FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Giovanni Gentile
Western Philosophers
20th-century philosophy
Giovanni Gentile
Name: Giovanni Gentile
Birth: May 30, 1875 (Castelvetrano, Italy)
Death: April 15, 1944 (Florence, Italy)
School/tradition: Idealism, Metaphysics
Main interests: Immanentism, Dialectic, Pedagogy
Notable ideas: Actual Idealism, Fascism
Influences: Pre-Socratics, Protagoras, Plato, Vico, Hegel, Gioberti, Rosmini, Spaventa, Mazzini, Foscolo, Galluppi, Marx, Sorel, Nietzsche, Croce, de Sanctis, d'Ancona, Antonio Labriola, Donato Jaja
Influenced: Ugo Spirito, Guido Calogero, Benedetto Croce, Martin Heidegger, Bernard Bosanquet, William Ernest Hocking, Edwin Burtt, Timothy L. S. Sprigge, Clarence Irving Lewis, Benito Mussolini


Giovanni Gentile (IPA:[dʒovɑnˌni dʒentiˌle]) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. He described himself as 'the philosopher of Fascism', and ghostwrote A Doctrine of Fascism (1932) for Benito Mussolini. He also devised his own system of philosophy, Actual Idealism. It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Picture of Giovanni Gentile This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Country Italy Region Sicily Province Trapani (TP) Mayor Giovanni Pompeo (since December 10, 2001) Elevation 187 m Area 206 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004) 30,369  - Density 132/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Castelvetranesi Dialing code 0924 Postal code 91022 Frazioni Triscina di Selinunte, Marinella di... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Immanentism is a belief system which views God as being inseparable from Nature, as opposed to a being outside of it. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Vincenzo Gioberti (April 5, 1801 - October 26, 1852) was an Italian philosopher, publicist and politician Gioberti was born in Turin. ... The Venerable Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (March 25, 1797 - July 1, 1855) was an Italian philosopher. ... Giuseppe Mazzini. ... Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827), Italian writer, was born at Zakynthos in the Ionian Isles on 6 Febraury 1778. ... Pasquale Galluppi Pasquale Galluppi (2 April 1770, Tropea, Calabria-13 December 1846 Naples) was an Italian philosopher, from 1831 he was a professor at the University of Naples. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... Francesco de Sanctis (March 28, 1817 – December 29, 1883) was an Italian literary critic, considered the most important scholar of Italian language and literature in the 19th century. ... Alessandro DAncona (20 February 1835 - 9 November 1914) was an Italian critic and writer. ... Antonio Labriola Antonio Labriola (1843-1904) was an Italian Marxist theoretician. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Bernard Bosanquet (July 14, 1848, Alnwick, Northumberland, England – February 8, 1923, London) was one of the chief philosophers in England who helped revive the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. ... William Ernest Hocking (1873 - 1966) was an American Idealist philosopher He was attended lectures by many German philosophers of his time; Dilthey, Paul Natorp, Husserl, Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert. ... Edwin Arthur Burtt (1892-1989) was an American philosopher, who wrote extensively on the philosophy of religion. ... Timothy L.S. Sprigge (born 1932; died 11 July 2007) was a British idealist philosopher who spent the latter portion of his career at the University of Edinburgh, where he was an Emeritus Professor. ... Clarence Irving Lewis (April 12, 1883 Stoneham, Massachusetts - February 3, 1964 Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American academic philosopher. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... In philosophy, idealism is any theory positing the primacy of spirit, mind, or language over matter. ... Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ...

