FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Gibraltar" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Flag of Gibraltar
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti  (Latin)
"Conquered By No Enemy"1
Anthem
"Gibraltar Anthem"
"God Save the Queen"
Capital
(and largest city)
Gibraltar
36°8′N, 5°21′W
Official languages English
Government British Overseas Territory
 -  Head of state Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor Robert Fulton
 -  Chief Minister Peter Caruana
Event Date 
 -  Captured 4th August 1704 
 -  Ceded 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht
 -  National Day 10th September 
 -  Constitution Day 29th January 
Area
 -  Total 6.5 km² (229th)
2.5 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0%
Population
 -  Jul 2007 estimate 27,967 (207th)
 -  Density 4,290/km² (5th)
11,154/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2000 estimate
 -  Total $769 million (197th)
 -  Per capita $27,900 (n/a)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency Gibraltar pound2 (GIP)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .gi
Calling code [[+3503]]
1 National Symbols of Gibraltar
2 Pegged with UK pound sterling at par. Coins and notes issued by the Government of Gibraltar.
3 Before February 10, 2007, 9567 from Spain.

Gibraltar (IPA: /dʒɨˈbrɒltər/) is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar. The territory shares a border with Spain to the north. Gibraltar has historically been an important base for the British Armed Forces and is the site of a Royal Navy base. Gibraltar can refer to: Gibraltar, a territory to the south of Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Coa_Gibraltar. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Flag of Gibraltar on the top of the Rock of Gibraltar The Flag of Gibraltar is an elongated banner of the Coat of arms of Gibraltar, granted by Royal Warrant Queen Isabella of Castile on the 10th July 1502. ... Coat of arms of Gibraltar The Coat of Arms of Gibraltar were first granted on July 10, 1502 by Isabella of Castile. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Gibraltar retains as its official anthem God Save the Queen in common with the other United Kingdom dependencies. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 250 × 115 pixelsFull resolution (250 × 115 pixel, file size: 2 KB, MIME type: image/png) Country locator map - Gibraltar Closer version than Image:LocationGibraltar. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Gibraltar Population: 27,928(July 2006 est. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Flag of the Governor of Gibraltar The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the United Kingdoms overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the leader of the largest party in the Gibraltar House of Assembly, and is formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Crown. ... Peter Richard Caruana Peter Richard Caruana QC (born October 15, 1956) is a Gibraltarian politician, and has been Chief Minister since 1996, when his party, the Gibraltar Social Democrats, first came to power. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... For other uses, see Gibraltar (disambiguation). ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... (Redirected from 29 January) January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 1 km² (100 hectares) and 10 km² (1000 hectares). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 code: GIP Symbol: £ 1/100th unit: penny Introduced in: 1927 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 0. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .gi is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Gibraltar. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... GBP redirects here. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The name of the territory is derived from the Arabic name Jabal Tāriq (جبل طارق), meaning "mountain of Tariq", or from Gibel Tāriq, meaning "rock of Tariq".[1] It refers to the geological formation, the Rock of Gibraltar, and the Berber Umayyad general Tariq ibn-Ziyad, under the orders of Caliph Al-Walid I who led the initial incursion into Iberia in advance of the main Moorish force in 711. Earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, one of the Pillars of Hercules. Today, Gibraltar is known colloquially as Gib or The Rock. Arabic redirects here. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major issue of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations. Spain requests the return of sovereignty, ceded by Spain in perpetuity in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty[2][3]. Gibraltar is a British overseas territory on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula subject to a disputed irredentist claim by Spain. ... British-Spanish relations, also called Anglo-Spanish relations, are the bilateral international relations between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Kingdom of Spain. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ...

Contents

History

Historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar.
Historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar.
Main article: History of Gibraltar
See also: Military history of Gibraltar during World War II, History of the Jews in Gibraltar, and History of the Maltese in Gibraltar

There is evidence of human habitation in Gibraltar going as far back as Neanderthal man, an extinct species of the Homo genus. The first historical people known to have settled there were the Phoenicians around 950 BC. Semi-permanent settlements were later established by the Carthaginians and Romans. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals, and would later form part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania until its collapse due to the Muslim conquest in 711 AD. At that time, Gibraltar was named as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the legend of the creation of the Straits of Gibraltar. Image File history File linksMetadata Kärtchen_des_vorgebirges_von_gibraltar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kärtchen_des_vorgebirges_von_gibraltar. ... The term promontory has several similar meanings in English, including geographical names: A promontory is a prominent mass of land which overlooks lower lying land or a body of water (e. ... This article details the history of Gibraltar. ... Searchlights in action, 1940 (Imperial War Museum) Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years and a vital factor in British strategy in all wars, both as a last foothold on the Continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power. ... The location of Gibraltar. ... A Maltese community has existed in Gibraltar since shortly after the British conquest in 1713. ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Islamic conquest of Iberia (711–718) commenced when the Moors invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the caliph at Damascus, and led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and worked their... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ...


On April 30, 711, the Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad led a Berber-dominated army across the Strait from Ceuta. He first attempted to land at Algeciras but failed. Subsequently, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain. Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: phone number 711. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, near the British colony/Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, slightly to the north from Tarifa, which is the southernmost town of the peninsular Spain and Europe (, ). Both cities are situated on the Strait of Gibraltar; Algeciras also faces the Mediterranean. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ...


The first permanent settlement was built by the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min, who ordered the construction of a fortification on the Rock, the remains of which are still present. Gibraltar would later become part of the Kingdom of Granada until 1309, when it would be briefly occupied by Castilian troops. In 1333, it was conquered by the Marinids who had invaded Muslim Spain. The Marinids ceded Gibraltar to the Kingdom of Granada in 1374. Finally, it was reconquered definitively by the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1462, ending 750 years of Moorish control. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... The Berber Marinids (Banu Marin) conquered Morocco from the Almohads in 1269. ... The City of Granada Alhambra, Courtyard of the Lions Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in Spain. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Dukes of Medina Sidonia (1445) Juan Alfonso de Guzman El Bueno, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia (1410-1468) Enrique de Guzman El Bueno, 2nd Duke of Medina Sidonia (d. ...


