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Encyclopedia > Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio

Born: 1313
Tuscany
Died: 1375
Certaldo
Occupation: Renaissance humanist
Nationality: Italian
Writing period: Early Renaissance

Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. Boccaccio's characters are notable for their era in that they are realistic, spirited and clever individuals who are grounded in reality (in contrast to the characters of his contemporaries, who were more concerned with the Medieval virtues of Chivalry, Piety, and Humility). Image:Giovanni Boccaccio. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... From the c. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... De mulieribus claris (Latin for On Famous Women) is a collection of biographies of women by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... The Decameron is a collection of novellas that was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1353. ... This article is about the art form. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... For the medieval saint of the same name, see Saint Humility. ...

Contents

Biography

Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence
Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence

The exact details of his birth are uncertain. He was almost certainly illegitimate, the son of a Florentine banker and an unknown woman. An early biographer claimed his mother was a Parisian woman and that the city was also the place of his birth, but this has been largely deprecated as a romanticism and his place of birth is more likely to have been in Tuscany, perhaps in Certaldo, the town of his father.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (714x1206, 470 KB) Summary Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian author and poet Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (714x1206, 470 KB) Summary Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian author and poet Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Legitimacy (law). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


Early life

Boccaccio grew up in Florence. His father was working for the Compagnia dei Bardi and in the 1320s married Margherita del Mardoli, of an illustrious family. It is believed Boccaccio was tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante. In 1326 Boccaccio moved to Naples with the family when his father was appointed to head the Neapolitan branch of his bank. Boccaccio was apprenticed to the bank, but it was a trade for which he had no affinity. He eventually persuaded his father to let him study law at the Studium in the city. For the next six years Boccaccio studied canon law there. Then from there he pursued his interest in scientific and literary studies.[2] The Compagnia dei Bardi was a Florentine banking and trading company, which was started by the Bardi family, and which went bankrupt in 1347. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


His father introduced him to the Neapolitan nobility and the French-influenced court of Robert the Wise in the 1330's. At this time he fell in love with a married daughter of Robert the Wise (a.k.a. King Robert of Naples) and she is immortalized as the character "Fiammetta" in many of Boccaccio's prose romances, particularly Filocolo (1338). Boccaccio became a friend of fellow Florentine Niccolò Acciaioli and benefited from his influence as administrator and, perhaps, the lover of Catherine of Valois-Courtenay, widow of Philip I of Taranto. Acciaioli later became counsellor to Queen Joanna and, eventually, her "Grand Seneschal". Robert of Anjou, known as Robert the Wise (Italian: Roberto il Saggio, 1277 - 1343) was King of Naples from 1309 to 1343. ... Robert of Anjou, known as Robert the Wise (Italian: Roberto il Saggio, 1277 - 1343) was King of Naples from 1309 to 1343. ... Fresco of Niccolò Acciaiuoli by Andrea del Castagno in the Uffizi. ... Catherine II of Valois (1303–1346) was Titular Empress of Constantinople from 1308 to her death, Princess regent of Achaea from 1332 to 1341, and Governor of Cephalonia from 1341 to her death. ... Philip I of Taranto (1278-1332): of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto, despot of Epirus, Prince of Achaea, Titular Emperor of Costantinople. ... Queen Joan I (1327 – May 12, 1382) was born Joanna of Anjou. ... A seneschal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. ...


It seems Boccaccio enjoyed law no more than banking, but his studies allowed him the opportunity to study widely and make good contacts with fellow scholars. His early influences included Paolo da Perugia (a curator and author of a collection of myths, the Collectiones), the humanists Barbato da Sulmona and Giovanni Barrili, and the theologian Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro. Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro (c. ...


Children

In the 1330s Boccaccio became a father of two illegitimate children, Mario and Giulio. In the 1340's Boccaccio became a father again of still another illegitimate child, Violante. He was born in Ravenna, where the Boccaccio was a guest of Ostasio I da Polenta from about 1345 through 1346. Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Ostasio I da Polenta (died November 14, 1346) was lord of Ravenna from 1322 until his death. ...


