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Encyclopedia > Gifford Pinchot
Gifford Pinchot


In office
January 20, 1923 – January 15, 1927
January 20, 1931January 15, 1935
Preceded by William C. Sproul (1923)
John Stuchell Fisher (1931)
Succeeded by John Stuchell Fisher (1927)
George Howard Earle III (1935)

Born August 11, 1865
Died October 4, 1946
Political party Republican

Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). Gifford Pinchot, from US Government site http://www. ... List of Pennsylvania Governors The office of Pennsylvania governor was created by the states Constitution of 1790. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... William Cameron Sproul (September 16, 1870–March 21, 1928) was Governor of Pennsylvania 1919 to 1923. ... John Stuchell Fisher (May 25, 1867–June 25, 1940) was Pennsylvanias 28th Governor, a Republican. ... John Stuchell Fisher (May 25, 1867–June 25, 1940) was Pennsylvanias 28th Governor, a Republican. ... George Howard Earle III (1890–1974) was an American politician. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the U.S. Forest Service. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This is a list of Governors of Pennsylvania. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...


He is famous for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating conservation of the nation's forest reserves by planned use and renewal: "the art of producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man." He coined the term conservation as applied to natural resources. The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ...

Contents

Education and early life

Gifford graduated from Yale College in 1889, where he was a member of Skull and Bones, and then studied as a postgraduate at the French National Forestry School for a year. He returned home and plunged into the nascent forestry movement, intent on shaping a national forest policy. For other uses, see Yale (disambiguation). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Emblem of the Skull and Bones society The Order of Skull and Bones, once known as The Brotherhood of Death,[1] is a secret society based at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut, and is one of the oldest student secret societies in the United States. ...


Gifford Pinchot's father, James, had made a great fortune from lumbering and land speculation but regretted the damage his work had done to the land. He made conservation a family affair and decided that Gifford would become a forester. He endowed the Yale School of Forestry in 1900, and he turned Grey Towers, the family estate at Milford, Pennsylvania, into a "nursery" for the American forestry movement. Family affairs were managed by Gifford's brother Amos Pinchot, thus freeing Gifford to do the more important work of saving America's forests. Unlike others in the forestry movement, Pinchot's wealth allowed him to singly pursue this goal without worry of income. The Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies was founded as the Yale School of Forestry in 1900 by Gifford Pinchot, head of the United States Division of Forestry, and Henry Solon Graves, both Yale graduates who had attended forestry school in Europe, there being no professional forestry schools in... The Milford Community House and Pike County Public Library Milford is a borough in Pike County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Pinchot battled Perkins (who controlled the money) for control of the Progressive party Amos Pinchot (1872-1944) was an American political leader of the early 20th century. ...


In addition, Pinchot's approach set him apart from the other leading forestry experts--Bernhard E. Fernow and Carl A. Schenck. Fernow had been Pinchot's predecessor in the U.S. Division of Forestry before leaving in 1898 to become the first dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell. Schenck was Pinchot's successor at the Biltmore Estate (widely recognized as the "cradle of American forestry") and founder of the Biltmore Forest School on the Biltmore Estate. Their schools largely reflected their approaches to introducing forestry in the United States: Fernow advocated a regional approach and Schenck a private enterprise effort in contrast to Pinchot's national vision. [1] Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Biltmore House is a French Renaissance-inspired chateau near Asheville, North Carolina, built by George Washington Vanderbilt II between 1888 and 1895. ...


Forestry policy and institutions

In 1896, Grover Cleveland appointed Pinchot to the National Forest Commission and charged him with developing a plan for the nation’s Western forest reserves. In 1898, he became head of the Division of Forestry, later renamed the United States Forest Service. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... Logo of the U.S. Forest Service. ...


With fellow Yale alumnus, "Meghan Griffin" & Henry S. Graves, Pinchot founded the Yale University School of Forestry (now the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies) in 1900 and was a professor there from 1903 until 1936. Henry S. Graves Image:Henry S. Graves. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... The Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies was founded as the Yale School of Forestry in 1900 by Gifford Pinchot, head of the United States Division of Forestry, and Henry Solon Graves, both Yale graduates who had attended forestry school in Europe, there being no professional forestry schools in...


