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Encyclopedia > Giraffe
Giraffe
Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis
Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Giraffidae
Genus: Giraffa
Species: G. camelopardalis
Binomial name
Giraffa camelopardalis
Linnaeus, 1758
Range map
Range map

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. Males can be 4.8 to 5.5 metres (16 to 18 feet) tall and weigh up to 1,360 kilograms (3,000 pounds). The record-sized bull was 5.87 m (19.2 feet) tall and weighed approximately 2,000 kg (4,400 lbs.).[2] Females are generally slightly shorter and weigh less than the males do. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1519x1103, 254 KB) Summary Angolan giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the Lisbon Zoo. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) was an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which were dependent on conservation efforts to prevent the taxon becoming threatened with extinction. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Species  Okapia johnstoni  Giraffa camelopardalis The biological family Giraffidae contains just two members, the Giraffe and the Okapi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (970x900, 115 KB) Distribution of the subspecies of Giraffa camelopardalis Made by User: Altaileopard with a Wikipedia-World map on 30. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Shown above is a computer-generated image of the International Prototype Kilogram (“IPK”). The IPK is the kilogram. ...


The giraffe is related to deer and cattle, but is placed in a separate family, the Giraffidae, consisting only of the giraffe and its closest relative, the okapi. Its range extends from Chad to South Africa. This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Species  Okapia johnstoni  Giraffa camelopardalis The biological family Giraffidae contains just two members, the Giraffe and the Okapi. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal of the Ituri Rainforest in central Africa. ...


Giraffes can inhabit savannas, grasslands, or open woodlands. They prefer areas enriched with Acacia growth. They often drink, and as a result, they can spend long periods of time in dry, arid areas. When searching for more food they will venture into areas with denser foliage. For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy and naming

The species name camelopardalis (camelopard) is derived from its early Roman name, where it was described as having characteristics of both a camel and a leopard.[3] The English word camelopard first appeared in the 14th century and survived in common usage well into the 19th century. A number of European languages retain it. The Arabic word الزرافة ziraafa or zurapha, meaning "assemblage" (of animals), or just "tall", was used in English from the sixteenth century on, often in the Italianate form giraffa. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from...


Classification

There are nine generally accepted subspecies, differentiated by color and pattern variations and range: This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • Reticulated or Somali Giraffe (G.c. reticulata) — large, polygonal liver-colored spots outlined by a network of bright white lines. The blocks may sometimes appear deep red and may also cover the legs. Range: northeastern Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia.
  • Angolan or Smoky Giraffe (G.c. angolensis) — large spots and some notches around the edges, extending down the entire lower leg. Range: Angola, Zambia.
  • Kordofan Giraffe (G.c. antiquorum) — smaller, more irregular spots that cover the inner legs. Range: western and southwestern Sudan.
  • Masai or Kilimanjaro Giraffe (G.c. tippelskirchi) — jagged-edged, vine-leaf shaped spots of dark chocolate on a yellowish background. Range: central and southern Kenya, Tanzania.
  • Nubian Giraffe (G.c. camelopardalis) — large, four-sided spots of chestnut brown on an off-white background and no spots on inner sides of the legs or below the hocks. Range: eastern Sudan, northeast Congo.
  • Rothschild Giraffe or Baringo Giraffe or Ugandan Giraffe (G.c. rothschildi) — deep brown, blotched or rectangular spots with poorly defined cream lines. Hocks may be spotted. Range: Uganda, north-central Kenya.
  • South African Giraffe (G.c. giraffa) — rounded or blotched spots, some with star-like extensions on a light tan background, running down to the hooves. Range: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique.
  • Thornicroft or Rhodesian Giraffe (G.c. thornicrofti) — star-shaped or leafy spots extend to the lower leg. Range: eastern Zambia.
  • West African or Nigerian Giraffe (G.c. peralta) — numerous pale, yellowish red spots. Range: Niger, Cameroon.

