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Encyclopedia > Gilles Deleuze
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy

Name It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Deleuze. ...

Gilles Deleuze

Birth

January 18, 1925
Flag of France Paris, France is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

Death

November 4, 1995 (aged 70)
Flag of France Paris, France is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

School/tradition

Continental Philosophy, Empiricism Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...

Main interests

Aesthetics, History of Western Philosophy, Metaphilosophy, Metaphysics The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... For the book by Bertrand Russell, see History of Western Philosophy (Russell) Philosophy has a long history conventionally divided into three large eras: the Ancient, Medieval and Modern. ... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ...

Notable ideas

affect, assemblage, body without organs, deterritorialization, the fold, line of flight, nomad thought, plane of immanence, Rhizome, schizoanalysis Look up affect in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artefacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context. ... ... Deterritorialization is to take the control and order away from a land or place (territory) that is already established. ... A line of flight is a concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and used extensively in his work with Felix Guattari. ... Plane of immanence is a founding concept in the metaphysics or ontology of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. ... The term rhizome has been used by Carl Jung as a metaphor, and by Gilles Deleuze as a concept, and refers to the botanical rhizome. ... Schizoanalysis was first introduced in 1972 by the philosopher Deleuze and the psychoanalyst Guattari in their book Anti-Oedipus. ...

Influences

Bergson, Nietzsche, Spinoza, Kant Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... “Kant” redirects here. ...

Influenced

Eric Alliez, Alexander Bard, Manuel de Landa, Michael Hardt, Pierre Klossowski, Slavoj Zizek, Jean-Jacques Lecercle, Brian Massumi, Antonio Negri Alexander Bard (born March 17, 1961 in Motala) is a Swedish author, songwriter, producer, singer and actor. ... Manuel DeLanda, (born 1952 in Mexico City), is a writer, artist and distinguished philosopher who has lived in New York since 1975. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pierre Klossowski (1905 – August 12, 2001) was a French writer, translator and artist. ... Slavoj Žižek. ... Brian Massumi is an academic, writer and social critic. ... Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ...

Gilles Deleuze (IPA: [ʒil dəløz]), (January 18, 1925November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. From the early 1960s until his death, Deleuze wrote many influential works on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art. His most popular books were the two volumes of Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus (1972) and A Thousand Plateaus (1980), both co-written with Félix Guattari. His books Difference and Repetition (1968) and The Logic of Sense (1969) led Michel Foucault to declare that "one day, perhaps, this century will be called Deleuzian."[1] (Deleuze, for his part, said Foucault's comment was "a joke meant to make people who like us laugh, and make everyone else livid."[2]) Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... French philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in French language, has been extremely diverse, and influential to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from René Descartes through Voltaire and Henri Bergson to 20th century Existentialism and Post-structuralism. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... Capitalism and Schizophrenia is a two-volume theoretical work by the French authors Deleuze and Guattari. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Difference and Repetition (French title: Différence et répétition) is a 1968 philosophical book by Gilles Deleuze which concerns the study of difference and repetition. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ...

Contents

Life

Deleuze was born in Paris and lived there for most his life. His initial schooling was undertaken during World War II, during which time he attended the Lycée Carnot. He also spent a year in khâgne at the Lycée Henri IV. In 1944 Deleuze went to study at the Sorbonne. His teachers there included several noted specialists in the history of philosophy, such as Georges Canguilhem, Jean Hyppolite, Ferdinand Alquié, and Maurice de Gandillac, and Deleuze's lifelong interest in the canonical figures of modern philosophy owed much to these teachers. Nonetheless, Deleuze also found the work of non-academic thinkers such as Jean-Paul Sartre strongly attractive.[3] He agrégated in philosophy in 1948. This article is about the capital of France. ... Khâgne is an informal term used by French students for Classes Préparatoires Littéraires, the two year cycle of classes taken after the Baccalaureat [which is taken at age 17-18] to prepare for the difficult entrance examination to the Ecole Normale Superieure. ... Clovis bell tower The Lycée Henri IV (sometimes nicknamed HIV to be pronounced H4) is a public high school located in Paris. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Georges Canguilhem (Castelnaudary, June 4, 1904 – September 11, 1995 in Marly-le-Roi) was a French philosopher who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology). ... Jean Hyppolite (Jonzac 1907 - Paris 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of Frances most prominent post-war thinkers. ... Ferdinand Alquie was a French professor who authored Philosophy and Surrealism. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... In France, the agrégation is a civil service competitive examination for some positions in the public education system. ...