Pinchot sought to turn public land policy from one that dispersed resources to private holdings to one that maintained federal ownership and management of public land. He was a Progressive who strongly believed in the Efficiency Movement. The most economically efficient use of natural resources was his goal; waste was his great enemy. His successes, in part, were grounded in the personal networks that he started developing as a student at Yale and continuing through his career. His personal involvement in the recruitment process led to high esprit de corps in the Forest Service and allowed him to avoid partisan political patronage. Pinchot capitalized on his professional expertise to gain adherents in an age when professionalism and science were greatly valued. He made it a high priority to professionalize the Forest Service; to that end he helped found the Yale School of Forestry as a source of highly trained men. The Efficiency Movement was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United States. ...


Methods

Pinchot used the rhetoric of the market economy to disarm critics of efforts to expand the role of government: scientific management of forests was profitable. While most of his battles were with timber companies which he thought had too narrow a time horizon, he also battled the "back to nature" spokesmen like John Muir, who were deeply opposed to commercializing nature. [2] John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the first modern preservationists. ...

Pinchot with Theodore Roosevelt, 1907
Pinchot with Theodore Roosevelt, 1907

Pinchot rose to national prominence under the patronage of President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1905, his department also gained control of the national forest reserves, thereby dramatically increasing the authority of the Forest Service. Pinchot developed a plan by which the forests could be developed by private interests, under set terms, in exchange for a fee. Pinchot used massive publicity campaigns to direct national discussions of natural resource management issues. Image File history File links Pinchot_Roosevelt. ... Image File history File links Pinchot_Roosevelt. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...


Central to his publicity work was his creation of news for magazines and newspapers, as well as debates with opponents such as John Muir. Pinchot issued massive amounts of information and news to the press and public. His effectiveness in manipulating information hostile to his boss President Taft led to his firing in January 1910. But his successes became a model for other bureaucrats in how to influence public opinion. [3] John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the first modern preservationists. ...


Pinchot’s policies encountered some opposition. Preservationists opposed commercialization of the land; Congress was increasingly hostile to conservation of the forests, owing to local commercial pressures for quicker exploitation. In 1907, Congress forbade the creation of more forest reserves in the Western states. Roosevelt designated 16 million acres (65,000 km²) of new National Forests just minutes before his power to do so was stripped by a congressionally mandated amendment to the Agriculture Bill. These were called the Midnight Forests.


Ballinger-Pinchot controversy

Pinchot’s authority was substantially undermined by the election of President William Howard Taft in 1908. Taft later fired Pinchot for speaking out against his policies and those of Richard Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior. Pinchot launched a series of public attacks to discredit Ballinger and force him from office which became known as the Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy. That episode hastened the split in the Republican Party that led to the formation of the Progressive Party, of which Pinchot and his brother were top leaders. William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, the 10th Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration and... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy was a dispute between Richard A. Ballinger and Gifford Pinchot that helped lead to the split of the Republican Party. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ...


Pinchot ran for Senate in 1914 on the Progressive Party ticket and expressed interest in the Presidency. After his campaign, Pinchot promoted American involvement in World War I, opposing President Woodrow Wilson's neutrality. The Progressives returned to their old parties and Pinchot rejoined the Republicans. With the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913, the U.S. Senate election of 1914 was the first time that all senators were popularly elected instead of chosen by their state legislatures. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...


Pinchot founded the National Conservation Association, of which he was president from 1910 to 1925.


Governor of Pennsylvania

With Wilson's re-election in 1916, Pinchot turned to Pennsylvania state politics. Governor William Sproul appointed him state Commissioner of Forestry in 1920. Pinchot's aim, however, was to become governor. His 1922 campaign for the office concentrated on popular reforms: government economy, enforcement of Prohibition and regulation of public utilities. He won by a wide margin. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Cameron Sproul (September 16, 1870–March 21, 1928) was Governor of Pennsylvania 1919 to 1923. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...


