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Encyclopedia > Ginkgo
Ginkgo
Fossil range: Jurassic - Pliocene[1]
Ginkgo leaf
Ginkgo leaf
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Ginkgophyta
Class: Ginkgoopsida
Order: Ginkgoales
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Genus: Ginkgo
Species

G. biloba L. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; '銀杏' in Chinese), frequently misspelled as "Gingko", and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. It is classified in its own division, the Ginkgophyta, comprising the single class Ginkgoopsida, order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoaceae, genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. It is one of the best known examples of a living fossil. Ginkgoales are not known in the fossil record after the Pliocene,[1][verification needed] making Ginkgo biloba a living fossil. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


For centuries it was thought to be extinct in the wild, but is now known to grow in at least two small areas in Zhejiang province in Eastern China, in the Tian Mu Shan Reserve. Ginkgo trees in these areas may have been tended and preserved by Chinese monks for over 1000 years. [citation needed] Therefore, whether native ginkgo populations still exist is uncertain. Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The relationship of Ginkgo to other plant groups remains uncertain. It has been placed loosely in the divisions Spermatophyta and Pinophyta, but no consensus has been reached. Since Ginkgo seeds are not protected by an ovary wall, it can morphologically be considered a gymnosperm. The apricot-like structures produced by female ginkgo trees are technically not fruits, but are the seeds having a shell that consists of a soft and fleshy section (the sarcotesta), and a hard section (the sclerotesta). The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The sarcotesta is the outermost fleshy covering of Cycad seeds. ... The innermost fleshy coating of cycad seeds, usually located directly below the Sarcotesta. ...

Contents



Characteristics

Ginkgo tree in autumn
Ginkgo tree in autumn

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (538x800, 188 KB) Opis Description: Gingko bilboa in palace garden in Radziejowice, Poland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (538x800, 188 KB) Opis Description: Gingko bilboa in palace garden in Radziejowice, Poland. ...

General Morphology

Ginkgos are very large deciduous trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66-115 feet), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet). The tree has an often angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches, and is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are often tall and slender, and sparsely branched; the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, then fall, sometimes within a short space of time (1–15 days). A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos very long-lived, with some specimens claimed to be more than 2,500 years old: A 3,000 year-old ginkgo has been reported in Shandong province in China.[3] Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ...


Some old Ginkgos produce aerial roots, known as chichi (Japanese; "nipples") or zhong-ru (Mandarin Chinese), which form on the undersides of large branches and grow downwards. Chichi growth is very slow, and may take hundreds of years to occur. The function, if any, of these thick aerial roots is unknown.
This article is about anatomical structure. ...


Stem

Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with regularly spaced leaves, as seen on most trees. From the axils of these leaves, "spur shoots" (also known as short shoots) develop on second-year growth. Short shoots have very short internodes (so that several years' growth may only extend them by a centimeter or two) and their leaves are ordinarily unlobed. They are short and knobby, and are arranged regularly on the branches except on first-year growth. Because of the short internodes, leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots, and reproductive structures are formed only on them (see picture to above left— seeds and leaves are visible on short shoots). In Ginkgos, as in other plants that possess them, short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. After a number of years, a short shoot may change into a long (ordinary) shoot, or vice versa.
The axil is the space or angle between a primary stalk or branch and a smaller branch or leaf coming off from the primary branch. ...

autumn leaves and seeds
autumn leaves and seeds

Image File history File links Gingko_fg01. ... Image File history File links Gingko_fg01. ...

Leaves

The leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating (splitting) but never anastomosing to form a network.[4] Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two; this is known as dichotomous venation. The leaves are usually 5-10 cm (2-4 inches), but sometimes up to 15 cm (6 inches) long. The old popular name "Maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the Maidenhair fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Anastomosis (plural anastomoses) refers to a form of network in which streams both branch out and reconnect. ... Species See text Maidenhair ferns are ferns of the genus Adiantum, which contains about 200 species. ...