Deleuze taught at various lycées (Amiens, Orléans, Louis le Grand) until 1957, when he took up a position at the Sorbonne. In 1953, he published his first monograph, Empiricism and Subjectivity, on Hume. He married Denise Paul "Fanny" Grandjouan in 1956. From 1960 to 1964 he held a position at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique. During this time he published the seminal Nietzsche and Philosophy (1962) and befriended Michel Foucault. From 1964 to 1969 he was a professor at the University of Lyon. In 1968 he published his two dissertations, Difference and Repetition (supervised by Gandillac) and Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (supervised by Alquié). In France, secondary education is in two stages: the collèges (IPA: ) cater for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 15; the lycées (IPA: ) provide a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique is a public research organization. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... The University of Lyon is a university in Lyon, France Categories: Substubs ...


In 1969 he was appointed to the University of Paris VIII at Vincennes/St. Denis, an experimental school organized to implement educational reform. This new university drew a number of talented scholars, including Foucault (who suggested Deleuze's hiring), and the psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. Deleuze taught at Vincennes until his retirement in 1987. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...


Deleuze, a heavy smoker, suffered from lung cancer.[4] Although he had a lung removed, the disease had spread throughout his pulmonary system. Deleuze underwent a tracheotomy, lost the power of speech[5] and considered himself 'chained like a dog' to an oxygen machine.[6] By the last years of his life, simple tasks such as handwriting required laborious effort. In 1995, he committed suicide, throwing himself from the window of his apartment. Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Completed tracheotomy: 1 - Vocal cords 2 - Thyroid cartilage 3 - Cricoid cartilage 4 - Tracheal cartilages 5 - Balloon cuff A tracheotomy is a procedure performed by paramedics, emergency physicians and surgeons in order to secure an airway. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Upon Deleuze's death, his colleague Jean-François Lyotard sent a fax to Le Monde, in which he wrote of his friend: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ...

"He was too tough to experience disappointments and resentments — negative affections. In this nihilist fin de siècle, he was affirmation. Right through to illness and death. Why did I speak of him in the past? He laughed, he is laughing, he is here. It's your sadness, idiot, he'd say."[7]

The novelist Michel Tournier, who knew Deleuze when both were students at the Sorbonne, described him thus: Michel Tournier (born 1924) is a French writer who was born in Paris. ...

"The ideas we threw about like cottonwool or rubber balls he returned to us transformed into hard and heavy iron or steel cannonballs. We quickly learnt to be in awe of his gift for catching us red-handed in the act of cliché-mongering, talking rubbish, or loose thinking. He had the knack of translating, transposing. As it passed through him, the whole of worn-out academic philosophy re-emerged unrecognisable, totally refreshed, as if it has not been properly digested before. It was all fiercely new, completely disconcerting, and it acted as a goad to our feeble minds and our slothfulness."[8]

Deleuze himself almost entirely demurred from autobiography. When once asked to talk about his life, he replied: "Academics' lives are seldom interesting."[9] When a critic seized upon Deleuze's unusually long, uncut fingernails as a revealing eccentricity, he drily noted a more obvious explanation: "I haven't got the normal protective whorls, so that touching anything, especially fabric, causes such irritation that I need long nails to protect them."[10] Deleuze concludes his reply to this critic thus:

"What do you know about me, given that I believe in secrecy? ... If I stick where I am, if I don't travel around, like anyone else I make my inner journeys that I can only measure by my emotions, and express very obliquely and circuitously in what I write. ... Arguments from one's own privileged experience are bad and reactionary arguments."[11]

Philosophy

Deleuze's work falls into two groups: on one hand, monographs interpreting modern philosophers (Spinoza, Leibniz, Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, Bergson, Foucault) and artists (Proust, Kafka, Francis Bacon); on the other, eclectic philosophical tomes organized by concept (e.g., difference, sense, events, schizophrenia, cinema, philosophy). Regardless of topic, however, Deleuze consistently develops variations on similar ideas. Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Henri Bergson Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859 _ January 4, 1941) was a French philosopher, influential in France, but out of the main currents of his time. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... The name Proust can refer to: Antonin Proust (1832-1905), French journalist and politician Joseph Proust (1754-1826), French chemist Marcel Proust (1871-1922), French author This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Kafka” redirects here. ... Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish figurative painter. ...


