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Encyclopedia > Gill

A gill is a respiration organ that functions for the extraction of oxygen from water and the excretion of carbon dioxide. Unlike many small aquatic animals, which can absorb oxygen through the entire surface of their bodies, more complex aquatic organisms have gills specially formed to present an adequate surface area to the external environment. Gills are usually thin plates of tissue, branches, or slender tufted processes and, with the exception of some aquatic insects, they contain blood or coelomic fluid, which exchanges gases through their thin walls. Oxygen is carried by the blood to other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the thin gill tissue into the water. Gills or gill-like organs, located in different parts of the body, are found in various groups of animalia. These include mollusks, crustaceans, insects, fish, and amphibians. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Gill may refer to one of the following: Gills are respiratory organs in aquatic organisms. ... Breathing / Respiration organs are used by most, or all, animals to exchange the gasses necessary for their life functions, known as respiration. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... In anatomy, a process (Latin: processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... By the broadest definition, a body cavity is any fluid filled space in a multicellular organism. ...

Contents

Invertebrate gills

Respiration in Echinodermata (includes starfish and sea urchins) is done through a very primitive version of gills called papulli, thin protuberances on the surface of the body containing diverticula of the water vascular system. In crustaceans, mollusks and some insects, they are tufted or plate-like structures at the surface of the body in which blood circulates. Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Sea urchins are small spiny sea creatures... It has been suggested that Circulation (physiology) be merged into this article or section. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ...


The gills of other insects are of the tracheal kind and also include both thin plates and tufted structures, and, in the larval dragon fly, the wall of the caudal end of the alimentary tract (rectum) is richly supplied with tracheae as a rectal gill. Water pumped into and out of the rectum provide oxygen to the closed tracheae. In the aquatic insects, a unique type of respiratory organ is used, the tracheal gill, which contains air tubes. The oxygen in these tubes is renewed through the gills. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Families Aeshnidae Austropetaliidae Cordulegastridae Corduliidae Gomphidae Libellulidae Neopetaliidae Petaluridae The dragonfly is an insect belonging to the Order Odonata, Suborder Anisoptera and characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong transparent wings, and an elongated body. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ...


Physical gills

Physical gills are a type of structural adaptation common among some types of aquatic insects, in which atmospheric oxygen is held within an area into which the spiracles open. The structure (often called a plastron) typically consists of dense patches of hydrophobic setae on the body, which prevent water entry into the spiracles. The physical properties of the interface between the trapped air bubble and the surrounding water function so as to accomplish gas exchange through the spriacles, almost as if the insect were in atmospheric air. Carbon dioxide diffuses out into the surrounding water due to its high solubility, while oxygen diffuses into the bubble, as the concentration within the bubble has been reduced by respiration, and nitrogen also diffuses out as its tension has been increased. Oxygen diffuses into the bubble at a higher rate than Nitrogen diffuses out. However, water surrounding the insect can become oxygen-depleted if there is no water movement, so many aquatic insects in still water actively direct a flow of water over their bodies. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ... The plastron is the nearly flat part of the shell structure of a tortoise, what we would call the belly, similar in composition to the carapace; with an external layer of horny material divided into plates called scutes and an underlying layer of interlocking bones. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... A seta is a stiff hair, bristle, or bristle-like process or part of an organism. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


The physical gill mechanism allows aquatic insects with plastrons to remain constantly submerged. Examples include many beetles in the family Elmidae, aquatic weevils, and true bugs in the family Aphelocheiridae. For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Families Anthribidae - fungus weevils Attelabidae - leaf rolling weevils Belidae - primitive weevils Brentidae - straight snout weevils Caridae Curculionidae - true weevils Nemonychidae - pine flower weevils Wikispecies has information related to: Curculionoidea A weevil is any beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily. ... The term true bug refers to the insects of the order Hemiptera and in particular to those of the suborder Heteroptera. ...


Vertebrate gills

The red gills inside a detached tuna head (viewed from behind)
The red gills inside a detached tuna head (viewed from behind)

Gills of vertebrates are developed in the walls of the pharynx along a series of gill slits opening to the exterior. In fish, the gills are placed on either side of the pharynx. Gills are made of filaments which help increase surface area for oxygen exchange. In bony fish, the gills are covered by a bony cover called an operculum. When a fish breathes, it opens its mouth at regular times and draws in a mouthful of water. It then draws the sides of its throat together, forcing the water through the gill openings. The water passes over the gills on the outside. Valves inside the mouth keep the water from escaping through the mouth again. The operculum can be very important in adjusting the pressure of water inside of the pharynx to allow proper ventilation of the gills. Lampreys and sharks lack an operculum, they have multiple gill openings. Also, they must use different methods to force water over the gills. In sharks and rays, this ventilation of the gills is achieved either by the use of spiracles or ram ventilation (ventilation by constantly swimming). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x954, 303 KB) Tuna gills inside of the head. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x954, 303 KB) Tuna gills inside of the head. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The operculum in fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills of Bony fish. ... Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ...


In most species, a countercurrent exchange system is employed to enhance the diffusion of substances in and out of the gill, with blood and water flowing in opposite directions to each other. Water taken into the mouth passes out of the slits, bathing the gills as it passes. Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ...


Some fish utilize the gills for the excretion of electrolytes. Gills' large surface area tends to create a problem for fish seeking to regulate the osmolarity of their internal fluids. Saltwater is less dilute than these internal fluids; as a consequence, saltwater fish lose large quantities of water osmotically through their gills. To regain the water, they drink large amounts of seawater and excrete the salt. Freshwater is more dilute than the internal fluids of fish, however, so freshwater fish gain water osmotically through their gills. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ...


The gill slits of fish are believed to be the evolutionary ancestors of the tonsils, thymus gland, and Eustachian tubes, as well as many other structures derived from the embryonic branchial pouches. In some amphibians, the gills occupy the same position on the body but protrude as external tufts. This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... The Eustachian tube (or auditory tube) is a tube that links the pharynx to the middle ear. ... Pharyngeal or branchial pouches form on the endodermal side between the branchial arches, and pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form from the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ...

An Alpine newt larva showing the gills, which flare just behind the head
An Alpine newt larva showing the gills, which flare just behind the head

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x757, 721 KB) Smooth Newt larva This image shows an about 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x757, 721 KB) Smooth Newt larva This image shows an about 1. ... Binomial name Triturus alpestris (Laurenti, 1768) The Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris) belongs to the order Salamander (Urodela or Caudata) in the class of Amphibians. ...

Branchia

Branchia (pl. branchiæ) is the name given by the Ancient Greek naturalists to the gills of fish. Galen observed that they are full of little foramina, big enough to admit air and gas, but too fine to give passage to water. Pliny the Elder held that fish respired by their gills, but observed that Aristotle was of another opinion.[1] Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


The word branchia comes from the Greek βράγχια, "gills", plural of βράγχιον (in singular, meaning a fin).[2] A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. ...


References

  1. ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain.
  2. ^ "Branchia". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd Ed. 1989.

Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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A gill is a respiration organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and the excretion of carbon dioxide.
The gills of other insects are of the tracheal kind and also include both thin plates and tufted structures, and, in the larval dragon fly, the wall of the caudal end of the alimentary tract (rectum) is richly supplied with tracheae as a rectal gill.
Gills of vertebrates are developed in the walls of the pharynx along a series of gill slits opening to the exterior.
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