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Encyclopedia > Gilbert Islands

The Gilbert Islands are a chain of 16 atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean, main part of the nation Kiribati ("Kiribati" is the rendition of "Gilberts" in the Kiribati language). The atolls and islands are arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In alphabetical order, they are: Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gilbert Islands. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... Gilbertese or Kiribati (sometimes Kiribatese, a mixture of both) is a language from the Austronesian family, part of the Oceanian branch and of the Nuclear Micronesian subbranch. ...

Islands Coordinates Population*
Abaiang 1°50′N, 172°57′E 5502
Abemama 0°24′N, 173°50′E 3404
Arorae 2°38′S, 176°49′E 1256
Aranuka 0°09′N, 173°35′E 1158
Beru 1°20′S, 175°59′E 2169
Butaritari 3°09′N, 172°50′E 3280
Kuria 0°13′N, 173°24′E 1082
Maiana 0°55′N, 173°00′E 1908
Makin 3°23′N, 173°00′E 2385
Marakei 2°00′N, 173°17′E 2741
Nikunau 1°21′S, 176°28′E 1912
Nonouti 0°40′S, 174°20′E 3179
Onotoa 1°52′S, 175°33′E 1644
Tabiteuea 1°20′S, 174°50′E 3600 (N.), 1298 (S.)
Tamana 2°30′S, 175°58′E 875
Tarawa 1°26′N, 173°00′E 5678 (N.), 40311 (S.)
Gilbert Islands 82902

* Source: Kiribati 2005 Census (provisional) [1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2371 × 1804 pixel, file size: 1,000 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions -- File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2371 × 1804 pixel, file size: 1,000 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions -- File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Abaiang, also spelled Apaiang, sometimes called Apia, and formerly named Charlotte Island, is a coral atoll of the Kiribati, located in the west-central Pacific Ocean. ... Abemama is an island in the central part of the Kiribati Group. ... Arorae is an atoll in Kiribati. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Beru Atoll Beru Island is an island located in Tungaru, or South Gilbert Islands of the Pacific Ocean. ... Butaritari Atoll and part of Makin (upper right) Butaritari is an atoll located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ... Kuria Atoll Kuria is a the name of a pair of islands in the North Gilbert Islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... MaianaBold text is a district of Kiribati and an atoll in the North Gilbert Islands. ... Butaritari Atoll is an atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ... Marakei Atoll Marakei is a small atoll in the North Gilbert Islands. ... Nikunau Atoll Nikunau is a low coral island located in the Gilbert Islands. ... Nonouti is an atoll and district of Kiribati. ... Onotoa is an atoll and district of Kiribati. ... Tabiteuea is the collective name for two neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean, Tabiteuea North and Tabiteuea South. ... Tamana is the smallest island in the Gilbert Islands. ... Map of the Tarawa atoll Tarawa is an atoll in the central Pacific Ocean, previously the capital of the former British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. ...



The Gilberts had been inhabited by Micronesians for several centuries before they were discovered by Europeans.


In 1788 Captain Thomas Gilbert in the Charlotte and Captain John Marshall in the Scarborough crossed through Abemama, Kuria, Aranuka, Tarawa, Abaiang, Butaritari, and Makin (without stopping). In the years that followed, many ships ran across the little islands and atolls of the Gilberts in the course of their travels in the central Pacific. 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Charlotte was a First Fleet transport ship, built on the River Thames in 1784, and weighing 345 tons. ... John Marshall was born in Ramsgate,Kent,England on 15 February 1748. ... Scarborough was a First Fleet transport ship of 418 tons, built at Scarborough in 1782. ... Abemama is an island in the central part of the Kiribati Group. ... Kuria may refer to: The Kuria people of Tanzania and Kenya Kuria District, a district in Kenya Kuria, the collective name of the islands of Buariki and Oneeke in the Pacific Ocean This group was one of the last tribes in Kenya to allow integration into their area. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Map of the Tarawa atoll Tarawa is an atoll in the central Pacific Ocean, previously the capital of the former British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. ... Abaiang, also spelled Apaiang, sometimes called Apia, and formerly named Charlotte Island, is a coral atoll of the Kiribati, located in the west-central Pacific Ocean. ... Butaritari Atoll and part of Makin (upper right) Butaritari is an atoll located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ... Butaritari Atoll is an atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ...