Some scientists regard Kordofan and West African Giraffes as a single subspecies; similarly with Nubian and Rothschild's Giraffes, and with Angolan and South African Giraffes. Further, some scientists regard all populations except the Masai Giraffes as a single subspecies. By contrast, scientists have proposed four other subspecies — Cape Giraffe (G.c. capensis), Lado Giraffe (G.c. cottoni), Congo Giraffe (G.c. congoensis), and Transvaal Giraffe (G.c. wardi) — but none of these is widely accepted. Binomial name Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758 The Somali Giraffe or Reticulated Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata, is a subspecies of giraffe native to Somalia. ... Trinomial name Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Masai Giraffe range The Masai Giraffe, also known as the Kilimanjaro Giraffe is a subspecies of Giraffe. ... Trinomial name Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi The Rothschild Giraffe, named after Tring Zoological Museums founder, Lord Walter Rothschild[1], also known as the Baringo Giraffe, after the Lake Baringo area of Kenya,[2], or as the Ugandan Giraffe, is the most endangered of giraffe subspecies[3], with around forty believed...


Evolution

The giraffe evolved from a 10 ft tall deer-like animal which roamed Europe and Asia 30-50 million years ago.[4] Fossil records show that early giraffids had shorter necks and were more stout in structure. Some had a leg length 83% that of the modern giraffe. There seems to be no parallel increase in neck length in relation to other body parts. The modern giraffe first appeared 1 million years ago.


Anatomy

Giraffe skeleton as illustrated by Richard Lydekker.
Giraffe skeleton as illustrated by Richard Lydekker.

Male giraffes are around 16–18 feet (4.5-5.5 metres) tall at the horn tips, and weigh 1700–4200 lb. (770-1900 kg) Females are one to two feet (30-60 cm) shorter and weigh several hundred pounds less than males. Giraffes have spots covering their entire bodies, except their underbellies, with each giraffe having a unique pattern of spots. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 317 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 1135 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Giraffe ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 317 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 1135 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Giraffe ... Richard Lydekker (1849 - April 16, 1915) was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history. ...


Horns

Both sexes have horns, although the horns of a female are smaller. The prominent horns are formed from ossified cartilage and are called ossicones. The appearance of horns is a reliable method of identifying the sex of giraffes, with the females displaying tufts of hair on the top of the horns, whereas males' horns tend to be bald on top - an effect of necking in combat. Males sometimes develop calcium deposits which form bumps on their skull as they age, which can give the appearance of up to three further horns.[5] The term ossicone refers to the horn-like (or antler-like) protuberances on the heads of giraffes, male okapis, and their extinct relatives, such as Sivatherium, and Climacoceras. ...

Giraffe portrait, Melbourne Zoo
Giraffe portrait, Melbourne Zoo

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 570 KB) Giraffe, Melbourne Zoo If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 570 KB) Giraffe, Melbourne Zoo If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... The Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, commonly known as the Melbourne Zoo, contains more than 350 animal species from Australia and around the world. ...

Neck

Giraffes have long necks, which they use to browse the leaves of trees. They possess seven vertebrae in the neck (the usual number for a mammal) that are elongated. The vertebrae are separated by highly flexible joints. The base of the neck has spines which project upward and form a hump over the shoulders. They anchor muscles that hold the neck upright.


Legs and pacing

Giraffes also have slightly elongated forelegs, about 10% longer than their hind legs. The pace of the giraffe is an amble, though when pursued it can run extremely fast. It can not sustain a lengthy chase. Its leg length compels an unusual gait with the left legs moving together followed by right (similar to pacing) at low speed, and the back legs crossing outside the front at high speed. When hunting adult giraffes, lions try to knock the lanky animal off its feet and pull it down. The giraffe defends itself against threats by kicking with great force. A single well-placed kick of an adult giraffe can shatter a lion's skull or break its spine. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ...

Giraffes bending down to drink
Giraffes bending down to drink

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 314 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 1181 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 314 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 1181 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Circulatory system

Modifications to the giraffe's structure have evolved, particularly to the circulatory system. A giraffe's heart, which can weigh up to 10 kg (22 lb) and measure about 2 feet long, has to generate around double the normal blood pressure for an average large mammal in order to maintain blood flow to the brain against gravity. In the upper neck, a complex pressure-regulation system called the rete mirabile prevents excess blood flow to the brain when the giraffe lowers its head to drink. Conversely, the blood vessels in the lower legs are under great pressure (because of the weight of fluid pressing down on them). In other animals such pressure would force the blood out through the capillary walls; giraffes, however, have a very tight sheath of thick skin over their lower limbs which maintains high extravascular pressure in exactly the same way as a pilot's g-suit For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... A rete mirabile (Latin for wonderful net) is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other, found in a number of vertebrates, and serving different purposes. ... A G-suit is worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration (G). It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC (g-induced Loss Of Consciousness), due to the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under G, thus...