77.221.166.98 21:38, 30 September 2007 (UTC)===Metaphysics=== Deleuze's main philosophical project in his early works (i.e., those prior to his collaborations with Guattari) can be baldly summarized as a systematic inversion of the traditional metaphysical relationship between identity and difference. Traditionally, difference is seen as derivative from identity: e.g., to say that "X is different from Y" assumes some X and Y with at least relatively stable identities. To the contrary, Deleuze claims that all identities are effects of difference. Identities are not logically or metaphysically prior to difference, Deleuze argues, "given that there exist differences of nature between things of the same genus."[12] That is: to say that two things are "the same" obscures the difference presupposed by there being two things in the first place. Apparent identities such as "X" are composed of endless series of differences, where "X" = "the difference between x and x'", and "x" = "the difference between...", and so forth. Difference goes all the way down. To confront reality honestly, Deleuze claims, we must grasp beings exactly as they are, and concepts of identity (forms, categories, resemblances, unities of apperception, predicates, etc.) fail to attain difference in itself. "If philosophy has a positive and direct relation to things, it is only insofar as philosophy claims to grasp the thing itself, according to what it is, in its difference from everything it is not, in other words, in its internal difference."[13] Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In philosophy, identity is whatever makes an entity definable and recognizable, in terms of possessing a set of qualities or characteristics that distinguish it from entities of a different type. ... Difference is a key concept of continental philosophy, opposed to Identity. ...


Like Kant and Bergson, Deleuze considers traditional notions of space and time as unifying categories imposed by the subject, that is, he considers them to be forms of identity. Therefore he concludes that pure difference is non-spatio-temporal; it is an ideal, what he calls "the virtual". (The coinage refers not to the "virtual reality" of the computer age, but to Proust's definition of the past: "real without being actual, ideal without being abstract."[14]) While Deleuze's virtual ideas superficially resemble Plato's forms and Kant's ideas of pure reason, they are not originals or models, nor do they transcend possible experience; instead they are the conditions of actual experience, the internal difference in itself. "The concept they [the conditions] form is identical to its object."[15] A Deleuzean idea or concept of difference is not a wraith-like abstraction of an experienced thing, it is a real system of differential relations that creates actual spaces, times, and sensations.[16] Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Henri Bergson Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859 _ January 4, 1941) was a French philosopher, influential in France, but out of the main currents of his time. ... Subject (philosophy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The name Proust can refer to: Antonin Proust (1832-1905), French journalist and politician Joseph Proust (1754-1826), French chemist Marcel Proust (1871-1922), French author This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ...


Thus Deleuze, alluding to Kant and Schelling, at times refers to his philosophy as a transcendental empiricism. In Kant's transcendental idealism, experience only makes sense when organized by intellectual categories (such as space, time, and causality). Taking such intellectual concepts out of the context of experience, according to Kant, spawns seductive but senseless metaphysical beliefs. (For example, extending the concept of causality beyond possible experience results in unverifiable speculation about a first cause.) Deleuze inverts the Kantian arrangement: experience exceeds our concepts by presenting novelty, and this raw experience of difference actualizes an idea, unfettered by our prior categories, forcing us to invent new ways of thinking (see below, Epistemology). Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by 18th-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant. ...


Simultaneously, Deleuze claims that being is univocal, i.e., that all of its senses are affirmed in one voice. Deleuze borrows the doctrine of ontological univocity from the medieval philosopher John Duns Scotus. In medieval disputes over the nature of God, many eminent theologians and philosophers (such as Thomas Aquinas) held that when one says that "God is good", God's goodness is only analogous to human goodness. Scotus argued to the contrary that when one says that "God is good", the goodness in question is the exact same sort of goodness that is meant when one says "Jane is good". That is, God only differs from us in degree, and properties such as goodness, power, reason, and so forth are univocally applied, regardless of whether one is talking about God, a man, or a flea. John Duns Scotus (c. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


Deleuze adapts the doctrine of univocity to claim that being is, univocally, difference. "With univocity, however, it is not the differences which are and must be: it is being which is Difference, in the sense that it is said of difference. Moreover, it is not we who are univocal in a Being which is not; it is we and our individuality which remains equivocal in and for a univocal Being."[17] Here Deleuze echoes Spinoza, who maintained that everything that exists is a modification of the one substance, God or Nature. For Deleuze, the one substance is an always-differentiating process, an origami cosmos, always folding, unfolding, refolding. Deleuze summarizes this ontology in the paradoxical formula "pluralism = monism".[18] Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ...


Difference and Repetition is Deleuze's most sustained and systematic attempt to work out the details of such a metaphysics, but like ideas are expressed in his other works. In Nietzsche and Philosophy (1962), for example, reality is a play of forces; in Anti-Oedipus (1972), a "body without organs"; in What Is Philosophy? (1991), a "plane of immanence" or "chaosmos". The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... ...

See also: Plane of immanence

Plane of immanence is a founding concept in the metaphysics or ontology of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. ...

