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Encyclopedia > Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. He was the most famous sixteenth-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. Palestrina had a vast influence on the development of Roman Catholic church music, and his work can be seen as a summation of Renaissance polyphony. is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Roman school is the education system of the Ancient Rome. ... Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Christian music is music created by or adapted for the Christian church. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ...

Contents

Life

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.‎
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.‎

Palestrina was born in Palestrina, a town near Rome, then part of the Papal States. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Palestrina (ancient Praeneste) was and is a very ancient city of Latium (modern Lazio) 23 miles (37 km) east of Rome, and was reached by the Via Praenestina (see below). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


He spent most of his career in Rome. Documents suggest he first visited the city in 1537, when he is listed as a chorister at Santa Maria Maggiore basilica. He studied with Robin Mallapert and Firmin Lebel. Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Saint Mary Major, in Italian, Santa Maria Maggiore, is one of the five great ancient basilicas of Rome, Italy. ... Robin Mallapert (fl. ... Firmin Lebel (early 16th century – December 27-31, 1573) was a French composer and choir director of the Renaissance, active in Rome. ...


It was rumored Palestrina studied under Claude Goudimel; the story originated in the nineteenth century, but according to recent study, Goudimel was never in Rome. Claude Goudimel was a French composer and music theorist of the Renaissance. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From 1544-1551 Palestrina was organist of the principal church of his native city (St Agapito), and in the last year became maestro di cappella at the Cappella Giulia, the papal choir at St. Peter's Basilica. His first published compositions, a book of masses made so favorable an impression with Pope Julius III (previously the Bishop of Palestrina), that he was appointed musical director of the Julian Chapel. In addition, this was the first book of masses by a native composer: in the Italian states of his day, most composers of sacred music were from Netherlands, France, or Spain. In fact his book of masses was actually modeled on one by Morales, and the woodcut in the front is an almost exact copy of the one from the book by the Spaniard. Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Year 1551 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly called Saint Peters Basilica, is one of four major basilicas of Rome (St. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... Pope Julius III (September 10, 1487 – March 23, 1555), born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from February 22, 1550 to 1555. ... Cristóbal de Morales (c. ...


Palestrina held positions similar to his Julian Chapel appointment at other chapels and churches in Rome during the next decade (notably St John in Lateran, from 1555-1560, and St Maria Maggiore, from 1561-1566). In 1571 he returned to the Julian Chapel, and remained at St Peter's for the rest of his life. The decade of the 1570s was difficult for him personally; he lost his brother, two of his sons, and his wife in three separate outbreaks of the plague (1572, 1575, and 1580 respectively). He seems to have considered becoming a priest at this time, but instead he married again, this time to a wealthy widow; this finally gave him financial independence (he was not well paid as choirmaster) and he was able to compose prolifically until his death. The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... Significant Events and Trends Transition from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan Categories: 1570s ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ...


He died in Rome of pleurisy in 1594. Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ...


Music and reputation

See also: List of compositions by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 104 masses, 68 offertories, more than 300 motets, at least 72 hymns, 35 magnificats, 11 litanies, 4 or 5 sets of lamentations etc., at least 140 madrigals and 9 organ ricercari (however, recent scholarship has classed these ricercari as of doubtful authorship; Palestrina probably wrote no purely instrumental music). His Missa sine nomine seems to have been particularly attractive to Johann Sebastian Bach, who studied and performed it while he was writing his own masterpiece, the Mass in B Minor. His compositions are typified as very clear, with voice parts well-balanced and beautifully harmonized. Among the works counted as his masterpieces is the Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass), which according to legend was composed to persuade the Council of Trent that a draconian ban on polyphonic treatment of text in sacred music was unnecessary. However, more recent scholarship shows that this mass was composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban (possibly as much as ten years before). It is probable, however, that Palestrina was quite conscious of the needs of intelligible text in conformity with the doctrine of the Counter-Reformation, and wrote his works towards this end from the 1560s until the end of his life. This is a list of compositions by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, sorted by genre. ... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... The Visitation in the Book of Hours of the Duc of Berry For the David and the Giants album, see Magnificat (album) The Magnificat (also known as the Song of Mary) is a canticle frequently sung (or said) liturgically in Christian church services. ... A litany, in Christian worship, is a form of prayer used in church services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions. ... The Lamentations of Jeremiah the Prophet have been set by various composers. ... A madrigal is a setting for two or more voices of a secular text, often in Italian. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... The Mass in B Minor (BWV 232) is a work of music by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Missa Papae Marcelli, or Pope Marcellus Mass, is a mass by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