Leaves of long shoots are usually notched or lobed, but only from the outer surface, between the veins. They are borne both on the more rapidly-growing branch tips, where they are alternate and spaced out, and also on the short, stubby spur shoots, where they are clustered at the tips.


Reproduction

Ginkgo pollen cones
Ginkgo pollen cones
Female gametophyte, dissected from a seed freshly shed from the tree, containing a well-developed embryo
Female gametophyte, dissected from a seed freshly shed from the tree, containing a well-developed embryo
Ginkgo seeds and leaves
Ginkgo seeds and leaves

Ginkgos are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others being male. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls each bearing two microsporangia spirally arranged around a central axis. Image File history File links Ginkgo-biloba-male. ... Image File history File links Ginkgo-biloba-male. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1458x1138, 157 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ginkgo ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1458x1138, 157 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ginkgo ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... A sporophyll is a a spore-bearing leaf located on plants such as ferns or algae. ... Mature sporangium of a Mucor mold Moss sporangia (capsules) Sporangia (sori) on a fern leaf Equisetum arvense strobilus cut open to reveal sporangia A sporangium (pl. ...


Female plants do not produce cones. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, and after pollination, one or both develop into seeds. The seed is 1.5-2 cm long. Its fleshy outer layer (the sarcotesta) is light yellow-brown, soft, and fruit-like. It is attractive in appearance, but contains butanoic acid and smells like rancid butter (which contains the same chemical) when fallen. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta (what is normally known as the "shell" of the seed) and a papery endotesta, with the nucellus surrounding the female gametophyte at the center.[5] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... The sarcotesta is the outermost fleshy covering of Cycad seeds. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... n-Butyric acid, IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2_COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, or vomit and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... The innermost fleshy coating of cycad seeds, usually located directly below the Sarcotesta. ... Location of ovules inside a Helleborus foetidus flower Ovule literally means small egg. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ...


The fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns, mosses and algae. The sperm are large (about 250-300 micrometres) and are similar to the sperm of cycads, which are slightly larger. Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896.[6] The sperm have a complex multi-layered structure, which is a continuous belt of basal bodies that form the base of several thousand flagella which actually have a cilia-like motion. The flagella/cilia apparatus pulls the body of the sperm forwards. The sperm have only a tiny distance to travel to the archegonia, of which there are usually two or three. Two sperm are produced, one of which successfully fertilizes the ovule. Although it is widely held that fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs just before or after they fall in early autumn,[4] [5] [7] embryos ordinarily occur in seeds just before and after they drop from the tree.[8]


Etymology

The (older) Chinese name for this plant is 银果 yínguo ('silver fruit'). The most usual names today are 白果 bái guǒ ('white fruit') and 銀杏 yínxìng ('silver apricot'). The latter name was borrowed in Japanese (as ichō) and Korean (as eunhaeng), when the tree itself was introduced from China. Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The scientific name Ginkgo appears to be due to a process akin to folk etymology. Chinese characters typically have multiple pronunciations in Japanese, and the characters 銀杏 used for ichō can also be mistakenly pronounced ginkyō. Engelbert Kaempfer, the first Westerner to see the species in 1690, wrote down this incorrect pronunciation in his Amoenitates Exoticae (1712); his y was misread as a g, and the misspelling stuck.[9] Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


Prehistory

Ginkgo adiantoides Eocene fossil leaf from the Tranquille Shale of British Columbia, Canada.

The Ginkgo is a living fossil, with fossils recognisably related to modern Ginkgo from the Permian, dating back 270 million years. They diversified and spread throughout Laurasia during the middle Jurassic and Cretaceous, but became much rarer thereafter. By the Paleocene, Ginkgo adiantoides was the only Ginkgo species left in the Northern Hemisphere (but see below) with a markedly different (but not well-documented) form persisting in the Southern Hemisphere, and at the end of the Pliocene Ginkgo fossils disappeared from the fossil record everywhere apart from a small area of central China where the modern species survived. It is in fact doubtful whether the Northern Hemisphere fossil species of Ginkgo can be reliably distinguished; given the slow pace of evolution in the genus, there may have been only 2 in total; what is today called G. biloba (including G. adiantoides), and G. gardneri from the Paleocene of Scotland. Image File history File links Ginkgo_adiantoides. ... Image File history File links Ginkgo_adiantoides. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... This article is about the country. ...