In the initial years under Medina Sidonia, Gibraltar was granted sovereignty as a home to a population of exiled Sephardic Jews. Pedro de Herrera, a Jewish converso from Córdoba who had led the conquest of Gibraltar, led a group of 4,350 Jews from Córdoba and Seville to establish themselves in the town. A community was built and a garrison established to defend the peninsula. However, this lasted only three years. In 1476, the Duke of Medina Sidonia realigned with the Spanish Crown; the Sefardim were then forced back to Córdoba and the Spanish Inquisition. In 1501 Gibraltar passed under the hands of the Spanish Crown, which had been established in 1479. Gibraltar was granted its coat of arms by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo by Isabella of Castile in 1501. Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before the Jews of Spain were expelled in 1492. ... A Spanish politician known for his role in the reconquest of Gibraltar and for leading a community of Sefardic Jews who settled for three years in this town. ... Converso (Spanish and Portuguese for a convert, from Latin conversus, converted, turned around) and its feminine form conversa referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted to Catholicism in Spain and Portugal, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba redirects here. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Coat of arms of Gibraltar The Coat of Arms of Gibraltar were first granted on July 10, 1502 by Isabella of Castile. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ...

The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on April 25, 1607 during the Eighty Years' War when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the four-hour action, the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed. Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1105x770, 150 KB)Battle of Gibraltar 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Jacob van Heemskerk † Juan Álvarez de Ávila † Strength 26 warships 4 merchant ships 21 warships Casualties 100 dead 60 wounded 4,000 dead 21 ships destroyed The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years War when a Dutch... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Jacob van Heemskerk † Juan Álvarez de Ávila † Strength 26 warships 4 merchant ships 21 warships Casualties 100 dead 60 wounded 4,000 dead 21 ships destroyed The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607 during the Eighty Years War when a Dutch... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ...


During the War of the Spanish Succession, British and Dutch troops, allies of Archduke Charles, the Austrian pretender to the Spanish Crown, formed a confederate fleet and attacked various towns on the southern coast of Spain. On 4 August 1704, after six hours of bombardment starting at 5 a.m., the confederate fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke assisted by Field Marshal Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt comprising some 1800 Dutch and British marines captured the town of Gibraltar and claimed it in the name of the Archduke Charles. Terms of surrender [4] were agreed upon, after which much of the population chose to leave Gibraltar peacefully. Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt (1669-1705) (Source: Stadtarchiv Darmstadt) Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt (Darmstadt 1669 - Barcelona September 13, 1705) was a Fieldmarshal in the Austrian army and conquerer of Gibraltar for the British in 1704. ...


Franco-Spanish troops failed to retake the town, and British sovereignty over Gibraltar was subsequently recognised by the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the war. In this treaty, Spain ceded Gibraltar (Article X) and Minorca (article XI) to the United Kingdom in perpetuity. Great Britain has since retained sovereignty over the former ever since, despite all attempts by Spain to recapture it. A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ...


Due to military incursions by Spain various fortifications were established and occupied by British troops in the area which came to be known as "the British Neutral Ground." This was the area to the north of Gibraltar, militarily conquered and continuously occupied by the British except during time of war. (The sovereignty of this area, which today contains the airport, cemetery, a number of housing estates and the sports centre, is separately disputed by Spain.) The Gibraltar territory nowadays contains an 800-metre section of the isthmus that links the Rock with mainland. ...


During the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish, who had entered the conflict against the British, imposed a stringent blockade against Gibraltar as part of an unsuccessful siege (the Great Siege of Gibraltar) that lasted for more than three years, from 1779 to 1783. On 14 September 1782, the British destroyed the floating batteries of the French and Spanish besiegers, and in February 1783 the signing of peace preliminaries ended the siege.[5] This article is about military actions only. ... For the painting, see The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Gibraltar subsequently became an important naval base for the Royal Navy and played an important part in the Battle of Trafalgar. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it controlled the important sea route between the UK and colonies such as India and Australia. During World War II, the civilian residents of Gibraltar were evacuated, and the Rock was turned into a fortress. An airfield was built over the civilian racecourse. Guns on Gibraltar controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, but plans by Nazi Germany to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix, later named Llona, were frustrated by Spain's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil. Germany's Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr, also helped by filing a pointedly negative assessment of the options. Canaris was a leader of the German high command resistance to Hitler, and tipped off Franco who erected concrete barriers on roads leading to the Pyrenees.[6] This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Gibraltar Airport (IATA: GIB, ICAO: LXGB) is the only airport in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar on the Iberian Peninsula. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... World War II, Felix was the proposed name for a German/Spanish seizure of Gibraltar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ...


In the 1950s, Spain, then under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, renewed its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar, sparked in part by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the Rock's capture. For the next thirty years, Spain restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain, in application of one of the articles of the Treaty. A referendum was held on September 10, 1967, in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished to either pass under Spanish sovereignty, or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government. The vote was overwhelmingly in favour of continuance of British sovereignty, with 12,138 to 44 voting to reject Spanish sovereignty. This led to the granting of autonomous status in May 1969 , which the Government of Spain strongly opposed. In response, the following month Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.[7] “Franco” redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

View of the frontier from the Spanish side.

The border with Spain was partially reopened in 1982, and fully reopened in 1985 prior to Spain's accession into the European Community. Joint talks on the future of the Rock held between Spain and the United Kingdom have occurred since the late 1980s, with various proposals for joint sovereignty discussed. However, another referendum organised in Gibraltar rejected the idea of joint sovereignty by 17,900 (98.97%) votes to 187 (1.03%). The British Government restated that, in accordance with the preamble of the constitution of Gibraltar, the "UK will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their freely and democratically expressed wishes." The question of Gibraltar continues to affect Anglo-Spanish relations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1097 KB)[edit] Summary I took this picture of Gibraltar from the spanish side of the border. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1097 KB)[edit] Summary I took this picture of Gibraltar from the spanish side of the border. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... British-Spanish relations are the bilateral international relations between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Kingdom of Spain. ...


In 1981 it was announced that the honeymoon for the royal wedding between prince Charles and Diana Spencer would start from Gibraltar. The Spanish Government responded that King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia had declined their invitation to the ceremony as an act of protest.[8]


In 1988, SAS troops shot and killed three members of the IRA who were planning an attack on the British Army band. The ensuing "Death on the Rock" controversy prompted a major political row in the UK. See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern...