The "Palestrina Style"—the smooth style of 16th century polyphony, derived and codified by Johann Joseph Fux from a careful study of his works—is the style usually taught as "Renaissance polyphony" in college counterpoint classes, although in a modified form, as Fux made a number of stylistic errors which have been corrected by later authors (notably Knud Jeppesen and Morris). As codified by Fux it follows the rules of what he defined as "species counterpoint." No composer of the sixteenth century was more consistent in following his own rules, and staying within the stylistic bounds he imposed on himself, than was Palestrina. Also, no composer of the sixteenth century has had such an edifice of myth and legend built around him. Much of the research on Palestrina was done in the nineteenth century by Giuseppe Baini, who published a monograph in 1828 which made Palestrina famous again, and reinforced the already existing legend that he was the "Saviour of Church Music" during the reforms of the Council of Trent. The nineteenth-century attitude of hero-worship is predominant in this monograph, however, and this has remained with the composer to some degree to the present day; Hans Pfitzner's opera Palestrina shows this attitude at its peak. Scholarship of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries tends to retain the view that Palestrina was a strong and refined composer, representing a summit of technical perfection, but emphasizes that there were other composers working at the same time with equally individual voices and slightly different styles, even within the confines of smooth polyphony, such as Lassus and Victoria. Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Johann Joseph Fux Johann Joseph Fux (German fyːks) (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... Knud Jeppesen (1892 - 1974) was a Danish composer, musicologist and writer on the history of music. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Giuseppe Baini (October 21, 1775 – May 21, 1844) was an Italian priest, music critic and composer of church music. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Hans Pfitzner (May 5, 1869 - May 22, 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist. ... Palestrina is an opera by the German composer Hans Pfitzner, first performed at the Prinzregententheater, Munich on 12 June 1917. ... Orlande de Lassus, a. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ...


Palestrina was immensely famous in his day, and his reputation, if anything, increased following his death. Conservative music of the Roman School continued to be written in his style (known as the "prima pratica" in the seventeenth century), by such students of his as Giovanni Maria Nanino, Ruggiero Giovannelli, Arcangelo Crivelli, Teofilo Gargari, Francesco Soriano and Gregorio Allegri. It is also thought that Salvatore Sacco may have been a student of Palestrina. Palestrina's music continues to be performed and recorded, and provides models for the study of counterpoint. Prima pratica, literally first practice, refers to early Baroque music which looks more to the style of Palestrina, or the style codified by Gioseffo Zarlino, than to more modern styles. ... Giovanni Maria Nanino (also Nanini) (1543 or 1544 – March 11, 1607) was an Italian composer and teacher of the late Renaissance. ... Ruggiero Giovannelli (c. ... Francesco Soriano (1548 or 1549–1621) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... Gregorio Allegri Gregorio Allegri (1582 – February 7, 1652) was an Italian composer and priest of the Roman School of composers. ...


