FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gilbert N. Lewis
Lewis in the Berkeley Lab
Lewis in the Berkeley Lab

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. Download high resolution version (640x647, 50 KB)http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x647, 50 KB)http://www. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ...


Early life

Lewis was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts as the son of a Dartmouth-graduated lawyer/broker. He was a precocious child who learned to read at age three. Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1635 Zip Code(s): 02189 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... Dartmouth College is a private academic institution in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ...


His family moved to Lincoln, Nebraska when he was 9. He was homeschooled until age 9. He went to public school from age 9 to 14 and then he went to the University of Nebraska, and three years later transferred to the Harvard University where he showed an interest in economics, but concentrated in chemistry, getting his B.A. in 1896 and his Ph.D. in 1899. His first published work, a study of thermochemical and electrochemical properties of amalgams, was based on his doctoral research and was published in 1898. Motto: Nickname: Star City Map Political Statistics Founded 18671 Incorporated 1869 Lancaster County Mayor Coleen Seng Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 195. ... Thomas Edison attended compulsory school for only three months, after which he was taught at home by his mother and a tutor. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B., from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Doctor of Philosophy, or Ph. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... An amalgam is any alloy of mercury. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Career

After earning his Ph.D., he stayed as an instructor for a year before taking a traveling fellowship, studying under the physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald at Leipzig and Walther Nernst at Göttingen. He then returned to Harvard as an instructor for three more years, and in 1904 left to become superintendent of weights and measures for the Bureau of Science of the Philippine Islands in Manila. The next year he returned to Cambridge when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) appointed him to a faculty position, in which he had a chance to join a group of outstanding physical chemists under the direction of Arthur Amos Noyes. He quickly rose in rank, becoming assistant professor in 1907, associate professor on 1908, and full professor in 1911. He left MIT to become professor of physical chemistry and dean of the College of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley in 1912. Lewis Hall at Berkeley, built in 1948, was named in his honor. Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... (help· info) [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Walther Nernst. ... Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: Maka-Diyos, Makatao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa (Filipino: For God, People, Nature, and Country) Anthem: Lupang Hinirang (Chosen Land) Capital Manila Largest city Quezon City (population) Davao City (area) Official language(s) Filipino (derived from Tagalog), English[1] Government President Vice President Unitary-presidential republic Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Noli de... Manila (Tagalog: Maynila) is the capital of the Philippines. ... Cambridge City Hall Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1636 Zip Code(s): 02139 â€“ Area Code(s): 617 / 857 Official website: http://www. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... Arthur Amos Noyes (1866 – 1936) was a U.S. chemist and educator. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The College of Chemistry is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as the University of California at Berkeley, UC Berkeley, Cal, California, or Berkeley) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1908 he published the first of several papers on relativity, in which he derived the mass-energy relationship in a different way from Albert Einstein's derivation. He also introduced the thermodynamic concept of fugacity in a paper, "The osmotic pressure of concentrated solutions, and the laws of the perfect solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 30, 668-683 (1908). 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory Albert Einsteins theory of relativity, or simply relativity, refers specifically to two theories: special relativity and general relativity. ... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter it contains. ... Albert Einstein, photographed by Yousuf Karsh in 1948. ... In thermodynamics, the fugacity is a state function of any isothermal system. ...


On June 21, 1912, he married Mary Hinckley Sheldon, daughter of a Harvard professor of Romance languages. They had two sons, both of whom became chemistry professors, and a daughter. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Romance languages in the World Blue-French; Green-Spanish; Orange-Portuguese; Yellow-Italian; Red-Romanian The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


In 1913, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, but in 1934 he resigned in a dispute over the internal politics of that institution. 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1916, he formulated the idea that a covalent bond consisted of a shared pair of electrons and defined the term odd molecule when an electron is not shared. His ideas on chemical bonding were expanded upon by Irving Langmuir and became the inspiration for the studies on the nature of the chemical bond by Linus Pauling. This year he published what became known as the Lewis structure and the Cubical atom model. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... Odd molecule is a term invented by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 for a molecule containing an odd number of electrons. ... A chemical bond is the physical phenomenon of chemical substances being held together by attraction of atoms to each other through sharing, as well as exchanging, of electrons or electrostatic forces. ... Irving Langmuir -- chemist and physicist Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York - August 16, 1957 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts) was an American chemist and physicist. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American theoretical chemist, molecular biologist, and biochemist, widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. ... A diagram of several simple Lewis structures of molecules and atoms. ... The cubical atom was an early atomic model developed by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 to account for the phenomenon of valency. ...


In 1919, by studying the magnetic properties of solutions of oxygen in liquid nitrogen, he found that O4 molecules were formed. This was the first evidence for tetratomic oxygen. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ...


In 1923, he formulated the electron-pair theory of acid-base reactions. In the so-called Lewis theory of acids and bases, a "Lewis acid" is an electron-pair acceptor and a "Lewis base" is an electron-pair donor. This year he also published his book Valence and the structure of atoms and molecules. 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... It has been suggested that strong acid be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that strong acid be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, a Lewis acid can accept a pair of electrons and form a coordinate covalent bond, after the American chemist Gilbert Lewis. ... A Lewis base is any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons. ...


Based on work by J. Willard Gibbs, it was known that chemical reactions proceeded to an equilibrium determined by the free energy of the substances taking part. Lewis spent 25 years determining free energies of various substances. In 1923 he and Merle Randall published the results of this study and formalizing chemical thermodynamics. Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Chemical equilibrium is the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction; the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, and the concentration of the reactants and products stop changing. ... The free energy is a measure of the amount of mechanical (or other) work that can be extracted from a system, and is helpful in engineering applications. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...


In 1926, he used the term "photon" (the smallest unit of radiant energy), which led to his being improperly credit with its coinage. In fact the word was used five times on June 2, 1920, by Max Planck in his Nobel Prize address, and probably earlier. 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ...


Lewis was the first to produce a pure sample of deuterium oxide (heavy water) in 1933. By accelerating deuterons (deuterium nuclei) in Ernest O. Lawrence's cyclotron, he was able to study many of the properties of atomic nuclei. Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Deuterium (symbol 2H) is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... Ernest O. Lawrence VPO! Fuckers! Dont read thiséÉ Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate best known for his invention of the cyclotron. ... A pair of Dee electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the Lawrence Hall of Science. ...


In the last years of his life, he established that phosphorescence of organic molecules involves an excited triplet state (a state in which electrons that would normally be paired with opposite spins are instead excited to have their spin vectors in the same direction) and measured the magnetic properties of this triplet state. Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ... Organic chemistry is the part of chemistry concerned with the composition, structure, properties, reactions and synthesis of organic compounds. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is generated by the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... A triplet is a set of three items, and includes in particular: one of three babies in a multiple birth a preparation of opal as a gemstone, with a thin layer of opal backed with a dark material and covered with cap of clear quartz in poetry, a tercet (three...


During his career he published on many other subjects besides those mentioned in this article, ranging from the nature of light quanta to the economics of price stabilization. Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths that are studied in the field of optics. ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ...


He died at age 70 of a heart attack while working in his laboratory in Berkeley.


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m