2006 saw representatives of the United Kingdom, Gibraltar and Spain conclude talks in Córdoba, Spain, a landmark agreement on a range of cross-cutting issues affecting the Rock and the Campo de Gibraltar removing many of the restrictions imposed by Spain.[9] This agreement resolved a number of long standing issues; improved flow of traffic at the frontier, use of the airport by other carriers, recognition of the 350 telephone code and the settlement of the long-running dispute regarding the pensions of former Spanish workers in Gibraltar, who lost their jobs when Spain closed its border in 1969. Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba redirects here. ... The comarca of the Campo de Gibraltar (the Gibraltar countryside) is one of six traditional and touristic subdivisions of the province of Cádiz, Spain. ...


Politics

The Governor of Gibraltar, Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton KBE.
The Governor of Gibraltar, Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fulton KBE.
Main article: Politics of Gibraltar

As Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the UK, the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor of Gibraltar. The UK retains responsibility for defence, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability. The Governor is not involved in the day-to-day administration of Gibraltar, and his role is largely as a ceremonial head of state. The Governor officially appoints the Chief Minister and government ministers after an election. He is responsible for matters of defence, and security. On 17 July 2006, Sir Francis left on HMS Monmouth leaving the symbolic keys of the fortress of Gibraltar with the Deputy Governor. A new governor, Lt General Sir Robert Fulton KBE, replaced Sir Francis Richards in September 2006[10]. Image File history File linksMetadata Gog_06. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gog_06. ... Flag of the Governor of Gibraltar The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the United Kingdoms overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... Politics of Gibraltar takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Chief Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Flag of the Governor of Gibraltar The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the United Kingdoms overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... Sir Francis Richards (1945 - ), KCMG CVO, was appointed Her Majestys Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Gibraltar in 2003. ...


The Government of Gibraltar is elected for a term of four years. The unicameral Parliament presently consists of seventeen elected members. The speaker is appointed by a resolution of the Parliament. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Gibraltar Parliament is the legislature of the British territory of Gibraltar. ...

Parliament of Gibraltar
Parliament of Gibraltar

The head of Government is the Chief Minister, currently Peter Caruana. There are three political parties currently represented in the Parliament: the Gibraltar Social Democrats, the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party, and the Gibraltar Liberal Party. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the leader of the largest party in the Gibraltar House of Assembly, and is formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Crown. ... Peter Richard Caruana Peter Richard Caruana QC (born October 15, 1956) is a Gibraltarian politician, and has been Chief Minister since 1996, when his party, the Gibraltar Social Democrats, first came to power. ... The Gibraltar Social Democrats (abbreviated GSD) are a political party in Gibraltar. ... The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (abbreviated GSLP) is a political party in Gibraltar. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Gibraltar-related stubs | Liberal parties | Gibraltarian political parties ...


New Gibraltar Democracy and the Progressive Democratic Party have been formed since the 2003 election. The Reform Party was wound up and Gibraltar Labour Party absorbed into the GSD in a merger in 2005. A new party the Progressive Democratic Party PDP was formed in 2006. A party founded in 2005 by Charles Gomez, a barrister. ... The Progressive Democratic Party or PDP is a political party established in June 2006 in Gibraltar by lawyer and former Gibraltar Social Democrat Deputy Chief Minister Keith Azopardi. ... The Gibraltar Reform Party was a political party in Gibraltar. ... The Gibraltar Labour Party was a political party in Gibraltar. ... The Progressive Democratic Party or PDP is a political party established in June 2006 in Gibraltar by lawyer and former Gibraltar Social Democrat Deputy Chief Minister Keith Azopardi. ...


The 2007 election was contested by the GSD, GSLP/LIBS, the PDP and two independents. General elections were held in Gibraltar on October 11, 2007. ...


Gibraltar is a part of the European Union, having joined under the British Treaty of Accession (1973), with exemption from some areas such as the Customs Union and Common Agricultural Policy. A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ...


After a ten-year campaign[11] to exercise the right to vote in European Elections, from 2004, the people of Gibraltar participated in elections for the European Parliament as part of the South West England constituency[12]. Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The constituency (first used 2004) within England; Gibraltar is in the inset. ...


As a result of the continued Spanish claim, the issue of sovereignty features strongly in Gibraltar politics. All local political parties are opposed to any transfer of sovereignty to Spain. They instead support self-determination for the Rock. This policy is supported by the main UK opposition parties. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


In March 2006, UK Foreign Secretary Jack Straw announced that a new Gibraltar constitution had been agreed upon and would be published prior to a referendum on its acceptance in Gibraltar that year[13]. In July, in a statement to the UK Parliament, Geoff Hoon, the Minister for Europe, confirmed that the new Constitution confirms the right of self-determination of the Gibraltarian people.[14] The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Geoffrey William Hoon (born December 6, 1953) is a British politician. ...


On 30 November 2006, a referendum was held for a new constitution. The turnout was 60.4% of eligible voters of which 60.24% voted to approve the constitution and 37.75% against. The remainder returned blank votes. The acceptance was welcomed by the Chief Minister, Peter Caruana, as a step forward for Gibraltar's political development. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A referendum on the proposed new constitution of Gibraltar will be held on 30 November. ... The Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 was a new constitution for Gibraltar which was given effect by an Order-in-Council on December 14, 2006 and came into force on January 2, 2007. ...


Geography

See also: Rock of Gibraltar
The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006.
The Rock of Gibraltar, West Side town area, 2006.

The territory covers 2.53 square miles (6.543 km²). It shares a three-quarter mile (1.2 km) land border with Spain. On the Spanish side is the town La Línea de la Concepción, a municipality of Cádiz province. The part of Cádiz province next to Gibraltar is called Campo de Gibraltar, literally Gibraltar Countryside. The shoreline measures 7½ miles (12 km) in length. There are two coasts (sides) of Gibraltar – the East Side, which contains the settlements of Sandy Bay and Catalan Bay, and the West Side, where the vast majority of the population lives. For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ... Image File history File links Gib_bay. ... Image File history File links Gib_bay. ... La Línea de la Concepción (generally known as La Línea) is a town in Spain, in the province of Cadiz in Andalucia. ... This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. ... Cádiz province Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia, being the southernmost point of continental Western Europe. ... The comarca of the Campo de Gibraltar (the Gibraltar countryside) is one of six traditional and touristic subdivisions of the province of Cádiz, Spain. ... The East Side of Gibraltar houses just 1. ... Sandy Bay is a small bay on the eastern side of Gibraltar, on the far side of the Rock from the main city. ... Catalan Bay is a small bay and fishing village on the eastern side of Gibraltar, on the far side of the Rock from the main city. ... The West Side of Gibraltar contains nearly all of the urban area and over 98% of the population of the colony. ...

