter. ... For the RuPaul song, see Supermodel (You Better Work). ... Lara Croft is a fictional British video game character and the heroine of the Tomb Raider series of video games, movies, and comic books. ... Xena. ... Charlies Angels (2000) is an action/comedy feature film based on (and something of a sequel to) the 1970s television series Charlies Angels. ... This article is about the first decade of the 21st century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the film Mulan. For the legendary person, see Hua Mulan. ... The Powerpuff Girls is an American animated television series about three little girls in kindergarten who have superpowers. ... Buffy Anne Summers is the eponymous fictional character in the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer, the television program of the same name and its numerous spin-offs, such as novels, comic books, and video games. ...


A few scholars suggested a specific link with third-wave feminism. Media theorist Kathleen Rowe Karlyn echoes this sentiment in her article "Scream, Popular Culture, and Feminism's Third Wave: I'm Not My Mother"[11] as does Irene Karras in "The Third Wave's Final girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer".[12] Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... Final Girl is a horror film conceit that specifically refers to the last person alive to confront the killer, ostensibly the one left to tell the story. ...


See also

...

References

Final Girl is a horror film conceit that specifically refers to the last person alive to confront the killer, ostensibly the one left to tell the story. ...

Bibliography

  • Buffy The Patriarchy Slayer - Bibliography of scholarly articles on Buffy Studies.
  • Early, Frances and Kathleen Kennedy, Athena's Daughters: Television's New Women Warriors, Syracuse University Press, 2003.
  • Gateward, Frances. Sugar, Spice, and Everything Nice. Cinemas of Girlhood. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002.
  • Heinecken, Dawn. Warrior Women of Television: A Feminist Cultural Analysis of the New Female Body in Popular Media, New York: P. Lang, 2003.
  • Helford, Elyce Rae. Fantasy Girls : Gender in the New Universe of Science Fiction and Fantasy Television. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
  • Hopkins, Susan, Girl Heroes: the New Force in Popular Culture, Pluto Press Australia, 2002.
  • Inness, Sherrie A. (ed.) Action Chicks: New Images of Tough Women in Popular Culture, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
  • ———. Tough Girls : Women Warriors and Wonder Women in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
  • ———.Nancy Drew and Company : Culture, Gender, and Girls' Series. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1997.
  • Karlyn, Kathleen Rowe. "Scream, Popular Culture, and Feminism's Third Wave: 'I'm Not My Mother'. Genders: Presenting Innovative Work in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences No. 38 (2003).
  • Karras, Irene. "The Third Wave's Final Girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer." thirdspace 1:2 (March 2002).
  • Kennedy, Helen W. "Lara Croft: Feminist Icon or Cyberbimbo?: On the Limits of Textual Analysis". Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research. 2:2 (December, 2002).
  • Magoulick, Mary. "Frustrating Female Heroism: Mixed Messages in Xena, Nikita, and Buffy." The Journal of Popular Culture, Volume 39 Issue 5 (October 2006).
  • Pohl-Weary, Emily. Girls Who Bite Back: Witches, Mutants, Slayers, Freaks.Toronto: Sumach Press, 2004.
  • Tasker, Yvonne. Action and Adventure Cinema. New York: Routledge, 2004.

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