Epistemology

Deleuze's unusual metaphysics entails an equally atypical epistemology, or what he calls a transformation of "the image of thought". According to Deleuze, the traditional image of thought, found in philosophers such as Aristotle, Descartes, and Husserl, misconceives of thinking as a mostly unproblematic business. Truth may be hard to discover—it may require a life of pure theorizing, or rigorous computation, or systematic doubt—but thinking is able, at least in principle, to correctly grasp facts, forms, ideas, etc. It may be practically impossible to attain a God's-eye, neutral point of view, but that is the ideal to approximate: a disinterested pursuit that results in a determinate, fixed truth; an orderly extension of common sense. Deleuze rejects this view as papering over the metaphysical flux, instead claiming that genuine thinking is a violent confrontation with reality, an involuntary rupture of established categories. Truth changes what we think; it alters what we think is possible. By setting aside the assumption that thinking has a natural ability to recognize the truth, Deleuze says, we attain a "thought without image", a thought always determined by problems rather than solving them. "All this, however, presupposes codes or axioms which do not result by chance, but which do not have an intrinsic rationality either. It's just like theology: everything about it is quite rational if you accept sin, the immaculate conception, and the incarnation. Reason is always a region carved out of the irrational—not sheltered from the irrational at all, but traversed by it and only defined by a particular kind of relationship among irrational factors. Underneath all reason lies delirium, and drift."[19] It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ...


Deleuze's peculiar readings of the history of philosophy stem from this unusual epistemological perspective. To read a philosopher is no longer to aim at finding a single, correct interpretation, but is instead to present a philosopher's attempt to grapple with the problematic nature of reality. "Philosophers introduce new concepts, they explain them, but they don't tell us, not completely anyway, the problems to which those concepts are a response. [...] The history of philosophy, rather than repeating what a philosopher says, has to say what he must have taken for granted, what he didn't say but is nonetheless present in what he did say."[20] (See below, Deleuze's interpretations.)


Likewise, rather than seeing philosophy as a timeless pursuit of truth, reason, or universals, Deleuze defines philosophy as the creation of concepts. For Deleuze, concepts are not identity conditions or propositions, but metaphysical constructions that define a range of thinking, such as Plato's ideas, Descartes's cogito, or Kant's doctrine of the faculties. A philosophical concept "posits itself and its object at the same time as it is created."[21] In Deleuze's view, then, philosophy more closely resembles practical or artistic production than it does an adjunct to a definitive scientific description of a pre-existing world (as in the tradition of Locke or Quine). For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ...


In his later work (from roughly 1981 onward), Deleuze sharply distinguishes art, philosophy, and science as three distinct disciplines, each analyzing reality in different ways. While philosophy creates concepts, the arts create new qualitative combinations of sensation and feeling (what Deleuze calls "percepts" and "affects"), and the sciences create quantitative theories based on fixed points of reference such as the speed of light or absolute zero (which Deleuze calls "functives"). According to Deleuze, none of these disciplines enjoy primacy over the others: they are different ways of organizing the metaphysical flux, "separate melodic lines in constant interplay with one another."[22] For example, Deleuze does not treat cinema as an art representing an external reality, but as an ontological practice that creates different ways of organizing movement and time. Philosophy, science, and art are equally, and essentially, creative and practical. Hence, instead of asking traditional questions of identity such as "is it true?" or "what is it?", Deleuze proposes that inquiries should be functional or practical: "what does it do?" or "how does it work?" Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ...


Values

In ethics and politics, Deleuze again echoes Spinoza, albeit in a sharply Nietzschean key. In a classical liberal model of society, morality begins from individuals, who bear abstract natural rights or duties set by themselves or a God. Following his rejection of any metaphysics based on identity, Deleuze criticizes the notion of an individual as an arresting or halting of differentiation (as the etymology of the word "individual" suggests). Guided by the ethical naturalism of Spinoza and Nietzsche, Deleuze instead seeks to understand individuals and their moralities as products of the organization of pre-individual desires and powers. In the two volumes of Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Deleuze and Guattari describe history as a congealing and regimentation of "desiring-production" (a concept combining features of Freudian drives and Marxist labor) into the modern individual (typically neurotic and repressed), the nation-state (a society of continuous control), and capitalism (an anarchy domesticated into infantilizing commodification). Deleuze, following Marx, welcomes capitalism's destruction of traditional social hierarchies as liberating, but inveighs against its homogenization of all values to the aims of the market. Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Naturalism, sometimes also called definism, is a theory in meta-ethics that holds that ethical terms can be defined; the meaning of ethical sentences can be given in totally non-ethical terms. ... Capitalism and Schizophrenia is a two-volume theoretical work by the French authors Deleuze and Guattari. ... ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Marx is a common German surname. ...