Satellite view of the Bay of Gibraltar (NASA).
Satellite view of the Bay of Gibraltar (NASA).
A panoramic view from the top of the Rock of Gibraltar looking north
A panoramic view from the top of the Rock of Gibraltar looking north

Having negligible natural resources and few natural freshwater resources, limited to natural wells in the north, until recently Gibraltar used large concrete or natural rock water catchments to collect water. Fresh water from the boreholes is supplemented by two desalination plants: a reverse osmosis plant, constructed in a tunnel within the rock, and a multi-stage flash distillation plant at North Mole. [15] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1018x694, 488 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gibraltar ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1018x694, 488 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gibraltar ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (5400 × 1684 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 249 pixelsFull resolution (5400 × 1684 pixel, file size: 6. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... This young barbary macaque will form part of a group of 30 to 50 individuals, an assemblage of several Gibraltarian monkey families. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ... Commonly used in desalination, Multi-Stage Flash Distillation involves the heating of seawater in a container known as a brine heater. ...


Gibraltar is one of the most densely populated territories in the world, with approximately 11,187 people per square mile (4,303/km²). The growing demand for space is being increasingly met by land reclamation; reclaimed land currently comprises approximately one tenth of the territory's total area. Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...


The Rock itself is made of limestone and is 1,396 feet (426 m) high. It contains many miles of tunnelled roads, most of which are operated by the military and closed to the public. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...


Flora and fauna

Most of its upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 230 Barbary Macaques, commonly known as 'apes', the only wild monkeys found in Europe. They sometimes visit the town area. Recent genetic studies and historical documents point to their presence on the Rock before its capture by the British. A superstition analogous to that of the ravens at the Tower of London states that if the monkeys ever leave, so will the British. It has been suggested that Reserve design be merged into this article or section. ... This young barbary macaque will form part of a group of 30 to 50 individuals, an assemblage of several Gibraltarian monkey families. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


Climate

The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers. There are two main prevailing winds, an easterly one known as the Levante coming from the Sahara in Africa which brings humid weather and warmer sea and the other as Poniente which is westerly and brings fresher air in and colder sea. Its terrain consists of the 1,396 foot (426 m) high Rock of Gibraltar and the narrow coastal lowland surrounding it.
 Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Viento de Levante or the Levanter - an easterly wind that blows in the Western Mediterranean, an example of mountain-gap wind. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ...

Month Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg high °C (°F) 21 (70) 16 (61) 16 (62) 17 (64) 18 (66) 21 (71) 24 (76) 27 (81) 27 (82) 26 (79) 21 (71) 18 (66) 16 (62)
Avg low temperature °C (°F) 15 (60) 11 (52) 11 (52) 12 (54) 13 (56) 15 (60) 17 (64) 20 (68) 20 (69) 20 (68) 16 (62) 13 (57) 12 (54)
Source: Weatherbase

Subdivisions

Gibraltar has no administrative divisions. It is, however, divided into seven Major Residential Areas, which are further divided into Enumeration Areas, used for statistical purposes [1]. The Major Residential Areas are listed below, with population figures from the Census of 2001:

Map of Gibraltar
Major Residential
Area
Population  % of total
1. East Side 429 1.54%
2. North District 4,116 14.97%
3. Reclamation Areas 9,599 34.91%
4. Sandpits Area 2,207 8.03%
5. South District 4,257 15.48%
6. Town Area 3,588 13.05%
7. Upper Town 2,805 10.20%
Remainder 494 1.82%
Gibraltar 27,495 100%

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 662 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1436 × 1300 pixel, file size: 5. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Gibraltar
The barbary macaques form an integral part of Tourism in Gibraltar
The barbary macaques form an integral part of Tourism in Gibraltar

The British military traditionally dominated the economy of Gibraltar, with the naval dockyard providing the bulk of economic activity. This has however diminished in the last twenty years, and it is estimated to account for only 7% of the local economy, compared to over 60% in 1984. Today, Gibraltar has an extensive service-based economy, dominated by financial services and tourism. Economy - overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (666 × 998 pixel, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (666 × 998 pixel, file size: 451 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This young barbary macaque will form part of a group of 30 to 50 individuals, an assemblage of several Gibraltarian monkey families. ... The Barbary Macaques form an integral part of Tourism in Gibraltar. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


A number of British and international banks have operations based in Gibraltar. Recently, many bookmakers and online gaming operators have relocated to Gibraltar, to benefit from operating in a regulated jurisdiction with a favourable corporate tax regime. However, this corporate tax regime for non-resident controlled companies is due to be phased out by 2010[16].


Tourism is also a significant industry. Gibraltar is a popular stop for cruise ships and attracts day visitors from resorts in Spain. The Rock is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain. It is also a popular shopping destination, and all goods and services are VAT free. Many of the large British high street chains have branches in Gibraltar, including Marks and Spencer, BHS, Dorothy Perkins, and the supermarket Morrisons. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is... Marks and Spencer plc (known also as M&S and sometimes colloquially as Marks and Sparks) is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom by sales. ... For other uses of the abbreviation, see BHS Bhs (also trading as British Home Stores and formerly BHS and BhS) is a stalwart department store of the British High Street, selling clothing and household items (such as bedlinen, cutlery, crockery and lighting). ... A branch of Dorothy Perkins on Buchanan Street in Glasgow Dorothy Perkins is a large British womens clothing retailer, active mostly in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Morrison. ...