The Mature Years

In Naples, Boccaccio began what he considered his true vocation, poetry. Works produced in this period include Filostrato (the source for Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde), Teseida (ditto the Knight's Tale), Filocolo a prose version of an existing French romance, and La caccia di Diana a poem in octave rhyme listing Neapolitan women.[3] The period featured considerable formal innovation, including possibly introducing the Sicilian octave to Florence, where it influenced Petrarch.[4] --68.54.22.154 17:25, 22 September 2007 (UTC)Media:Example.ogg Boccaccio returned to Florence in early 1341, avoiding the plague Insert non-formatted text herein that city of 1340 but also missing the visit of Petrarch to Naples in 1341. He had left Naples due to tensions between the Angevin king and Florence. His father had returned to Florence in 1338, where he had gone bankrupt. The death of his mother occurred shortly afterwards. Although dissatisfied with his return to Florence, Boccaccio continued to work, producing Comedia delle ninfe fiorentine (also known as Ameto) a mix of prose and poems, in 1341, completing the fifty canto allegorical poem Amorosa visione in 1342, and Fiammetta [5] in 1343 The pastoral piece Ninfale fiesolano probably also dates from this time. In 1343 Boccaccio's father re-married, to Bice del Bostichi. His children by his first marriage had all died (except Boccaccio) and he was gladdened by the birth of a son, Iacopo, in 1344. Il Filostrato is a poem by the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio, and the inspiration for Geoffrey Chaucers Troilus and Criseyde (and later the Shakespeare play Troilus and Cressida). ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ottava rima. ... A canto is a significant section of a long poem or the highest part in a piece of choral music. ...


In Florence, the overthrow of Walter of Brienne brought about the government popolo minuto. It diminished the influence of the nobility and the wealthier merchant classes and assisted in the relative decline of Florence. The city was further hurt in 1348 by the Black Death, later used in the Decameron, which killed some three-quarters of the city's population. From 1347 Boccaccio spent much time in Ravenna, seeking new patronage, and despite his claims it is not certain he was actually present in plague-ravaged Florence. His step-mother died during the epidemic and his father, as Minister of Supply in the city was closely associated with the government efforts. His father died in 1349 and as head of the family Boccaccio was forced into a more active role. Walter VI of Brienne (neè: Gaulterio de Candia, VI Comte de Brienne, c. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


Boccaccio began work on the Decameron [6][7] around 1349. It is probable that the structure of many of the tales dates from earlier in his career, but the choice of a hundred tales and the frame-story lieta brigata of three men and seven women dates from this time. The work was largely complete by 1352 and it was Boccaccio's final effort in literature and one of his last works in Italian, the only other substantial work was Corbaccio (dated to either 1355 or 1365). Boccaccio revised and rewrote the Decameron in 1370-1371. This manuscript has survived to the present day.


From 1350 Boccaccio, though less of a scholar, became closely involved with Italian humanism and also with the Florentine government. His first official mission was to Romagna in late 1350. He revisited that city-state twice and was also sent to Brandenburg, Milan and Avignon. He also pushed for the study of Greek, housing Barlaam of Calabria and encouraging his tentative translations of works by Homer, Euripides, and Aristotle. Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... A statue of Euripides. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


In October 1350 he was delegated to greet Francesco Petrarcah as he entered Florence and also have the great man as a guest at his home during his stay. The meeting between the two was extremely fruitful and they were friends from then on, Boccaccio calling Petrarch his teacher and magister. Petrarch at that time encouraged Boccaccio to study classical Greek and Latin liInsertformulahereterature. They met again in Padua in 1351, Boccaccio on an official mission to invite Petrarch to take a chair at the university in Florence. Although unsuccessful, the discussions between the two were instrumental in Boccaccio writing the Genealogia deorum gentilium; the first edition was completed in 1360 and this would remain one of the key reference works on classical mythology for over 400 years. The discussions also formalized Boccaccio's poetic ideas. Certain sources also see a conversion of Boccaccio by Petrarch from the open humanist of the Decameron to a more ascetic style, closer to the dominant fourteenth century ethos. For example, he followed Petrarch (and Dante) in the unsuccessful championing of an archaic and deeply allusive form of Latin poetry. In 1359 following a meeting with Pope Innocent VI and further meetings with Petrarch it is probable that Boccaccio took some kind of religious mantle. There is a persistent, but unsupported, tale that he repudiated his earlier works, including the Decameron, in 1362, as profane. Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio was started around 1351, the year he met Francesco Petrarch in Florence, Italy. ... Innocent VI, né Étienne Aubert (1282 or 1295 – September 12, 1362), Pope at Avignon from 1352 to 1362, the successor of Pope Clement VI (1342–52), was a native of the hamlet of Les Monts, diocese of Limoges (today part of the commune of Beyssac, département of Corrèze...