Contents

Life and thought

Gentile was born in Castelvetrano, Sicily. Gentile was inspired by such Italian thinkers as Mazzini, Rosmini, Gioberti and Spaventa from whom he borrowed the idea of autoctisi or self-construction, but was just as strongly influenced by the German idealist and materialist schools of thought – namely Karl Marx, Hegel, and Fichte with whom he shared the ideal of creating a Wissenschaftslehre, or theory for a structure of knowledge which makes no assumptions. Nietzsche too, played an influence on Gentile, as can be seen in an analogy between Nietzsche's Übermensch and Gentile's Uomo Fascista. Country Italy Region Sicily Province Trapani (TP) Mayor Giovanni Pompeo (since December 10, 2001) Elevation 187 m Area 206 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004) 30,369  - Density 132/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Castelvetranesi Dialing code 0924 Postal code 91022 Frazioni Triscina di Selinunte, Marinella di... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Giuseppe Mazzini (June 22, 1805 – March 10, 1872) was an Italian writer and politician whose efforts helped bring about the modern Italian state, rather than the medley of separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed in the nineteenth century. ... The Venerable Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (March 25, 1797 - July 1, 1855) was an Italian philosopher. ... Vincenzo Gioberti (April 5, 1801 - October 26, 1852) was an Italian philosopher, publicist and politician Gioberti was born in Turin. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Definition
Definitions of fascism The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Image File history File links Fasces. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Italian fascism
Neo-Fascism
Islamofascism
Left-wing fascism
Rexism
Falangism
Ustaše
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Iron Guard
Arrow Cross
Greek fascism
Crypto-fascism
Lebanese Phalange
Japanese fascism
Estado Novo (Portugal)
Estado Novo (Brazil)
Brazilian Integralism Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Islamofascism is a controversial neologism suggesting an association of the ideological or operational characteristics of certain modern Islamist movements with European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Politics stubs ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... An Ustaše guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The Ustaše (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Estado Novo (Portuguese for New State) was the name of the authoritarian government installed in Brazil by President Getúlio Dornelles Vargas in 1937. ... The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ...


Fascist political parties and movements
Fascism as an international phenomenon
List of fascist movements by country This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Fascism in history
Fascio
March on Rome
Fascist Italy
Italian Social Republic
4th of August Regime
Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...


Related subjects
Actual Idealism
Anti-fascism
Benito Mussolini
Black Brigades
Blackshirts
Class collaboration
Corporatism
Economics of fascism
Fascism and ideology
Fascist symbolism
Fascist unification rhetoric
Giovanni Gentile
Grand Council of Fascism
Roman salute
National syndicalism
Neo-Fascism
Social fascism
Third Position
Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The Economics of fascism can be studied by examining the economic policies of various countries under fascist control during the period between World War One and the end of World War II. Some scholars and analysts argue that there is an identifiable political economy of fascism that is distinct from... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ...

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal

 v  d  e 


He held the philosophy chair at Palermo University, from 1907 to 1914, and later in Pisa. He was also Mussolini's minister of Public Education in 1923, implementing a radical reform of the Italian secondary school system, commonly referred to as the "Riforma Gentile", which had a deep and long-lasting influence on Italian education[1][2]. Following the formulation of his ideas in important works soon after such as The Theory of Mind as Pure Act (1916) & Logic as Theory of Knowledge (1917), Gentile devised what he called Actual Idealism, a unified metaphysical system reinforcing his sentiments that philosophy when isolated from life, and alternately, life when isolated from philosophy are two modes of the same backwards cultural bankruptcy. It was a theory that for him could finally realise how philosophy could directly influence, mould, and penetrate into life to govern it. For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ...


The theory of his system took thought to the all-embracing, to whence he claimed none could actually leave their sphere of thinking or exceed their own thought. Reality to Gentile then could not be thinkable except in relation to the activity by means where it becomes thinkable. Gentile posited this as a unity held within the active subject along with the multitude of abstract separate phenomena of all that was. Wherein each phenomena when truly realized was in fact then centered in this unity and it was therefore innately spiritual, transcendent & immanent to all other possible things that were in contact with it. Gentile used this as a framework to begin an entire systematization of all otherwise seemingly disparate items of interest now subject to this rule of absolute self-identification, making all consequences that arise from this hypothesis the correct ones. Resulting was what may be interpreted as an idealist foundation for Legal Naturalism. For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... abstraction in general. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Legal naturalism is a term coined by Olufemi Taiwo to describe a current in the social philosophy of Karl Marx which can be interpreted as one of Natural Law. ...