Figures from the CIA World Factbook show the main export markets in 2006 were United Kingdom 30.8%, Spain 22.7%, Germany 13.7%, Turkmenistan 10.4%, Switzerland 8.3%, Italy 6.7% while the corresponding figures for imports are Spain 23.4%, Russia 12.3%, Italy 12%, UK 9%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 6.8% and United States 4.7%[17]. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


The Gibraltar Government state that economy grew in 2004/2005 by 7% to a GDP of 599.18 million pounds. Based on statistics in the 2006 surveys, the Government statisticians estimate it has grown by 8.5% in 2005/6 and by 10.8% in 2006/7 and that the GDP is probably now around 730 million. Inflation was running at 2.6% in 2006 and predicted to be 2% to 3% in 2007. Speaking at the 2007 budget session, Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister said "The scale of Gibraltar's economic success makes it one of the most affluent communities in the entire world."


Currency

Main article: Gibraltar pound

The Currency Notes Act confers on the Government of Gibraltar the right to issue its own currency notes, at parity with pound sterling[18]. The monetary unit of Gibraltar is described both as "pound sterling" [19][20][21]and also referred to as the "Gibraltar pound"[22][23]. The ISO code "GIP" is assigned to the Gibraltar pound. Government of Gibraltar notes in circulation bear the words "Pounds sterling".[24] and are legal tender in Gibraltar, but not in the United Kingdom or the other territories of the Sterling Area. Sterling currency notes issued by the Bank of England are legal tender and are in circulation in Gibraltar alongside the local note issues. The euro is unofficially accepted in Gibraltar, though not by post offices or all payphones.[25] ISO 4217 code: GIP Symbol: £ 1/100th unit: penny Introduced in: 1927 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 0. ... GBP redirects here. ... The sterling area or sterling zone refers to a group of countries, often dominions and colonies of the former British Empire (and Commonwealth), which either use the pound sterling as their currency, or peg their respective currencies to the British pound. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Demographics

Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque.
Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque.

The population of Gibraltar was 27,967 in July 2007.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1577x860, 380 KB)The Mosque King fahd ben Abdelaziz Al Saaud at Europa Point, Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1577x860, 380 KB)The Mosque King fahd ben Abdelaziz Al Saaud at Europa Point, Gibraltar. ... Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque The Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque, also known as the King Fahd bin Abdulaziz al-Saud Mosque or the Mosque of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques is a mosque at Europa Point, at the southern tip of Gibraltar. ... Demographics of Gibraltar Population: 27,928(July 2006 est. ...


Gibraltarians are a racial and cultural fusion of the many European immigrants who came to the Rock over three hundred years. They are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704. The few Spaniards who remained in Gibraltar in August 1704 were augmented by others who arrived in the fleet with Prince George of Hesse, possibly some two hundred in all, mostly Catalans. [27] By 1753 Genoese, Maltese, and Portuguese people formed the majority of this new population. Other groups include Minorcans (forced to leave their homes when Minorca was returned to Spain in 1802), Sardinians, Sicilians and other Italians, French, Germans, and the British. Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until General Francisco Franco closed the border with Gibraltar, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the frontier. The Spanish socialist government reopened the land frontier, but other restrictions remain in place. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ...


Religion

Gibraltar's main religion is Christianity, with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church. Other Christian denominations include the Church of England, the Gibraltar Methodist Church,[28] Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches mostly influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as a Plymouth Brethren congregation. There is also a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are also a number of Hindu Indians, a Moroccan Muslim population, members of the Bahá'í faith[29] and a long-established Jewish community.[30][31] Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Wesley House The Gibraltar Methodist Church is part of the South West District of the Methodist Church of Great Britain. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... For other uses, see House church (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical movement that began in Dublin, London, Plymouth, and the continent of Europe in the late 1820s. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


Language

See also: Llanito

The official language is English, which is used by the courts, and for government and business purposes. Most residents also speak Spanish to a varying degree due to Gibraltar's proximity to Spain. See also Demographics of Gibraltar Many of Gibraltars linguistic infuences come from its neighbors, Spain and Morocco. ... Llanito (IPA: ) or Yanito is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The majority of Gibraltarians also use Llanito[32] (pronounced "Yanito") as their vernacular language, an Andalusian Spanish based creole consisting of an eclectic mix of Andalusian Spanish and British English as well as languages such as Maltese, Portuguese, Italian of the Genoese variety and Haketia. Llanito (IPA: ) or Yanito is an Andalusian Spanish based vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Andalusian dialect (also called andaluz) of European Spanish is spoken in Andalusia (including Gibraltar). ... Look up Creole, creole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Arabic and Hindi are also spoken by the Moroccan and Indian communities respectively. Other languages are also in use within minority groups. For example Maltese (which used to be spoken widely during the 19th century in Gibraltar), is still spoken by a few local families of Maltese descent. Arabic redirects here. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ...


Education

Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English system. Education in England is the responsibility of Department for Education and Skills at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. ...


The first year of education in Gibraltar is done in nursery or pre-school. Attendance is from 3 to 4 years and is not compulsory. Compulsory education starts at the age of 4 years with Primary education. The first year is known as Reception, where attendance is up to 5 years. In Gibraltar Primary education lasts for 8 years (First and Middle school). Gibraltarian students then enter a single-sex Secondary school at the age of 12 (all education before this age follows a coeducational system). Following a four-year course preparing for General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), where students sit for final examinations at the age of 16. Students can take on up to 10 GCSE subjects including the core 5 (English, Mathematics, Science, Religious studies and Spanish). Students willing to continue their studies after taking their GCSEs can move onto sixth form (in the same school) providing they have obtained a minimum requirement of 4 subject passes at grade C or higher (generally including English and Mathematics). Here the student will go onto a two-year A-Level course, sitting Advanced Subsidiary (AS) examinations at the end of the first year and Advanced 2 (A2) examinations at the end of the course. Gibraltarian students can take up to 4 different A-Levels simultaneously. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Day care. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... Single-sex education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... Coeducation is the integrated education of males and females at the same school facilities. ... “GCSE” redirects here. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... England, Wales, Northern Ireland The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems, is the term used to refer to the final two years of secondary schooling (when students are about sixteen to eighteen years of age), during which students normally prepare for their GCE A-level... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in the United Kingdom, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13, commonly called the Sixth Form), or at a separate sixth form college or further education college...


Gibraltar has fifteen state schools, one MOD school, one private school and one College of Further Education. State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately run schools. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ...