But how does Deleuze square his pessimistic diagnoses with his ethical naturalism? Deleuze claims that standards of value are internal or immanent: to live well is to fully express one's power, to go to the limits of one's potential, rather than to judge what exists by non-empirical, transcendent standards. Modern society still suppresses difference and alienates persons from what they can do. To affirm reality, which is a flux of change and difference, we must overturn established identities and so become all that we can become—though we cannot know what that is in advance. The pinnacle of Deleuzean practice, then, is creativity. "Herein, perhaps, lies the secret: to bring into existence and not to judge. If it is so disgusting to judge, it is not because everything is of equal value, but on the contrary because what has value can be made or distinguished only by defying judgment. What expert judgment, in art, could ever bear on the work to come?" [23] Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ...


Deleuze's interpretations

Deleuze's studies of individual philosophers and artists are purposely heterodox. In Nietzsche and Philosophy, for example, Deleuze claims that Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality is a systematic response to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, a claim that would strike almost anyone who has read both works as curious at best, as Nietzsche nowhere mentions the First Critique in the Genealogy, and the Genealogy's moral topics are far removed from the epistemological focus of Kant's book. Likewise, Deleuze claims that univocity is the organizing principle of Spinoza's philosophy, despite the total absence of the term from any of Spinoza's works. Deleuze once famously described his method of interpreting philosophers as "buggery (enculage)", as sneaking behind an author and producing an offspring which is recognizably his, yet also monstrous and different.[24] The various monographs are thus best understood not as attempts to faithfully represent "what Nietzsche (or whoever) meant" but as articulations of Deleuze's philosophical views. This practice—Deleuze's ventriloquizing through other thinkers—is not willful misinterpretation so much as it is an example of the creativity that Deleuze believes philosophy should enact. A parallel in painting might be Bacon's Study after Velasquez—it is quite beside the point to say that Bacon "gets Velasquez wrong". (Similar considerations may apply to Deleuze's uses of mathematical and scientific terms, pace Alan Sokal.) Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... On the Genealogy of Morality (German: Zur Genealogie der Moral), subtitled A Polemic (Eine Streitschrift), is a work by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed and first published in 1887. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Title page of the 1781 edition. ... Anal sex or anal intercourse is a form of human sexual behavior. ... Alan David Sokal (born 1955) is a physicist at New York University. ...


Reception

Deleuze's ideas have not spawned a school, as Lacan's did. But his major collaborations with Guattari (Anti-Oedipus, A Thousand Plateaus, and What Is Philosophy?) were best-sellers in France, and remain heavily cited in English-speaking academe. In the 1960s, Deleuze's portrayal of Nietzsche as a metaphysician of difference rather than a reactionary mystic contributed greatly to the plausibility of "left-wing Nietzscheanism" as an intellectual stance.[25] In the 1970s, the Anti-Oedipus, written in a style by turns vulgar and esoteric,[26] offering a sweeping analysis of the family, language, capitalism, and history via eclectic borrowings from Freud, Marx, Nietzsche, and dozens of other writers, was received as a theoretical embodiment of the anarchic spirit of May 1968. Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 РSeptember 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst F̩lix Guattari. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst F̩lix Guattari. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst F̩lix Guattari. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ...


Like his contemporaries Foucault, Derrida, and Lyotard, Deleuze's influence has been most strongly felt in North American humanities departments, particularly in circles associated with literary theory. There, Anti-Oedipus and A Thousand Plateaus came to be seen as major statements of post-structuralism and postmodernism[27] (though neither Deleuze nor Guattari described their work in those terms). In the 1980s and 1990s, almost all of Deleuze's books were translated into English, where they have become comfortably ensconced in the canon of "continental philosophy". See: Léon Foucault (physicist) Foucault pendulum Michel Foucault (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time... Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ...


Naturally, Deleuze has attracted many critics as well. The following list is not exhaustive, and gives only the briefest of summaries.


In Modern French Philosophy (1979), Vincent Descombes argues that Deleuze's account of a difference that is not derived from identity (in Nietzsche and Philosophy) is incoherent, and that his analysis of history in Anti-Oedipus is 'utter idealism', criticizing reality for falling short of a non-existent ideal of schizophrenic becoming. Vincent Descombes (1948—) is a contemporary French philosopher. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ...


In What Is Neostructuralism? (1984), Manfred Frank claims that Deleuze's theory of individuation as a process of bottomless differentiation fails to explain the unity of consciousness. Manfred Frank (born March 22, 1945) is a German philosopher, currently professor of philosophy at the University of Tubingen. ...