References

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Article "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da", in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  • Benjamin, Thomas, The Craft of Modal Counterpoint, 2nd ed. Routledge, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-415-97172-1 (direct approach)
  • Coates, Henry, Palestrina. J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1938. (An early entry in the Master Musicians series, and, like other books in that series, combines biographical data with musicological commentary.)
  • Daniel, Thomas, Kontrapunkt, Eine Satzlehre zur Vokalpolyphonie des 16. Jahrhunderts. Verlag Dohr, 2002. ISBN 3-925366-96-2
  • Johann Joseph Fux, The Study of Counterpoint (Gradus ad Parnassum). Tr. Alfred Mann. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1965. ISBN 0-393-00277-2
  • Gauldin, Robert, A Practical Approach to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint. Waveland Press, Inc., Long Grove, Illinois, 1995. ISBN 0-88133-852-4 (direct approach, no species; contains a large and detailed bibliography)
  • Haigh, Andrew C. "Modal Harmony in the Music of Palestrina", in the festschrift Essays on Music: In Honor of Archibald Thompson Davison. Harvard University Press, 1957, pp.111-120.
  • Jeppesen, Knud, The Style of Palestrina and the Dissonance. 2nd ed., London, 1946. (An exhaustive study of his contrapuntal technique.)
  • Jeppesen, Knud; Haydon, Glen (Translator); Foreword by Mann, Alfred. Counterpoint. New York, 1939. Available through Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27036-X
  • Lewis Lockwood, Noel O'Regan, Jessie Ann Owens: "Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed July 7, 2007), (subscription access)
  • Meier, Bernhard, The Modes of Classical Vocal Polyphony, Described According to the Sources. Broude Borthers Limited, 1988. ISBN 0-8450-7025-8
  • Morris, R.O., Contrapuntal Technique in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-19-321468-7 (out of print; one of the first attempts at "direct approach", meaning Morris does away with Fux' five species).
  • Motte, Diether de la, Kontrapunkt. 1981 Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel. ISBN 3-423-30146-5 / 3-7618-4371-2 (this text is in German; great, though!)
  • Pyne, Zoe Kendrick, Giovanni Pierluigi di Palestrina: His Life and Times, Bodley Head, London, 1922.
  • Reese, Gustave, Music in the Renaissance. W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4
  • Roche, Jerome, Palestrina. Oxford University Press, 1970. ISBN 0-19-314117-5
  • Stewart, Robert, An Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint and Palestrina's Musical Style. Ardsley House, Publishers, 1994. ISBN 1-880157-07-1
  • Stove, R. J., Prince of Music: Palestrina and His World, Quakers Hill Press, Sydney, 1990. ISBN 0-7316-8792-2 (biographical rather than musicological in nature; is wholly devoid of staff-notation extracts; but corrects some errors found in Z. K. Pyne and elsewhere).
  • Swindale, Owen, Polyphonic Composition, Oxford University Press, 1962. (Out of print, no ISBN available.)

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Johann Joseph Fux (1660 – February 13, 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era. ... In academia, a Festschrift (; plural, Festschriften, ) is a book honouring a respected academic. ... Knud Jeppesen (1892 - 1974) was a Danish composer, musicologist and writer on the history of music. ... Gustave Reese (November 29, 1899 – September 7, 1977) was an American musicologist and teacher. ... Robert James Stove (born 1961) is an Australian writer, editor, composer, and organist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lockwood/O'Regan/Owens, Grove online
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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
DoveSong.com -- Sacred Music of Palestrina (600 words)
Palestrina dedicated a book of masses to Pope Julius III who in January of 1554 admitted him to the Pontifical Chapel as a singer.
Palestrina was called "the savior of music" and was appointed composer to the Pontifical Chapel.
The house where Palestrina lived for nearly a quarter of a century and died was probably situated in the street at the top left-hand corner of the picture.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (2068 words)
Italian composer, was born in Palestrina (the ancient Praeneste) at the foot of the Sabine mountains, in 1526.
This cruel disappointment caused Palestrina a dangerous illness; but in October 1555 he was appointed maestro di cappella at the Lateran, without forfeiting his pension; and in February 1561 he exchanged this preferment for a similar one, with an allowance of 16 scudi per month, at Santa Maria Maggiore.
Palestrina remained in office at this celebrated basilica for ten years, and to this period is assigned an important chapter in the history of music.
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