Comparison of school structures in Gibraltar and England.
Comparison of school structures in Gibraltar and England.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Primary schools

Flag of the Governor of Gibraltar The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the United Kingdoms overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...

Middle schools

For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...

Secondary schools

Bayside Comprehensive School or simply Bayside is a single-sex (boys) comprehensive school in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... Single-sex education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. ... Westside School or simply Westside is a single-sex (girls) comprehensive school in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. ... Single-sex education is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. ...

Special needs schools

  • St Bernadette's School
  • St Martin's School

Religious schools

  • Hebrew School (First and Middle school)

The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ...

Colleges

  • Gibraltar College of Further Education

Higher education

There are no facilities in Gibraltar for full-time higher education, and consequently, all students must study elsewhere at degree or degree equivalent level and certain non-degree courses. The Government of Gibraltar operates a scholarship/grant system to provide funding for students studying in Britain. All teacher-training takes place in UK universities and colleges. [33] The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... See also Disputed status of Gibraltar. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ...


All Gibraltar students follow the Tuition Fee Loan procedure of the Student Loan Company which is reimbursed by the Government of Gibraltar.


The Government also runs a Scholarship grant for a select few students. They receive an award of £100.


Health care

All Gibraltarians are entitled to free health care in public wards and clinics at the hospital and primary health care centre. All other British citizens are also entitled to free of charge treatment on the Rock on presentation of a valid British passport during stays of up to 30 days. Other EU nationals are equally entitled to treatment on presentation of a valid European Health Insurance Card. Dental treatment and prescribed medicines are also free of charge for Gibraltarian students and pensioners.[34] A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Look up ward in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Primary health care was a new approach to health care that came into existence following an international conference in Alma Ata in 1978 organised by the World Health Organisation and the UNICEF. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as follows: Primary health care is essential health care based... A sample French EHIC The cover of the old British E111 booklet The European Health Insurance Card (or EHIC) allows citizens of the EEA countries and Switzerland to receive medical treatment in another member state for free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit... This article is about the dental profession. ... Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... As far as we can tell from the hugely informative Little Britain pensioners are disgusting people who piss all over the floor. ...


General hospitals

  • St Bernard's Hospital

Primary health care centres

  • Health Care Centre

Mental hospitals

  • King George V Hospital

Culture

Main article: Culture of Gibraltar
Tercentenary celebrations in Gibraltar.
Tercentenary celebrations in Gibraltar.

The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins. While there are Andalusian and British influences, the ethnic origins of most Gibraltarians are not confined to British or Andalusian ethnicities. Most ethnicities include Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese, and German. A handful of other Gibraltar residents are Jewish of Sephardic origin, North African, or Indians. The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians diverse origins. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_300a. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_300a. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


British influence remains strong. English is the language of government, commerce, education, and the media. Gibraltarians going on to higher education attend university in the UK. Patients requiring medical treatment not available on the Rock receive it as private patients paid for by the Gibraltar Government either in the United Kingdom, or more recently in Spain.


There exists a small but interesting amount of literary writings by native Gibraltarians. The first prominent work of fiction was probably Héctor Licudi's 1929 novel Barbarita, written in Spanish. It is a largely autobiographical account of the adventures and misadventures of a young Gibraltarian man. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, several noteworthy anthologies of poetry were published by Leopoldo Sanguinetti, Albert Joseph Patron, and Alberto Pizzarello. The 1960s were largely dominated by the theatrical works of Elio Cruz and his two highly acclaimed Spanish plays La Lola se va pá Londre and Connie con cama camera en el comedor. In the 1990s, the Gibraltarian man-of-letters Mario Arroyo published Profiles (1994), a series of bilingual meditations on love, loneliness and death. Of late there have been interesting works by the essayist Mary Chiappe such as her volume of essays Cabbages and Kings (2006) and by the UK-educated academic M. G. Sanchez, author of the hard-hitting novel Rock Black 0-10: A Gibraltar fiction (2006). “Literati” redirects here. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Gibraltarian cuisine

Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalucian Spaniards and the British, as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries. The culinary influences include those from Malta, Genoa, Portugal and Andalusia. This marriage of tastes has given Gibraltar an eclectic mix of Mediterranean and British cuisine. Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the Andalucian Spaniards and the British as well as the many foreigners who made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries. ... The Andalusians are an ethnic and cultural group in Spain centered in the Andalusia region. ... Italian cuisine as a national cuisine known today has evolved from centuries of social and political change. ... Andalucian cuisine is rather varied, corresponding to a region that is itself extensive and varied. ... External links Mediterranean cuisine guide and recipes Categories: Stub | Mediterranean cuisine ...


Music

Main article: Music of Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British overseas territory with many musical influences. Rock based music is undergoing a renaissance with a multitude of local bands playing original material and covers. Local venues have begun accepting Gibraltarian bands and those from nearby Spain, resulting in a varied mix of live performances every weekend. Gibraltar is a United Kingdom overseas territory. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Musicians from Gibraltar include Charles Ramirez, the first guitarist invited to play with the Royal College of Music Orchestra[35], and successful rock bands like Breed 77 and Melon Diesel. Charles Ramirez was born in Gibraltar in 1953. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... // This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A successful alternative band from Gibraltar, signed by Sony Music, who achieved popularity in Spain. ...


The best known Gibraltarian musician is Albert Hammond[36], who has had top 10 hits in the UK & US, and has written many songs for international artists such as Whitney Houston, Tina Turner, Julio Iglesias among others. Albert Hammond (born 18 May 1944) is a singer-songwriter, whose family came originally from Gibraltar. ... Whitney Elizabeth Houston (born August 9, 1963) is a six-time Grammy award winning, American R&B singer, soprano, pianist, actress, film producer, and former model. ... Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock) November 26, 1939) is an 11 time Grammy Award-winning (sharing three), American Singer, Dancer, Record Producer, Executive Producer, Film Producer, Actress, Writer, Performer, Songwriter, Author and occasional Painter whose career has spanned from 1956 to present. ... This page is about the singer Julio Iglesias. ...


National Day

Symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons on National Day, one for every person living on The Rock.
Symbolic release of 30,000 red and white balloons on National Day, one for every person living on The Rock.