Following the failed coup of 1361, a number of Boccaccio's close friends and other acquaintances were executed or exiled in the subsequent purge. Although not directly linked to the conspiracy, it was in this year that Boccaccio left Florence to reside in Certaldo, and became less involved in government affairs. He did not undertake further missions for Florence until 1365, and traveled to Naples and then on to Padua and Venice, where he met up with Petrarch in grand style at Palazzo Molina, Petrarch's residence as well as the place of Petrarch's library. He later then returned to Certaldo. He met Petrarch only once more, in Padua in 1368. Upon hearing of the death of Petrarch (July 19, 1374), Boccaccio wrote a commemorative poem, including it in his collection of lyric poems, the Rime. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Palazzo Molina - Molina of the two towers, Venice home for Petrarch from 1362 - 1367, referred locally as Ca’ Molin delle due Torri Petrarchs home of Molina house of the two towers is know as Palazzo Molina [1] with an address of Riva degli Schiavoni, no. ... crumbling old manuscripts The original donation to the Biblioteca Marciana was the personal library of Petrarch in 1362 in an agenda to Petrarchs testamentum. ... Certaldo is a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence. ...


As mentioned he returned to work for the Florentine government in 1365, undertaking a mission to Pope Urban V. When the papacy returned to Rome in 1367 Boccaccio was again sent to Urban, offering congratulations. He also undertook diplomatic missions to Venice and Naples. Blessed Urban V, né Guillaume Grimoard (1310 – December 19, 1370), Pope from 1362 to 1370, was a native of Grizac in Languedoc (today part of the commune of Le Pont-de-Montvert, département of Lozère). ...


Of his later works the moralistic biographies gathered as De casibus virorum illustrium (1355-74) and De mulieribus claris (1361-1375) were most significant.[8] Other works include a dictionary of geographical allusions in classical literature, De montibus, silvis, fontibus, lacubus, fluminibus, stagnis seu paludibus et de nominibus maris liber (a title desperate for the coining of the word "geography"). He gave a series of lectures on Dante at the Santo Stefano church in 1373 and these resulted in his final major work, the detailed Eposizioni sopra la Commedia di Dante.[9]


Boccaccio's change in writing style in the 1350's was not just due to meeting with Petrarch. It was mostly due to poor health and a premature weakening of his physical strength. It also was due to disappointments in love. Some such disappointment could explain why Boccaccio, having previously written always in praise of women and love, came suddenly to write in a bitter Corbaccio style. Furthermore, there are signs that he may have taken up religion. Petrarch describes how Pietro Petrone (a Carthusian monk) on Boccaccio's death bed sent another Carthusian (Gioacchino Ciani) to urge him to renounce his worldly studies.[10] Petrarch then persuaded Boccaccio from burning his own works and selling off his personal library, letters, books, and manuscripts. Petrarch even offered to purchase Boccaccio's library so that it would become part of Petrarch's library.[11] Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... crumbling old manuscripts The original donation to the Biblioteca Marciana was the personal library of Petrarch in 1362 in an agenda to Petrarchs testamentum. ...


His final years were troubled by illnesses, some relating to obesity and what often is described as dropsy, severe edema that would be described today as congestive heart failure. He died at the age of sixty-three in Certaldo on 21 December, 1375, where he is buried today. Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ...