At least morphologically, G. gardneri and the Southern Hemisphere species are the only known post-Jurassic taxa that can be unequivocally recognised, the remainder may just as well have simply been ecotypes or subspecies. The implications would be that G. biloba had occurred over an extremely wide range, had remarkable genetic flexibility and though evolving genetically never showed much speciation. The occurrence of G. gardneri, it seems a Caledonian mountain endemic, and the somewhat greater diversity on the Southern Hemisphere, suggests that old mountain ranges on the Northern Hemisphere could hold other, presently undiscovered, fossil Ginkgo species. Since the distribution of Ginkgo was already relictual in late prehistoric times, the chances that ancient DNA from subfossils can shed any light on this problem seem remote. While it may seem improbable that a species may exist as a contiguous entity for many millions of years, many of the Ginkgo's life-history parameters fit. These are extreme longevity, slow reproduction rate, (in Cenozoic and later times) a wide, apparently contiguous, but steadily contracting distribution coupled with, as far as can be demonstrated from the fossil record, extreme ecological conservatism (being restricted to light soils around rivers), and a low population density. An ecotype of a species is subgroup of members of that species characterized by the ecological surroundings it inhabits. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

Fossil Ginkgo leaves from the Jurassic of England
Fossil Ginkgo leaves from the Jurassic of England

Ginkgophyta fossils have been classified in the following families and genera: Photograph of fossil leaves from the plant Ginkgo taken by Dlloyd. ... Photograph of fossil leaves from the plant Ginkgo taken by Dlloyd. ...

  • Ginkgoaceae
    • Arctobaiera
    • Baiera
    • Eretmophyllum
    • Ginkgo
    • Ginkgoites
    • Sphenobaiera
    • Windwardia
  • Trichopityaceae
    • Trichopitys

Ginkgo has been used for classifying plants with leaves that have more than four veins per segment, while Baiera for those with less than four veins per segment. Sphenobaiera has been used to classify plants with a broadly wedge-shaped leaf that lacks a distinct leaf stem. Trichopitys is distinguished by having multiple-forked leaves with cylindrical (not flattened) thread-like ultimate divisions; it is one of the earliest fossils ascribed to the Ginkgophyta.
Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cultivation and uses

In South Korea, Sungkyunkwan University's logo is a ginkgo leaf. Its main campus features several ginkgo trees that were planted in 1519 and still stand today.
In South Korea, Sungkyunkwan University's logo is a ginkgo leaf. Its main campus features several ginkgo trees that were planted in 1519 and still stand today.

Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China; some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1,500 years old. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in 1690 in Japanese temple gardens, where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism, the Ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and parts of Japan; in both areas, some naturalization has occurred, with Ginkgos seeding into natural forests. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the subway station to Humanities and Social Sciences campus, see Hyehwa Station. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, Peoples Republic of China. ...


In some areas, notably the United States, most intentionally planted Ginkgos are male cultivars grafted onto plants propagated from seed, because the male trees will not produce the malodorous seeds. The popular cultivar 'Autumn Gold' is a clone of a male plant. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


The Ginkgo has the intriguing distinction of being one of the world's most urban-tolerant trees, often growing where other trees cannot survive.[citation needed] Ginkgos rarely suffer disease problems, even in urban conditions, and are attacked by few insects.[citation needed] For this reason, and for their general beauty, ginkgos are excellent urban and shade trees, and are widely planted along many streets. The ginkgo is the official tree of the city of Kumamoto, and two leaves form the symbol of the University of Tokyo, the main campus of which is famous for its numerous ginkgos.[citation needed] Categories: Cities in Kumamoto Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... “Todai” redirects here. ...


