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Encyclopedia > Giovanni Battista Riccioli

Giovanni Battista Riccioli (b.April 17, 1598, Ferrara, Italy – d. June 25, 1671, Bologna, Italy) was was was was an Italian astronomer. He was a Jesuit who entered the order in 1614. He was also the first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling Michael Jackson. April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a person whose area of interest is astronomy or astrophysics. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ...


He devoted his career to the study of astronomy, often working with Francesco Maria Grimaldi. He wrote the important work Almagestum novum in 1651. By necessity, he opposed the Copernican heliocentric theory though praising its value as a simple hypothesis. Francesco Maria Grimaldi (April 2, 1618 - December 28, 1663) was an Italian mathematician and physicist who taught at the Jesuit college in Bologna. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was the astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ...


He and Grimaldi extensively studied the Moon Moon, of which Grimaldi drew a map. Much of the nomenclature of lunar features still in use today is due to him and Grimaldi. He also observed Saturn, and was the first to note that Mizar was a double star. Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Mizar (ζ UMa) is a star in the constellation Ursa Major and is the second star from the end of the Big Dippers handle. ... When two stars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a single star to the naked eye but may be separated by the use of telescopes, they are referred to as a double star. ...


Other books he wrote were: Geographiae et hydrographiae reformatae libri (1661), Astronomia reformata (1665), Chronologia reformata (1669) and Tabula latitudinum et longitudinum (published in 1689). 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...


Interestingly, despite his stated opposition to Copernicus's theory he named a very prominent crater (Copernicus crater) after him, and other important craters were named after other proponents of the theory Kepler, Galileo and Lansbergius. Craters that he and Grimaldi named after themselves are in the same general vicinity, while some other Jesuit astronomers have craters named after them in a different part of the Moon, near Tycho crater. This is sometimes considered to be tacit sympathy for Copernican theory, which as a Jesuit he could not publicly express. Copernicus is a prominent lunar impact crater located on the eastern Oceanus Procellarum. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a German Lutheran mathematician, astronomer, astrologer. ... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Johan Philip Lansberg (August 25, 1561–December 8, 1632) was a Dutch astronomer. ... Tycho is a prominent lunar impact crater located in the southern lunar highlands. ...


Between 1644 and 1656, he was occupied by topographical measurements, working with Grimaldi, determining values for the circumference of Earth and the ratio of water to land. Defects of method, however, gave a less accurate value for degrees of the meridian than Snellius had achieved a few years earlier. Snellius had been mistaken by approximately 4000 meters; but Riccioli was more than 10000 meters in error [Hoefer, 1873]. Francesco Maria Grimaldi (April 2, 1618 - December 28, 1663) was an Italian mathematician and physicist who taught at the Jesuit college in Bologna. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... Willebrord Snell. ...


See also

This is a list of the craters on the Moon. ...

References

Jean Chrétien Ferdinand Hoefer (1811-1878) was a French physician. ...

External links


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The astronomical work of Francesco Grimaldi was closely related to the astronomical work of another Jesuit, Giovanni Battista Riccioli who wrote the Almagestum Novum.
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With Riccioli he composed a very accurate selenograph a copy of which adorns the entrance to the National Space Museum in Washington.
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