References

  1. ^ Biographical information by the Brown University, Department of Italian Studies
  2. ^ New Standard Encyclopedia 1992. Boccaccio, Giovanni. Volume B, page 316. Standard Educational Corporation (Chicago).
  3. ^ Complete list of Boccaccio works at Decameron
  4. ^ Life and complete works of Boccaccio A project of the Department of Italian Studies at Brown University, both in original Italian and in English.
  5. ^ Boccaccio, Giovanni La Fiammetta (1342), Project Gutenburg
  6. ^ Boccaccio, Giovanni The Decameron, Volume I, Project Gutenburg
  7. ^ Boccaccio, Giovanni The Decameron, Volume II, Project Gutenburg
  8. ^ ilboccaccio.interfree.it/index.html The chronological archives of his complete works
  9. ^ Works of Giovanni Boccaccio text, concordances and frequency lists
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2007, Petrarch and Boccaccio's mature years.
  11. ^ Library of Liberty.

Works

Alphabetical listing of selected works,

  • Amorosa visione (1342)
  • Buccolicum carmen (1367-1369)
  • Caccia di Diana (1334-1337)
  • Comedia delle ninfe fiorentine (Amato, 1341-1342)
  • Corbaccio (around 1365, this date is disputed)
  • De Canaria (within 1341 - 1345)
  • De mulieribus claris (1361, revised up to 1375)
  • Decameron (1349-52, revised 1370-1371)
  • Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta (1343-1344)
  • Esposizioni sopra la Comedia di Dante (1373-1374)
  • Filocolo (1336-1339)
  • Filostrato (1335 or 1340)
  • Genealogia deorum gentilium libri (1360, revised up to 1374)
  • Ninfale fiesolano (within 1344-46, this date is disputed)
  • Rime (finished 1374)
  • Teseida delle nozze di Emilia (before 1341)
  • Trattatello in laude di Dante (1357, title revised to De origine vita studiis et moribus viri clarissimi Dantis Aligerii florentini poetae illustris et de operibus compositis ab eodem)
  • Zibaldone Magliabechiano (within 1351-1356)

For an exhaustive listing there is Giovanni Boccaccio: an Annotated Bibliography (1992) by Joseph P. Consoli. De mulieribus claris (Latin for On Famous Women) is a collection of biographies of women by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... The Decameron is a collection of novellas that was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1353. ... The Filocolo is a kind of a novel, Written by Giovanni Boccaccio, it is considered to be the first novel in prose of Italian literature. ... Il Filostrato is a poem by the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio, and the inspiration for Geoffrey Chaucers Troilus and Criseyde (and later the Shakespeare play Troilus and Cressida). ... Giovanni Boccaccio Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio was started around 1351, the year he met Francesco Petrarch in Florence, Italy. ...


Further reading

  • On Famous Women, Latin text and English translation, 2001 ISBN 0-674-00347-0
  • The Decameron, ISBN 0-451-52866-2
  • The Life of Dante, ISBN 1-84391-006-3
  • The Elegy of Lady Fiammetta, ISBN 0-226-06276-7
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Persondata
NAME Giovanni Boccaccio
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Boccaccio, Giovanni
SHORT DESCRIPTION Writer,humanist in the early renaissance
DATE OF BIRTH June 16, 1313
PLACE OF BIRTH Tuscany
DATE OF DEATH December 21, 1375
PLACE OF DEATH Certaldo

  Results from FactBites:
 
Italian Culture and Literature - Boccaccio (0 words)
Giovanni Boccaccio was born in midsummer in 1313.
Boccaccio was the illegitimate son of a wealthy Italian merchant, Boccaccino di Chellino, and was largely raised by his father.
Boccaccio became popular both in literary and diplomatic accomplishments, and he was noticed by even the most esteemed Italians.
Giovanni Boccaccio - LoveToKnow 1911 (4823 words)
GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO (1313-1375), Italian author, whose Decameron is one of the classics of literature, was born in 1313, as we know from a letter of Petrarch, in which that poet, who was born in 1304, calls himself the senior of his friend by nine years.
Boccaccio, an illegitimate son, as is put beyond dispute by the fact that a special licence had to be obtained when he desired to become a priest, was brought up with tender care by his father, who seems to have been a merchant of respectable rank.
Boccaccio's passion on seeing her was instantaneous, and (if we may accept as genuine the confessions contained in one of her lover's works) was returned with equal ardour on the part of the lady.
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