Gibraltar's National Day commemorates the 1967 referendum when the people of Gibraltar voted to reject Spanish sovereignty or association by a massive majority. It is celebrated annually on September 10. The day is a public holiday, during which most Gibraltarians dress in the national colours of red and white and among other events, attend a rally. The rally culminates with the release of 30 000 red and white balloons representing the people of Gibraltar. Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_nd. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_nd. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Balloons are often used or given on special occasions, like cards or flowers. ...


The Conservative MP Andrew Rosindell described the event as "a magnificent celebration of the Gibraltarian people, showing not only their pride in being British, but also their love of their homeland — the rock itself"[37] The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Andrew Richard Rosindell (born March 17, 1966) is a British Conservative Member of Parliament for Romford. ...


Tercentenary

Gibraltarians encircle the Rock in 2004.
Gibraltarians encircle the Rock in 2004.

In 2004, Gibraltar celebrated the tercentenary (the 300th anniversary) of its capture by British forces. In recognition of and with thanks for its long association with Gibraltar, the Royal Navy was given the freedom of the City. Another event saw nearly the entire population, dressed in red, white and blue, link hands to form a human chain encircling the Rock. Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_300. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_300. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Sport

In 2007 there were eighteen Gibraltar Sports Associations with official recognition from their respective International Governing Bodies. Others, including the Gibraltar National Olympic Committee, have submitted applications for recognition which are being considered. The Government supports the many sporting associations financially. Gibraltar's Rugby Team, the Campo Gibraltar Rugby Union Football Club, play in neighbouring Spain in the Andalucian League No. 1.[38] Training takes place on Devils Tower Camp astroturf and home games are played at Pueblo Nuevo de Guadiaro, Sotogrande. Gibraltar also competes in the bi-annual Island Games, which it hosted in 1995. Cricket also enjoys popularity in Gibraltar as the weather is perfectly suited to cricket games. Gibraltar recently won the European Cricket Championships. The Campo Gibraltar Rugby Union Football Club (GRUFC) is a Rugby union club from Gibraltar who play in the Andalucian League of Spain. ... The International Island Games Association (IGA) is an organization the sole purpose of which is to organise the Island Games, a friendly biennial athletic competition between teams from several islands. ...


Football

A long running application by the Gibraltar Football Association (GFA) to join UEFA, which would enable Gibraltar to field its own national team in international matches, was rejected due to political objections expressed by the Spanish Football Federation[39]. Despite a ruling in Gibraltar's favour by the world's highest sporting court ordering admission in 2006, in 2007 the UEFA Congress voted against the admission of Gibraltar, after strong lobbying by the Spanish delegation. The Gibraltar Football Association (GFA) was formed as the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association in 1895, changing to its current name in later years. ... The Gibraltar Football Association (GFA) was formed as the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association in 1895, changing to its current name in later years. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... First international Sevilla FC 2 - 0 Gibraltar (Spain; 15 April 1923) not FIFA regulated Biggest win Gibraltar 19 - 0 Sark (Guernsey, Channel Islands; 29 June 2003) not FIFA regulated Biggest defeat Sevilla FC 5 - 0 Gibraltar (Spain; 18 April 1923) not FIFA regulated Greenland 5 - 0 Gibraltar (Isle of Wight... Categories: Football (soccer) stubs | Football (soccer) governing bodies | Spanish football ...


Transport

The Cable Car.
The Cable Car.

Within Gibraltar, the main form of transport is the car. Motorbikes are popular and there is a good modern bus service. Unlike in other British territories, traffic drives on the right, as the territory shares a land border with Spain. Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_cc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gib_cc. ... Gibraltar has a large car population, in spite of its small size, with as many motor vehicles as people. ...


There is a cable car which runs from ground level to the top of the rock, with an intermediate station at the apes’ den. An Aerial tramway in Italy. ...


Restrictions on transport introduced by the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco closed the land frontier in 1969 and prohibited any air or ferry connections. In 1982, the land border was reopened. As the result of an agreement signed in Cordoba on September 18, 2006 between Gibraltar, the United Kingdom and Spain,[40] the Spanish government agreed to relax the border controls at the frontier that have plagued locals for decades; in return, Britain will pay increased pensions to workers who lost their jobs when Franco closed the border. Restrictions on telephones were removed in 2007 and restrictions on movements at the airport were removed on 16 December 2006[41] “Franco” redirects here. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Border control Border crossing between Germany and The Netherlands Border controls are measures used by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The first Iberia flight lands at Gibraltar.
The first Iberia flight lands at Gibraltar.

Gibraltar maintains regular flight connections to London and Madrid. Flights to Morocco and Manchester were cancelled after insufficient demand to sustain the service. GB Airways has operated a service between Gibraltar and London and other cities for many years. The airline initially flew under the name “Gibraltar Airways” but changed its name to GB Airways in 1989 in anticipation of service to cities other than the UK citing the name change would incur fewer political difficulties. As one of British Airways’ franchise operators, the airline now operates flights in full British Airways livery. Monarch Airlines operate a daily scheduled service between Gibraltar and Luton. The Spanish national airline, Iberia, operates a daily service to Madrid. An annual return charter flight to Malta is operated by Maltese national airline, Air Malta. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 200 × 150 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 150 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gibraltar Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 200 × 150 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 150 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gibraltar Metadata This file contains additional... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... GB Airways is a UK airline based at London Gatwick Airport. ... Monarch Airlines Boeing 757-200 in the old livery, Alicante Airport, Spain. ... Afghanistan Ariana Afghan Airlines Albania Albanian Airlines Algeria Air Algérie Angola TAAG Argentina Aerolíneas Argentinas Armenia Armenian Airlines Australia Qantas Austria Austrian Airlines Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Airlines The Bahamas Bahamasair Bahrain Gulf Air (regional) Bangladesh Biman Bangladesh Belarus Belavia Belgium SN Brussels Airlines Sabena (former) Belize Maya Island Air... Airbus A321-200 Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A., (IBEX-35:IBLA) (Iberia Airlines of Spain in English), usually shortened to Iberia, is the largest airline of Spain, based in Madrid and is the Spanish flag carrier. ... A charter airline is one that operates charter flights, that is flights that take place outside normal schedules, by a hiring arrangement with a particular customer. ... Air Malta is the national airline of Malta, based in Luqa. ...