Behavior

Social structure and breeding habits

Mating Angolan Giraffes at Chudop waterhole, Etosha, Namibia.
Mating Angolan Giraffes at Chudop waterhole, Etosha, Namibia.

Female giraffes associate in groups of a dozen or so members, occasionally including a few younger males. Males tend to live in "bachelor" herds, with older males often leading solitary lives. Reproduction is polygamous, with a few older males impregnating all the fertile females in a herd. Male giraffes determine female fertility by tasting the female's urine in order to detect estrus, in a multi-step process known as the flehmen response. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1811 × 2415 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1811 × 2415 pixel, file size: 1. ... A mare exhibits the flehmen response by curling back her upper lip The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening (from German flehmen (of animals) meaning to curl the upper lip), is a particular type of curling of the upper lip in ungulates, felids, and...


Reproduction

Giraffe gestation lasts between 14 and 15 months, after which a single calf is born. The mother gives birth standing up and the embryonic sack usually bursts when the baby falls to the ground. Newborn giraffes are about 1.8 metres tall. Within a few hours of being born, calves can run around and are indistinguishable from a week-old calf; however, for the first two weeks, they spend most of their time lying down, guarded by the mother. The young can fall prey to lions, leopards, hyenas, and African Wild Dogs. It has been speculated that their characteristic spotted pattern provides a certain degree of camouflage. Only 25 to 50% of giraffe calves reach adulthood; the life expectancy is between 20 and 25 years in the wild and 28 years in captivity.(Encyclopedia of Animals). Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from... Subfamilies and Genera Hyaenidae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ...


Necking

Two males necking.
Two males necking.

As noted above males often engage in necking, which has been described as having various functions. One of these is combat. These battles can be fatal, but are more often less severe. The longer a neck is, and the heavier the head at the end of the neck, the greater force a giraffe will be able to deliver in a blow. It has also been observed that males that are successful in necking have greater access to estrous females, so that the length of the neck may be a product of sexual selection.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ...


After a necking duel, a giraffe can land a powerful blow with his head occasionally knocking a male opponent to the ground. These fights rarely last more than a few minutes or end in physical harm.


Feeding and cleaning

Giraffes use their long, prehensile tongues to extend their reach.
Giraffes use their long, prehensile tongues to extend their reach.

The giraffe browses on the twigs of trees, preferring trees of the genus Mimosa; but it appears that it can live without inconvenience on other vegetable food. A giraffe can eat 63 kg (140 lb) of leaves and twigs daily. As ruminants, they first chew their food, swallow for processing and then visibly regurgitate the semi-digested cud up their necks and back into the mouth, in order to chew again. This process is usually repeated several times for each mouthful. Closeup of the head of a giraffe, tongue extended; specimen at the National Museum of Natural History. ... Closeup of the head of a giraffe, tongue extended; specimen at the National Museum of Natural History. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mimosa (disambiguation). ...


A giraffe will clean off any bugs that appear on its face with its extremely long tongue (about 18 in/45 cm). The tongue is tough on account of the giraffe's diet, which can include thorns from the trees that they eat. In Southern Africa, giraffes are partial to all acacias, especially Acacia erioloba, and possess a specially-adapted tongue and lips that are tough enough to withstand, or even ignore the vicious thorns of this plant. Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Acacia erioloba Acacia erioloba, commonly known as the Camel Thorn (Kameeldoring in Afrikaans) or Giraffe Thorn, is a thorn acacia native to the desert regions of Southern Africa, especially the Karoo. ...

Giraffe in process of sitting down.jpg
Giraffe in process of sitting down.jpg

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ...

Sleep

The giraffe has one of the shortest sleep requirements of any mammal, which is between 10 minutes and two hours in a 24-hour period, averaging 1.9 hours per day.[7] This has led to the myth that giraffes cannot lie down and that if they do so, they will die. For other uses, see Myth (disambiguation). ...