Gentile, described both by himself and Mussolini as 'the philosopher of Fascism', ghostwrote A Doctrine of Fascism for Benito Mussolini. It first appeared in 1932 in the Italian Encyclopedia (which was edited by Gentile). In it he described the traits characteristic of Italian Fascism at the time: compulsory state corporatism, Philosopher Kings, abolition of the parliamentary system, and autarky. He also wrote the Manifesto of the Italian Fascist Intellectuals which was signed by many thinkers and writers such as Pirandello. Gentile was minister of education and later a member of the Fascist Grand Council during the Fascist regime. He stayed loyal to Mussolini after the establishment of the Republic of Salò and accepted an appointment from the government. In 1944 he was killed by a group of anti-fascist partisans led by Bruno Fanciullacci [3], while returning from the Prefecture in Florence, where, ironically or perhaps poignantly, he had argued for the release of anti-fascist intellectuals. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The Republic (Greek: ) is a Socratic dialogue by Plato, written approximately 360 BC. It is an influential work of philosophy and political theory, and perhaps Platos best known work. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Gentile had believed so firmly in the philosophical concreteness of Fascism as having a dialectical intelligence surpassing intellectual scrutiny, that he presumed intellectual opposition could only reinforce and give credence to help the truth of his conception of Fascism as a superior and liberally thinking polity.


Phases of his thought

There are a number of developments within his thought and career which defined his philosophy.

  • The discovery of Actual Idealism in his work Theory of the Pure Act (1903)
  • The political favour he felt for the invasion of Libya (1911) and the entry of Italy into World War I (1915)
  • The dispute with Benedetto Croce over the historic inevitability of Fascism.
  • His role as education minister (1923)
  • His belief that Fascism could be made to be subservient to his thought and the gathering of influence through the work of such students as Ugo Spirito.

1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Philosophy

Gentile's philosophical basis for fascism was rooted in his understanding of ontology and epistemology, in which he found vindication for the rejection of individualism, acceptance of collectivism, with the state as the ultimate location of authority and loyalty to which the individual found in the conception of individuality no meaning outside of the state (which in turn justified totalitarianism). This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Ultimately, Gentile foresaw a social order wherein opposites of all kinds weren't to be given sanction as existing independently from each other; that 'publicness' and 'privateness' as broad interpretations were currently false as imposed by all former kinds of Government; capitalism, communism, and that only the reciprocal totalitarian state of Corporative Syndicalism, a Fascist state, could defeat these problems made from reifing as an external that which is in fact to Gentile only a thinking reality. Whereas it was common in the philosophy of the time to see conditional subject as abstract and object as concrete, Gentile postulated the opposite, that subject was the concrete and objectification was abstraction (or rather; that what was conventionally dubbed "subject" was in fact only conditional object, and that true subject was the 'act of' being or essence above any object). For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Gentile was a notable philosophical theorist of his time throughout Europe, since having developed his 'Actual Idealism' system of Idealism, sometimes called 'Actualism.' It was especially in which his ideas put subject to the position of a transcending truth above positivism that garnered attention; by way that all senses about the world only take the form of ideas within one's mind in any real sense; to Gentile even the analogy between the function & location of the physical brain with the functions of the physical body were a consistent creation of the mind (and not brain; which was a creation of the mind and not the other way around). An example of Actual Idealism in Theology is the idea that although man may have invented the concept of God, it does not make God any less real in any sense possible as far as it is not presupposed to exist as abstraction and except in case qualities about what existence actually entails (i.e. being invented apart from the thinking making it) are presupposed. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Therefore Gentile proposed a form of what he called 'absolute Immanentism' in which the divine was the present conception of reality in the totality of one's individual thinking as an evolving, growing and dynamic process. Many times accused of Solipsism, Gentile maintained his philosophy to be a Humanism that sensed the possibility of nothing beyond what was contingent; the self's human thinking, in order to communicate as immanence is to be human like oneself, made a cohesive empathy of the self-same, without an external division, and therefore not modelled as objects to one's own thinking. Immanentism is a belief system which views God as being inseparable from Nature, as opposed to a being outside of it. ... Solipsism is the philosophical idea that My mind is the only thing that exists. Solipsism (Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self) is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. ... See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities...


Gentile maintained the need for an intelligent opposition to the intellectualizing of systems into being, divorced from practice, which he would classify 'abstract' and for that reason unwieldy if not unworkable. Though this stand is cited by his terminology as "anti-intellectualism" he attributes to it still the factor of intelligence. Meaning 'intelligence' is as it penetrates, and not as it is object, i.e. not as it is when in the "intellectual" tense of the word. In the common meaning of this term outside of Gentiles highly analytic interpretation of it to his philosophy, Gentiles philosophy in fact contains all of the criteria in regard to comporting a favorable position toward having "intellectual" pursuits.