Pinchot retired at the end of his term in 1927. Following another unsuccessful attempt at the U.S. Senate, the Pinchots took a seven-month cruise of the South Seas. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the...


In 1930, Pinchot won a second term as governor, battling for regulation of public utilities, relief for the unemployed and construction of paved roads to "get the farmers out of the mud." This was the achievement he was most proud of. In 1934, Pinchot ran unsuccessfully for the Senate a third time. Pinchot's final campaign, a bid for the GOP nomination for Governor in 1938 was also unsuccessful.


In his remaining years, the ex-governor gave advice to President Franklin Roosevelt, wrote a book about his life as a forester and devised a fishing kit to be used in lifeboats during World War II. He even instructed the U.S. Navy on how to extract fresh water from fish[citation needed]. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ...


Death and legacy

On October 4, 1946, he died, aged 81, from leukemia. He was survived by his wife, Cornelia Bryce, and his son, Gifford Bryce Pinchot. He is interred at Milford Cemetery, Pike County, Pennsylvania. October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Pike County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ...


Perhaps because of pride in the first Gifford Pinchot's legacy, the Pinchot family has continued to name their sons Gifford, down to Gifford Pinchot IV.


Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington, and Gifford Pinchot State Park in Lewisberry, Pennsylvania, are named in his honor, as is Pinchot Hall at Penn State University. Gifford Pinchot National Forest is a national forest located in southwestern Washington. ... Gifford Pinchot State Park is in northern York, County Pennsylvania. ... Lewisberry is a borough located in York County, Pennsylvania. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ...


Pronunciation

Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest "as tho it were spelled pin'cho, with slight emphasis on the first syllable." [4] The Literary Digest was an influential general-interest magazine in the early 20th century United States. ...


Notes

  1. ^ [Lewis 1999]
  2. ^ [Balogh 2002]
  3. ^ [Ponder, 1987]
  4. ^ (Charles Earle Funk, What's the Name, Please?, Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.)

References

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Gifford Pinchot, The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot ed by Harold K. Steen (2001)

Secondary sources

  • Balogh, Brian. "Scientific Forestry and the Roots of the Modern American State: Gifford Pinchot's Path to Progressive Reform" Environmental History 2002 7(2): 198–225. Issn: 1084-5453
  • Lewis, James G. "The Pinchot Family and the Battle to Establish American Forestry" Pennsylvania History 1999 66(2): 143–165. Issn: 0031-4528
  • M. Nelson McGeary, Gifford Pinchot: Forester-Politician (1960)
  • Meyer, John M. "Gifford Pinchot, John Muir, and the Boundaries of Politics in American Thought" Polity 1997 30(2): 267–284. Issn: 0032-3497
  • Char Miller. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism (2001)
  • Nash, Roderick. "Wilderness and the American Mind," Univ. of Wisc. Press, (1967), and later editions
  • Ponder, Stephen. "Gifford Pinchot, Press Agent for Forestry" Journal of Forest History 1987 31(1): 26–35. Issn: 0094-5080
  • Smith, Michael B. "The Value of a Tree: Public Debates of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot" Historian 1998 60(4): 757–778. Issn: 0018-2370

External links

Preceded by
William Cameron Sproul
Governor of Pennsylvania
1923–1927
Succeeded by
John Stuchell Fisher
Preceded by
John Stuchell Fisher
Governor of Pennsylvania
1931–1935
Succeeded by
George Howard Earle

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gifford Pinchot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1418 words)
Gifford graduated from Yale College in 1889, where he was a member of Skull and Bones and then studied as a postgraduate at the French National Forestry School for a year.
Pinchot’s authority was substantially undermined by the election of President William Howard Taft in 1908.
Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington, and Gifford Pinchot State Park in Lewisberry, Pennsylvania, are named in his honor, as is Pinchot Hall at Penn State University.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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