In "The Decline and Fall of French Nietzscheo-Structuralism" (1994), Pascal Engel presents a global condemnation of Deleuze's thought. According to Engel, Deleuze's metaphilosophical approach makes it impossible to reasonably disagree with a philosophical system, and so destroys meaning, truth, and philosophy itself. Engel summarizes Deleuze's metaphilosophy thus: "When faced with a beautiful philosophical concept you should just sit back and admire it. You should not question it."[28] Pascal Engel is a French philosopher, working on the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, epistemology and philosophy of logic. ...


In Deleuze: The Clamor of Being (1997), Alain Badiou claims that Deleuze's metaphysics only apparently embraces plurality and diversity, remaining at bottom relentlessly monist. Badiou further argues that, in practical matters, Deleuze's monism entails an ascetic, aristocratic fatalism akin to ancient Stoicism. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Theological fatalism be merged into this article or section. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ...


In Reconsidering Difference (1997), Todd May argues that Deleuze's claim that difference is ontologically primary ultimately contradicts his embrace of immanence, i.e., his monism. However, May believes that Deleuze can discard the primacy-of-difference thesis, and accept a Wittgensteinian holism without significantly altering (what May believes is) Deleuze's practical philosophy. Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), pictured here in 1930, made influential contributions to Logic and the philosophy of language, critically examining the task of conventional philosophy and its relation to the nature of language. ... Whole redirects here. ...


In Fashionable Nonsense (1997), Alan Sokal and Jean Bricmont accuse Deleuze of abusing mathematical and scientific terms, particularly by sliding between accepted technical meanings and his own idiosyncratic use of those terms in his philosophical system. Deleuze's writings on subjects such as calculus and quantum mechanics are, according to Sokal and Bricmont, vague, meaningless, or unjustified. However, by Sokal and Bricmont's own admission, they suspend judgment about Deleuze's philosophical theories and terminology. Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals Abuse of Science (ISBN 0-312-20407-8; French: Impostures Intellectuelles, published in the UK as Intellectual Impostures, ISBN 1-86197-631-3) is a book by professors Alan Sokal and Jean Bricmont. ... Alan David Sokal (born 1955) is a physicist at New York University. ... Jean Bricmont is a Belgian theoretical physicist and a professor at the Catholic University of Louvain. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...


In Organs without Bodies (2003), Slavoj Žižek claims that Deleuze's ontology oscillates between materialism and idealism,[29] and that the Deleuze of Anti-Oedipus ("arguably Deleuze's worst book"),[30] the "political" Deleuze under the "'bad' influence" of Guattari, ends up, despite protestations to the contrary, as "the ideologist of late capitalism".[31] Žižek also calls Deleuze to task for allegedly reducing the subject to "just another" substance and thereby failing to grasp the nothingness that, according to Lacan and Žižek, defines subjectivity.[32] What remains worthwhile in Deleuze's oeuvre, Žižek finds, are precisely those concepts closest to Žižek's own ideas. Slavoj Žižek (pronounced: ) (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian sociologist, postmodern philosopher, and cultural critic. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ...


In Out of this World: Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation (2006), Peter Hallward argues that Deleuze's insistence that being is necessarily creative and always-differentiating entails that his philosophy can offer no insight into, and is supremely indifferent to, the material, actual conditions of existence. Thus Hallward claims that Deleuze's thought is literally other-worldly, aiming only at a passive contemplation of the dissolution of all identity into the theophanic self-creation of nature. Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Endnotes