Gentile took the stand against psychology and psycho-analysis that one cannot abstract (i.e. make object out of) the source that creates its own surrounding reality, as one does by his own philosophy, and that any empirical observations of behavioral anthropology appear true because empiricalism always adheres to its own laws, being a closed system it is true within its own considered vacuum. Rather than look to the external for the source of ones mentality, Gentile held that any colourations on what the external first manifests as are initially created within the self, and therefore the external is a product of ones psychology and not the other way around. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Gentile's theory may be considered an extreme form of Occam's Razor, though it can appear to common sense to defy Occam's Razor outright by the complex thinking involved to relate with his theory. Gentile however deduced that common sense in considering material reality was to him unphilosophical because it was not self-critical of its sensory presuppositions. To Gentile, making a thought category of his theory itself defied it by turning it into object, as any such idea of the philosophy that was not kept in subject or truly 'actual' could not be Actual Idealism. For the House episode, see Occams Razor (House episode) Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ...


One of his most important works is Genesi e Struttura della Società in which he argues that the individual is an abstraction originating from analysis of society. One of the consequences he draws is that the state and the individual are one and the same and that their division is an example of formal abstraction. The work was written after Mussolini had been deposed by the Fascist Grand Council but before the proclamation of the armistice between Italy and the Allies on September 8, 1943 and the Republic of Salò on September 14, 1943. Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gentile's definition of and vision for Fascism.

Gentile sought to make his philosophy become the basis of Fascism in much the same manner Marx had developed his philosophy as the basis of Communism. However with Gentile & with Fascism, the 'problem of the party' existed, and existed by the fact that the Fascist party came to be organically rather than from a tract or pre-made doctrine of thought. This complicated the matter for Gentile as it left no consensus to any way of thinking among Fascists, but ironically this aspect was to Gentile's view of how a state or party doctrine should live out its existence: with natural organic growth and dialectical opposition intact. The fact that Mussolini gave credence to Gentile's view points via Gentile's authorship helped with an official consideration, even though the 'problem of the party' continued to exist for Mussolini himself as well.


Gentile placed himself in the Marxist tradition in many respects, but he believed that Marx's conception of the dialectic to be the fundamental flaw of his application to system making. To Gentile, Marx made the dialectic into external object, and therefore abstracted it by making it part of some process that theoretically exists of outward matter & material. The dialectic to Gentile could only be something of human precepts, something that is an active part of human thinking. Dialectic was to Gentile concrete subject and not abstract object. This Gentile expounded by how humans think in forms wherein one side of a dual opposite could not be thought of without its complement. "Upward" wouldn't be known without "downward" and "heat" couldn't be known without "cold", while each are opposites they are co-dependent for either ones realization: these were creations that existed as dialectic only in human thinking and couldn't be confirmed outside of which, and especially could not be said to exist in a condition external to human thought like independent matter & a world outside of personal subjectivity or as an empirical reality when not conceived in unity and from the standpoint of the human mind. To Gentile, Marx externalizing the dialectic was essentially a fetishistic mysticism. Though when viewed externally thus, it followed that Marx could then make claims to the effect of what state or condition the dialectic objectively existed in history, a posteriori of where any individuals opinion was while comporting oneself to the totalized whole of society. i.e. people themselves could by such a view be ideologically 'backwards' and left behind from the current state of the dialectic and not themselves be part of what is actively creating the dialectic as-it-is. Gentile thought this was absurd, and that there was no 'positive' independently existing dialectical object. Rather, the dialectic was natural to the state, as-it-is. Meaning that the interests composing the state are composing the dialectic by their living organic process of holding oppositional views within that state, and unified therein. It being the mean condition of those interests as ever they exist. Even criminality, is unified as a necessarily dialectic to be subsumed into the state and a creation and natural outlet of the dialectic of the positive state as ever it is.