Sounds

Giraffes are thought to be mute; however, although generally quiet, they have been heard to grunt, snort and bleat. Recent research has shown evidence that the animal communicates at an infrasound level.[8] Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... Infrasound is sound with a frequency too low to be detected by the human ear. ...


Conservation

Giraffes are hunted for their hides, hair and meat. In addition, habitat destruction also hurts the giraffe. In the Sahel trees are cut down for firewood and to make way for livestock. Normally, giraffes are able to cope with livestock since they feed in the trees above their heads. The giraffe population is increasingly shrinking in West Africa. However the populations in eastern and southern Africa are stable and, due to the popularity of privatiely owned game ranches, are expanding. The Giraffe is a protected species in most of it's range. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In art and culture

Painting of a giraffe taken to China by Admiral Zheng He

Giraffes can be seen in paintings, including the famous painting of a giraffe which was taken from Africa to China by Admiral Zheng He in 1414. The giraffe was placed in a Ming Dynasty zoo. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (734x1495, 147 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zheng He ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (734x1495, 147 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Zheng He ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings...


The Medici giraffe was a giraffe presented to Lorenzo de Medici in 1486. It caused a great stir on its arrival in Florence, being reputedly the first living giraffe to be seen in Italy since the days of Ancient Rome. Another famous giraffe, called Zarafa, was brought from Africa to Paris in the early 1800s and kept in a menagerie for 18 years. The Gathering of Manna (1540) by Piero Bacchiacca. ... The exact same full name was also carried by his grandson Lorenzo (1492 - 1519), Duke of Urbino, with whom he is sometimes confused. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ...


Notable fictional giraffes include:

  • Toys "R" Us mascot Geoffrey Giraffe. He was normally portrayed as a cartoon giraffe but in the 2001 commercials he was portrayed as a real-life giraffe who talks; an animatronic version of Geoffrey the Giraffe (created by Stan Winston Studios), was voiced by Jim Hanks in commercials for radio and television.

Giraffes have also appeared as backgound characters in various other animated works such as Dumbo and The Lion King. Toys R Us (often typeset as Toys Я Us to fit their logo) is a toy store chain based in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ... Stan Winston (born April 7, 1946), is a special effects and makeup artist. ... James M. Hanks is the brother of Tom Hanks. ... Longrack is the name of several characters within in the fictional Transformers universes. ... A Transformer is a fictional robot that is able to transform, rearranging itself into a common and innocuous form, such as a car, aircraft, or animal. ... Girafarig Kirinriki in original Japanese language versions) is one of the 493 fictional species of Pokémon from the Pokémon Franchise – a series of video games, anime, manga, books, trading cards and other media created by Satoshi Tajiri. ... The official Pokémon logo. ... Melman Mankiewicz III is a fictional anthropomorphic giraffe, who appears in the 2005 DreamWorks film, Madagascar. ... Dumbo is a 1941 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney and first released on October 23, 1941 by RKO Radio Pictures. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ...


References

  1. ^ Antelope Specialist Group (1996). Giraffa camelopardalis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 05 May 2006.
  2. ^ San Diego Zoo giraffe fact sheet Retrieved 14 August 2006.
  3. ^ http://www.eaudrey.com/myth/camelopard.htm
  4. ^ Stevens, J. (1993). Familiar Strangers. International Wildlife, 23, 6-10.
  5. ^ http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/t-giraffe.html
  6. ^ Robert E. Simmons and Lue Scheepers: Winning by a neck: Sexual selection in the evolution of giraffe. The American Naturalist, 148 (1996): pp. 771-786.
  7. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/articles/whatissleep.shtml
  8. ^ http://www.animalvoice.com/Giraffe.htm

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Giraffe - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (1468 words)
Giraffes are famous for their long necks which allow them to browse on the leaves of trees, and elongated forelegs (which appear much longer than the hind legs, but in reality, are only 1/10th longer).
Giraffe gestation lasts between 14 and 15 months after which a single calf is born.
However, since female giraffes are not as high as male giraffes and tend to feed from much lower heights than their male counterparts, it is hard to say that they need the long necks for metabolic reasons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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