  1. ^ Foucault, "Theatrum Philosophicum", Critique 282, p. 885.
  2. ^ Negotiations, p. 4. However, in a later interview, Deleuze commented: "I don't know what Foucault meant, I never asked him" (Negotiations, p. 88).
  3. ^ Dialogues, p. 12: "At the Liberation we were still strangely stuck in the history of philosophy. We simply plunged into Hegel, Husserl and Heidegger; we threw ourselves like puppies into a scholasticism worse than that of the Middle Ages. Fortunately there was Sartre. Sartre was our Outside, he was really the breath of fresh air from the backyard."
  4. ^ Another source mentions lung tuberculosis: [1]
  5. ^ A.P. Colombat, "November 4, 1995: Deleuze's death as an event", Continental Philosophy Review 29.3 (July 1996): 235-249.
  6. ^ Philip Goodchild, Deleuze and Guattari: An Introduction to the Politics of Desire (Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996).
  7. ^ J.-F. Lyotard, Misère de la philosophie (Paris: Galilée, 2000), p. 194.
  8. ^ Mary Bryden (ed.), Deleuze and Religion (New York: Routledge, 2001), p. 201.
  9. ^ Negotiations, p. 137.
  10. ^ Ibid., p. 5.
  11. ^ Ibid., pp. 11-12.
  12. ^ "Bergson's Conception of Difference", in Desert Islands, p. 33.
  13. ^ Ibid., p. 32.
  14. ^ Proust, Le Temps Retrouvé, ch. III: see the fourth line from the bottom of this page, or, in English translation, the thirteenth paragraph here.
  15. ^ Desert Islands, p. 36.
  16. ^ See "The Method of Dramatization" in Desert Islands, and "Actual and Virtual" in Dialogues.
  17. ^ Difference and Repetition, p. 39.
  18. ^ A Thousand Plateaus, p. 20.
  19. ^ Desert Islands, p. 262.
  20. ^ Negotiations, p. 136.
  21. ^ What Is Philosophy?, p. 22.
  22. ^ Negotiations, p. 125. Cf. Spinoza's claim that the mind and the body are different modes expressing the same substance.
  23. ^ Essays Critical and Clinical, p. 135.
  24. ^ Negotiations, p. 6.
  25. ^ See, e.g., the approving reference to Deleuze's Nietzsche study in Jacques Derrida's essay "Différance", or Pierre Klossowski's monograph Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle, dedicated to Deleuze. More generally, see D. Allison (ed.), The New Nietzsche (MIT Press, 1985), and L. Ferry and A. Renaut (eds.), Why We Are Not Nietzscheans (University of Chicago Press, 1997).
  26. ^ Sometimes in the same sentence: "one is thus traversed, broken, fucked by the socius" (Anti-Oedipus, p. 347).
  27. ^ See, e.g., Steven Best and Douglas Kellner, Postmodern Theory (Guilford Press, 1991), which devotes a chapter to Deleuze and Guattari.
  28. ^ Barry Smith (ed.), European Philosophy and the American Academy, p. 34.
  29. ^ Slavoj Žižek, Organs without Bodies (New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 19-32, esp. p. 21: "Is this opposition not, yet again, that of materialism versus idealism? In Deleuze, this means The Logic of Sense versus Anti-Oedipus." See also p. 28 for "Deleuze's oscillation between the two models" of becoming.
  30. ^ Ibid., p. 21
  31. ^ Ibid., pp. 32, 20, and 184.
  32. ^ Ibid., p. 68: "This brings us to the topic of the subject that, according to Lacan, emerges in the interstice of the 'minimal difference,' in the minimal gap between two signifiers. In this sense, the subject is 'a nothingness, a void, which exists.' ... This, then, is what Deleuze seems to get wrong in his reduction of the subject to (just another) substance. Far from belonging to the level of actualization, of distinct entities in the order of constituted reality, the dimension of the 'subject' designates the reemergence of the virtual within the order of actuality. 'Subject' names the unique space of the explosion of virtuality within constituted reality."

Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Difference and Repetition (French title: Différence et répétition) is a 1968 philosophical book by Gilles Deleuze which concerns the study of difference and repetition. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Pierre Klossowski (1905 – August 12, 2001) was a French writer, translator and artist. ... The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... Image:Steven best. ... Douglas Kellner, born in 1943, is one of the most important “third generation” critical theorists in the tradition of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, or Frankfurt School. ...

Bibliography

(Near complete bibliography, including various translations) By Gilles Deleuze:

  • Empirisme et subjectivité (1953). Trans. Empiricism and Subjectivity (1991).
  • Nietzsche et la philosophie (1962). Trans. Nietzsche and Philosophy (1983).
  • La philosophie critique de Kant (1963). Trans. Kant's Critical Philosophy (1983).
  • Proust et les signes (1964, 2nd exp. ed. 1976). Trans. Proust and Signs (1973, 2nd exp. ed. 2000).
  • Le Bergsonisme (1966). Trans. Bergsonism (1988).
  • Présentation de Sacher-Masoch (1967). Trans. Masochism: Coldness and Cruelty (1989).
  • Différence et répétition (1968). Trans. Difference and Repetition (1994).
  • Spinoza et le problème de l'expression (1968). Trans. Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (1990).
  • Logique du sens (1969). Trans. The Logic of Sense (1990).
  • Spinoza - Philosophie pratique (1970, 2nd ed. 1981). Trans. Spinoza: Practical Philosophy (1988).
  • Dialogues (1977, 2nd exp. ed. 1996, with Claire Parnet). Trans. Dialogues (1987, 2nd exp. ed. 2002).
  • Superpositions (1979).
  • Francis Bacon - Logique de la sensation (1981). Trans. Francis Bacon: Logic of Sensation (2003).
  • Cinéma I: L'image-mouvement (1983). Trans. Cinema 1: The Movement-Image (1986).
  • Cinéma II: L'image-temps (1985). Trans. Cinema 2: The Time-Image (1989).
  • Foucault (1986). Trans. Foucault (1988).
  • Le pli - Leibniz et le baroque (1988). Trans. The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque (1993).
  • Périclès et Verdi: La philosophie de Francois Châtelet (1988).
  • Pourparlers (1990). Trans. Negotiations (1995).
  • Critique et clinique (1993). Trans. Essays Critical and Clinical (1997).
  • Pure Immanence (2001).
  • L'île déserte et autres textes (2002). Trans. Desert Islands and Other Texts 1953-1974 (2003).
  • Deux régimes de fous et autres textes (2004). Trans. Two Regimes of Madness: Texts and Interviews 1975-1995 (2006).