This view justified the corporative system, wherein the individualized and particular interests of all divergent groups were to be personably incorporated into the state, each to be considered a bureaucratic branch of the state itself and given official leverage. Gentile, rather than believing the private to be swallowed synthetically within the public as Marx would have it in his objective dialectic, believed that public & private were a priori identified with each other in an active & subjective dialectic: one could not be subsumed fully into the other as they already are beforehand the same. In such a manner each is the other after their own fashion & from their respective, relative, and reciprocal, position. Yet both constitute the state itself and neither are free from it, nothing ever being truly free from it, the state existing as an eternal condition and not an objective, abstract collection of atomistic values and facts of the particulars about what is positively governing the people at any given time.


The works of Giovanni Gentile

Works about Giovanni Gentile in English

  • A. James Gregor, Giovanni Gentile: Philosopher of Fascism (Transaction Publishers, 2001). ISBN 0-7658-0072-1
  • A. James Gregor, Origins and Doctrine of Fascism: With Selections from Other Works by Giovanni Gentile (Transaction Publishers, 2004). ISBN 0-7658-0577-4
  • M. E. Moss, Mussolini's Fascist Philosopher, Giovanni Gentile Reconsidered (Lang, 2004). ISBN 0-8204-6838-X
  • William A. Smith, Giovanni Gentile on the existence of God (Beatrice-Naewolaerts, 1970)

James Gregor lecturing at UC Berkeley in 2004 A. James Gregor is a Professor of Political Science at UC Berkeley who is well known for his views on race as well as fascism and security issues. ... James Gregor lecturing at UC Berkeley in 2004 A. James Gregor is a Professor of Political Science at UC Berkeley who is well known for his views on race as well as fascism and security issues. ... There are a few persons names William A. Smith: William Alden Smith (1859-1932), U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan William Alexander Smith (1828-1888), U.S. Representative from the state of North Carolina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...

Works about Giovanni Gentile in Italian

  • Giovanni Gentile (Augusto del Noce, Bologna: Il Mulino, 1990)
  • Giovanni Gentile filosofo europeo (Salvatore Natoli, Turin: Bollati Boringhieri, 1989)
  • Giovanni Gentile (Antimo Negri, Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1975)
  • Faremo una grande università: Girolamo Palazzina-Giovanni Gentile; Un epistolario (1930-1938), a cura di Marzio Achille Romano (Milano: Edizioni Giuridiche Economiche Aziendali dell'Università Bocconi e Giuffré editori S.p.A., 1999)
  • Parlato, Giuseppe. "Giovanni Gentile: From the Risorgimento to Fascism." Trans. Stefano Maranzana. TELOS 133 (Winter 2005): pp. 75-94.

Telos was founded in May 1968 to provide the New Left with a coherent theoretical perspective. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Richard J. Wolff, Catholicism, Fascism and Italian Education from the Riforma Gentile to the Carta Della Scuola 1922-1939, History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1980, pp. 3-26.
  2. ^ Riforma Gentile on Italian Wikipedia.
  3. ^ Bruno Fanciullacci on Italian Wikipedia. The name Fanciullacci means literally "Bad Kids" in English, while Gentile's actualism preached the identity of philosophy, political action and paedagogy. (see e.g. Gentile's Sommario di pedagogia come scienza filosofica.)

See also

Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ...

External links

  • The theory of mind as pure act (1922) at archive.org
  • Castelvetrano website

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gentile, Giovanni Criticism and Essays (785 words)
Gentile was born in Castelvetrano, Sicily, and attended the University of Pisa, where he was influenced heavily by his professor Donato Jaja, a well-known Hegelian scholar.
Gentile's work generally has been overshadowed by that of Croce, in part because of his political affiliations, which Gentile explained with his theory that the individual's self-consciousness was embodied in the state.
Gentile was perhaps the most influential Italian thinker of the first half of the twentieth century, and he is known to have had a great impact on philosophers across Europe, particularly the English philosopher R.
Giovanni Gentile at AllExperts (1576 words)
Gentile was inspired by such Italian thinkers as Mazzini, Rosmini, Gioberti and Spaventa from whom he borrowed the idea of autoctisi or self-construction, but was just as strongly influenced by the German idealist and materialist schools of thought.
Gentile posited this as a unity held within the active subject along with the multitude of abstract separate phenomena of all that was.
Therefore Gentile proposed a form of what he called 'absolute Immanentism' in which the divine was the present conception of reality in the totality of one's individual thinking as an evolving, growing and dynamic process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m