In 1820, the islands were named îles Gilbert (in French) by von Krusenstern, an Estonian admiral of the Czar after the British captain, Gilbert, together with the neighbouring îles Marshall. Two ships of the United States Exploring Expedition, Peacock and Flying Fish, under the command of Captain Hudson, visited many of the Gilbert Islands (then Kingsmill Islands). While in the Gilberts, considerable time was devoted to mapping and charting reefs and anchorages — but a huge Maneaba of Tabiteuea was burnt and Gilbertese killed.[citation needed] 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ivan Kruzenstern Adam Johann Ritter von (knight of) Krusenstern (born November 19, 1770 in Hagudi, close to Rapla, in the Russian province of Estonia, died August 24, 1846 in Reval, now Tallinn, Estonia) was the Baltic German admiral and explorer in Russian Service who in 1803-1806 led the first... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Thomas Gilbert Was The Captain Of The Charlotte in the first fleet ... The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean (the Southern Seas) conducted by the United States Navy from 1838-1842. ... The Peacock of 1828 was rebuilt along the lines of the previous ship. ... The first USS Flying Fish (1838), a schooner, was formerly the New York pilot boat Independence; purchased at New York 3 August 1838; and upon joining her squadron in Hampton Roads 12 August 1838 was placed under command of Passed Midshipman S. R. Knox. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... The House of Assembly of Kiribati (official constitutional name: Maneaba ni Maungatabu) has 42 members, 40 elected for a four year term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies, 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex-officio member (the Attorney General). ... Tabiteuea is the collective name for two neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean, Tabiteuea North and Tabiteuea South. ...


A British protectorate was first proclaimed over the Gilberts by Captain Davis of HMS Royalist on 27 May 1892. In 1915 the Gilbert and Ellice Islands were proclaimed a colony of the British Empire. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Gilbert and Ellice Islands were a British protectorate from 1892 and colony from 1916 — until 1 January 1976 when the islands were divided into two different colonies which became independent nations shortly after. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The natives of the Gilbert Islands are Micronesian, similar in many respects to the natives of the Marshalls, the Carolines, and the Marianas. At the time of the Japanese invasion in 1942, they were a self-governing people, with their tribal consciousness undisturbed by the British system of colony government and administration. Loyal to the British, the Gilbertese looked with dissatisfaction upon the prospects of coming under the rule of the Japanese. During their stay in the Gilberts, the Japanese did nothing to change the opinion of the Gilbertese on this score. Motto: Jepilpilin ke ejukaan Anthem: Forever Marshall Islands Capital (and largest city) Majuro Official languages Marshallese, English Government  -  President Kessai Note Independence  -  from the United States October 21, 1986  Area  -  Total 181 km² (213th) 69. ... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


The principal industry found in the Gilberts was the production of phosphate from the deposits on Ocean Island and Fanning Island. In addition, coconut palms were cultivated on some of the islands. All labor was supervised by the British and every effort was made to see that the wages and living conditions were fair and adequate. Sanitary inspections by the British did much to improve the general living conditions on most of the islands. Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Satellite imagery of Banaba Island from Google Earth. ... Tabuaeran: lagoon shore at dusk Tabuaeran is an atoll—one of the Line Islands of the central Pacific Ocean—located at Latitude 3° 51 36 North – Longitude 159° 21 52 West. ... Binomial name L. For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ...