Ginkgos are also popular subjects for growing as penjing and bonsai; they can be kept artificially small and tended over centuries. Furthermore, the trees are easy to propagate from seed. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bonsai (disambiguation). ...


Extreme examples of the Ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima, Japan, where four trees growing between 1–2 km from the 1945 atom bomb explosion were among the few living things in the area to survive the blast (photos & details). While almost all other plants (and animals) in the area were destroyed, the ginkgos, though charred, survived and were soon healthy again. The trees are alive to this day.
For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Culinary use

The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Called yín xìng (; literally "silver apricot") or bái guǒ (; literally "white fruit"), Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). In Chinese culture, they are believed to have health benefits; some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities. Japanese cooks add Ginkgo seeds to dishes such as chawanmushi, and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes. The seeds are available canned, sold as "White Nuts", and can be found in many Asian food stores in the West. Usually only a few are added for a portion enough for ten people. A group of Ginkgo grown as penjing; photographed in the Montreal botanical gardens by User:aarchiba. ... A group of Ginkgo grown as penjing; photographed in the Montreal botanical gardens by User:aarchiba. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Some weeping willows at the Montreal Botanical Garden The Jardin botanique de Montréal or Montreal Botanical Garden is a large botanical garden in Montreal, Quebec. ... Rice congee is a type of Asian rice porridge known as zhōu (粥 or juk in several Chinese dialects and Korean, and pronounced kayu in Japanese). ... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Buddhas delight , often transliterated as Luóhàn zhāi, lo han jai or lo hon jai (Traditional Chinese: 羅漢齋; Simplified Chinese: 罗汉斋; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a vegetarian dish well known in Chinese cuisine . ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ... Chawanmushi is an egg custard dish found in Japan that uses the seeds of Ginkgo. ...


When eaten by children, in large quantities (over 5 seeds a day), or over a long period of time, the raw gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by MPN (4-methoxypyridoxine). MPN is heat-stable. Studies have demonstrated that convulsions caused by MPN can be prevented or terminated with pyridoxine. Main article: vitamin B6 Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine. ...


Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta, the outer fleshy coating. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption, wearing disposable gloves. The symptoms are dermatitis or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison-ivy. However, seeds with the fleshy coating removed are perfectly safe to handle.
Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poisonivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ...

Remarkable Ginkgo biloba in Tournai (Belgium).
Remarkable Ginkgo biloba in Tournai (Belgium).

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1325 × 1988 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ginkgo biloba also known as Maidenhair Tree. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1325 × 1988 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ginkgo biloba also known as Maidenhair Tree. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ...

Medical uses

The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. However, studies differ about its efficacy. Some controversy has arisen over the conclusions drawn by some studies that were allegedly funded by a firm which marketed Ginkgo. Slate, an Internet-based magazine owned by The Washington Post Company, reported in April 2007: Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... Ginkgolides are biologically active terpenic lactones present in Ginkgo biloba. ... Bilobalide is bilogically active terpenic trilactone present in Ginkgo biloba. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...

In 2002, a long-anticipated paper appeared in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) titled "Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial." This Williams College study, sponsored by the National Institute on Aging rather than Schwabe, examined the effects of ginkgo consumption on healthy volunteers older than 60. The conclusion, now cited in the National Institutes of Health's ginkgo fact sheet, said: "When taken following the manufacturer's instructions, ginkgo provides no measurable benefit in memory or related cognitive function to adults with healthy cognitive function."

Out of the many conflicting research results, Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders. Ginkgo can be used for intermittent claudication. Intermittent claudication is a cramping sensation in the legs that is present during exercise or walking and occurs as a result of decreased oxygen supply. ...


According to some studies, in a few cases, Ginkgo can significantly improve attention in healthy individuals[10][11]. The effect is almost immediate and reaches its peak in 2,5 hours after the intake[12].