In collaboration with Félix Guattari: Difference and Repetition (French title: Différence et répétition) is a 1968 philosophical book by Gilles Deleuze which concerns the study of difference and repetition. ... Pierre-Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ...

  • Capitalisme et Schizophrénie 1. L'Anti-Œdipe. (1972). Trans. Anti-Oedipus (1977).
  • Kafka: Pour une Littérature Mineure. (1975). Trans. Kafka: Toward a Theory of Minor Literature. (1986).
  • Rhizome. (1976).
  • Nomadology: The War Machine. (1986).
  • Capitalisme et Schizophrénie 2. Mille Plateaux. (1980). Trans. A Thousand Plateaus (1987).
  • Qu'est-ce que la philosophie? (1991). Trans. What Is Philosophy? (1996).

Most of Deleuze's courses are available, in several languages, here. The Anti-Oedipus (1972) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ... A Thousand Plateaus (1980) is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. ...


Select secondary sources:

  • Descombes, Vincent (1979). Le Même et L'Autre. Minuit. Trans. Modern French Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  • Foucault, Michel (1970). "Theatrum Philosophicum", Critique 282, pp. 885-908. Trans. in Foucault, Language, Counter-Memory, and Practice, pp. 165-198. Cornell University Press.
  • Frank, Manfred (1984). Was Ist Neostrukturalismus? Suhrkamp. Trans. What Is Neostructuralism? University of Minnesota Press.
  • Hardt, Michael (1993). Gilles Deleuze: An Apprenticeship in Philosophy. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Lecercle, Jean-Jacques (1985). Philosophy through the Looking-Glass. Open Court.
  • May, Todd (2005). Gilles Deleuze: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, James (2003). Gilles Deleuze's Difference and Repetition: A Critical Introduction and Guide. Edinburgh University Press.

See also

... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... Deterritorialization is to take the control and order away from a land or place (territory) that is already established. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The term rhizome has been used by Carl Jung as a metaphor, and by Gilles Deleuze as a concept, and refers to the botanical rhizome. ... Gilbert Simondon (October 2, 1924 – February 7, 1989) was a French philosopher with an interest in technology. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... The concept of Minority and becoming-minor was developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in A Thousand Plateaus (1980) and Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature (1986). ... Schizoanalysis was first introduced in 1972 by the philosopher Deleuze and the psychoanalyst Guattari in their book Anti-Oedipus. ... Plane of immanence is a founding concept in the metaphysics or ontology of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. ... The problem of the futures contingents designs a logical paradox first posed by Diodorus Cronus from the Megarian school of philosophy, under the name of the dominator, and then reactualized by Aristotle in chapter 9 of De Interpretatione. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Gilles Deleuze

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Gilles Deleuze - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3976 words)
Deleuze's main philosophical project in his early works (i.e., those prior to his collaborations with Guattari) can be baldly summarized as a systematic inversion of the traditional metaphysical relationship between identity and difference.
Deleuze borrows the doctrine of ontological univocity from the medieval philosopher John Duns Scotus.
Deleuze claims that standards of value are internal or immanent: to live well is to fully express one's power, to go to the limits of one's potential, rather than to judge what exists by non-empirical, transcendent standards.
Gilles Deleuze's Difference and Repetition (1133 words)
Gilles Deleuze’s Difference and Repetition (1968, translated 1994) introduces the importance of a philosophy of difference by describing how difference may be internal to the nature of every Idea and how every Idea may have multiple elements which may be differentiated.
Deleuze uses the term "signification" to refer to the relation between concepts and their objects in a given field of representation, while he uses the term "sense" to refer to the expressive content of a conceptual object which is not necessarily located in a representational field.
Deleuze argues that a natural blockage may be due to a discrete extension or finite comprehension of a concept, while an artificial blockage may be due to a logical limitation in the comprehension of a concept.
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