Native diet prior to World War II consisted mainly of fish, coconuts, pandanus fruit, babai (swamp taro), chicken, and some pork. Housing for Europeans employed in the island was simple. Their houses were constructed of both European and native materials and were generally of the bungalow type. There was no tourism. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Species See text Pandanus is a large genus of between 600-700 species of tree- or shrub-like flowering plants in the family Pandanaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Schott Taro (from Tahitian or other Polynesian languages), more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian), is a tropical plant grown primarily as a vegetable food for its edible corm, and secondarily as a leaf vegetable. ...


At the outbreak of the war, about 78% of the native population were said to be Christians. This group was divided mainly into two denominations: Congregationalists (43%); and Roman Catholics (35%). The rest of the population were largely semi pagan agnostics; they did not adhere to the Christian faith, nor did they retain much of their beliefs in their own ancient gods. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Judged to be about 84% literate, the Gilbertese responded readily to the colony's educational efforts. All education in the islands came under the supervision of the Colonial Education Department whose aims were to educate native boys for employment in government and commercial work, and to standardize the level of education throughout the colony. The bulk of the education was provided by the missions, which maintained all the village schools and trained the native school teachers.


With the availability of European-style medical care life improved. The Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme sought to provide an outlet through the development of three uninhabited atolls in the Phoenix Islands and was the last attempt at human colonization within the British Empire. The Phoenix Islands Settlement Scheme was begun in 1938 in the western Pacific ocean and was the last attempt at human colonization within the British Empire. ... The Phoenix Islands are a group of eight atolls, plus two submerged coral reefs in the central Pacific Ocean, east of the Gilbert Islands and west of the Line Islands. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


World War II

When war came in December 1941, the Japanese occupied Makin Atoll immediately and raided Tarawa. In February 1942, the British evacuated most of their people from Tarawa, except for missionaries who elected to remain, and coast watchers. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


On 17 August 1942, 221 U.S. Marines of the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion were landed on Makin from two submarines. The raid was intended by the Americans to confuse the Japanese about US intentions in the Pacific. However, it had the effect of alerting the Japanese to the strategic importance of the Gilbert Islands and led to their reinforcement and fortification. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ...


Tarawa and Abemama were occupied in force by the Japanese in September 1942 and during the next year garrisons were built up on Betio (Tarawa Atoll), and Butaritari (Makin Atoll). Only nominal forces were placed on other islands in the Gilberts. Map of Betio from WWII Betio is an island at the extreme southwest of South Tarawa. ... Butaritari Atoll and part of Makin (upper right) Butaritari is an atoll located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ...


On 20 November 1943, the U.S. 2nd Marine Division invaded, in the battles of Makin and bloody Tarawa. The Gilbert Islands were used to support the invasion of the Marshall Islands in February 1944. November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. 2nd Marine Division is a division of the United States Marine Corps, which forms the ground-force component of the II Marine Expeditionary Force. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Ralph C. Smith Seizo Ishikawa Strength 6, 470 400 troops, 400 labourers Casualties 66 killed, 185 wounded 700 killed, 3 Japanese captured, 101 Korean labourers captured The Battle of Makin was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought... Combatants United States (U.S.) Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibasaki † Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured The remains of a US M4A2 tank left stranded... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


1944 -

The colony became autonomous in 1971. From 1976 to 1978, the Ellices were separated, and the Gilberts became the Gilbert Islands colony, which issued stamps under that name. In 1979, the Gilberts opted for independence, becoming the independent nation of Kiribati. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gilbert and Ellice Islands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (543 words)
The Gilbert Islands have been the major part of the nation of Kiribati since 1979, and the Ellice Islands became Tuvalu in 1978.
The sixteen islands of the Gilberts, declared a protectorate by Captain Davis, R. of HMS Royalist between 27 May and 17 June 1892, were discovered intermittently from perhaps as early as 1537 up to 1826.
The Ellice Islands were declared a protectorate by Captain Gibson, R. of HMS Curacao between 9th and 16 October of the same year; Banaba (or Ocean Island) was included within the protectorate in 1900 and then in the colony in 1916.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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