A 2004 conference paper[13] summarizes how various trials indicate that Ginkgo shows promise in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, although further study is needed. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ginkgo is commonly added to energy drinks, but the amount is typically so low it does not produce a noticeable effect, except perhaps via a placebo effect from Ginkgo being listed on the label. A variety of energy drinks are available; the skinny bullet can shape is popular. ... Angel dusting is the misleading marketing practice of including a minuscule amount of an active ingredient in a cosmetic, cosmeceutical, dietary supplement, food product, or nutraceutical, insufficient to cause any measurable benefit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Ginkgo supplements are usually taken in the range of 40–200 mg per day.


Side effects

Ginkgo may have some undesirable effects, especially for individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anti-coagulants such as aspirin and warfarin, although recent studies have found that ginkgo has little or no effect on the anticoagulant properties or pharmacodynamics of warfarin[14][15]. Ginkgo should also not be used by people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or by pregnant women without first consulting a doctor. An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... This article is about the drug. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ...


Ginkgo side effects and cautions include: possible increased risk of bleeding, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, and restlessness. If any side effects are experienced, consumption should be stopped immediately.


See also

Ginkgo/Wanapum State Park is a 7,470 acre state park at Vantage, Washington including 27,000 feet of freshwater shoreline on the Columbia River. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Dioscorides’ Materia Medica, c. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Zhiyan Zhou and Shaolin Zheng (2003-06-19). "Palaeobiology: The missing link in Ginkgo evolution". Nature (423): 821-822. DOI:10.1038/423821a. 
  2. ^ Sun (1998). Ginkgo biloba. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Listed as Endangered (EN B1+2c v2.3)
  3. ^ A. Lewington & E. Parker (1999). Ancient Trees. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ISBN 1-85585-704-9. p. 183.
  4. ^ a b Ginkgoales: More on Morphology
  5. ^ a b Laboratory IX -- Ginkgo, Cordaites, and the Conifers
  6. ^ History of Discovery of Spermatozoids In Ginkgo biloba and Cycas revoluta
  7. ^ Brief Notes on Ginkgo biloba
  8. ^ Ben F. Holt, Gar W. Rothwell. Is Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) Really an Oviparous Plant? American Journal of Botany, Vol. 84, No. 6 (Jun., 1997) , pp. 870-872
  9. ^ Faculty of languages and cultures, Kyushu University Japan
  10. ^ Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers.[1]
  11. ^ BBC News: Herbal remedies "boost brain power".[2]
  12. ^ Dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers.[3]
  13. ^ L. Witkam and I. Ramzan (2004). "Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: A miracle cure?". From Cell to Society.  full text pdf  Conference page.
  14. ^ Xuemin Jiang et al (2005). Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 59 (4): 425–432. 
  15. ^ Ernst E, Canter PH, Coon JT (2005). Does ginkgo biloba increase the risk of bleeding? A systematic review of case reports. Perfusion 18: 52–56. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ginkgo Biloba: Encyclopedia of Medicine (1263 words)
Ginkgo biloba, known as the maidenhair tree, is one of the oldest trees on Earth, once part of the flora of the Mesozoic period.
Ginkgo leaves, fresh or dry, and seeds, separated from the outer layer of the fruit, are used medicinally.
Ginkgo extract also acts to eliminate damaging free-radicals in the body, and has been shown to be effective in treatment of premenstrual syndrome, relieving tender or painful breasts.
Ginkgo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2315 words)
Ginkgo is a gymnosperm (as opposed to an angiosperm), meaning "naked seed"; its seeds are not protected by an ovary wall and hence, the berry-like structures produced by female ginkgo trees are technically not fruit.
The fertilization of ginkgo seeds is by motile sperm; similar to cycads, ferns, mosses and the algae.
The ginkgo is the official tree of the city of Kumamoto, and two leaves form the symbol of the University of Tokyo, the main campus of which is famous for its numerous ginkgos.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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