Gibraltar Airport is unusual not only due to its proximity to the centre of the city resulting in the airport terminal being within walking distance of much of Gibraltar [42] but also because the runway intersects Winston Churchill Avenue, the main north-south street, requiring movable barricades to close when aircraft land or depart. New roads and a tunnel for Winston Churchill Avenue, which will end the need to stop road traffic when aircraft use the runway, are planned with a completion date of 2009. [43] [44] Gibraltar Airport (IATA: GIB, ICAO: LXGB) is the only airport in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar on the Iberian Peninsula. ...


Motorists, and on occasion pedestrians, crossing the border with Spain have been subjected to long delays and searches by the Spanish authorities. Spain has closed the border during disputes or incidents involving the Gibraltar authorities, such as the Aurora cruise ship incident and when fishermen from the Spanish fishing vessel Pirana were arrested for illegal fishing in Gibraltar waters.[45] Aurora entered service in the year 2000 and is owned and operated by P&O Cruises. ...


Communications

Gibraltar has a digital telephone exchange supported by a fibre optic and copper infrastructure. The telephone operator, Gibtelecom, also operates a GSM network. Communications in Gibraltar. ... Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ...


International subscriber dialling is provided, and Gibraltar was allocated the access code 350 by the International Telecommunication Union. This works from all countries with IDD, including Spain, which has accepted it since February 10, 2007, when the telecom dispute was resolved. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Communications in Gibraltar. ...


Dial-up, ADSL, high-speed Internet lines are available, as are some wifi hotspots in hotels. Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ...


The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation operates a television and radio station on UHF, VHF and medium-wave. The radio service is also Internet-streamed. Special events are streamed in video. GBC, Gibraltars public service broadcaster has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. ...


The largest and most frequently published newspaper is the Gibraltar Chronicle, Gibraltar’s oldest established daily newspaper and the world’s second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously[46] with daily editions six days a week. Panorama is published on weekdays, and Vox, 7 Days, The New People, and Gibsport are weekly. The Gibraltar Chronicle is a national newspaper published daily in Gibraltar since 1801. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Gibfocus is Gibraltar's online news site providing much of the breaking news as it arrives. Gibfocus is a WAP/PDA enabled news site providing HTML and XHTML.


Military

Royal Navy base in Gibraltar.

Gibraltar's defence is the responsibility of the tri-service British Forces Gibraltar. The army garrison is provided by the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, originally a part-time reserve force which was placed on the permanent establishment of the British Army in 1990. The regiment includes full-time and part-time soldiers recruited from Gibraltar, as well as British Army regulars posted from other regiments. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2628x1971, 634 KB) Summary A Royal Navy base located in Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2628x1971, 634 KB) Summary A Royal Navy base located in Gibraltar. ... British Forces Gibraltar is the name given to the British Armed Forces stationed in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. ... Cap Badge of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British Colony of Gibraltar. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The Royal Navy maintains a squadron at the Rock. The squadron is responsible for the security and integrity of British Gibraltar Territorial Waters (BGTW). The shore establishment at Gibraltar is called Rooke after Sir George Rooke who captured the Rock for Archduke Charles (pretender to the Spanish throne) in 1704. Gibraltar's strategic position provides an important facility for the Royal Navy and Britain's allies. Ships from the Spanish Navy do not call at Gibraltar. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Gibraltar Squadron is a unit of the British Royal Navy. ... Admiral Sir George Rooke, 1650–1709 by Michael Dahl, painted c. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ...


British and U.S. nuclear submarines frequently visit the Z berths at Gibraltar[47]. A Z berth provides the facility for nuclear submarines to visit for operational or recreational purposes, and for non-nuclear repairs.


The Royal Air Force station at Gibraltar forms part of Headquarters British Forces Gibraltar. Although aircraft are no longer permanently stationed at RAF Gibraltar, a variety of RAF aircraft make regular visits to the Rock and the airfield also houses a section from the Met Office. RAF redirects here. ... RAF Gibraltar is a Royal Air Force station on Gibraltar. ...


The Rock is believed to be a SIGINT listening post.[48] Its strategic position provides a key GCHQ and National Security Agency location for Mediterranean and North African coverage.[49] SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ... “NSA” redirects here. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


During the Falklands War, an Argentine plan to attack British shipping in the harbour using frogmen (Operation Algeciras) was foiled.[50] The naval base also played a part in supporting the task force sent by Britain to recover the Falklands. Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Operation Algeciras was a failed plan conceived by the Argentinian military to covertly sabotage a British Royal Navy warship in Gibraltar during the Falklands War. ...


In January 2007, the Ministry of Defence announced that services to the base would be provided by the private company SERCO, resulting in industrial action from the trade unions involved.


Death on the Rock

Main article: Operation Flavius

On March 6, 1988, as part of Operation Flavius, the British SAS killed three members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), Mairéad Farrell, Sean Savage and Daniel McCann. They were in Gibraltar on a IRA operation to plant a car bomb. All three were unarmed at the time, but a car hired by the three was subsequently discovered in Spain with 64 kg (141 lb) of Semtex explosive. The incident became the subject of a contentious Thames Television documentary, Death on the Rock. Operation Flavius was the name of an operation by a Special Air Service team in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Operation Flavius was the name of an operation by a Special Air Service team in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Mairéad Farrell (1957-1988) was a member of the Provisional IRA who was killed by members of the British SAS during Operation Flavius while planning an attack on the British territory of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. ... Seán Savage (b. ... Daniel Danny McCann ((Irish Dónall Mac Cana), (b. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Death on the Rock was a controversial and BAFTA award winning episode of Thames Televisions current affairs strand This Week. ...


An inquest was held which ruled the SAS's action to be lawful.[51] The families of the deceased, however, took the case to the European Court of Human Rights and in 1995 it held by ten votes to nine that the British government had violated Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights. It also ruled, however, that the three killed had been engaged in an act of terrorism, consequently dismissing unanimously the applicants' claims for damages, for costs and expenses incurred by the original inquest, and for any remaining claims for just satisfaction. [52] [53] European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... “ECHR” redirects here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Gibraltar in popular culture

Manuscript of Bardengesang auf Gibraltar: O Calpe! Dir donnert's am Fusse by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Manuscript of Bardengesang auf Gibraltar: O Calpe! Dir donnert's am Fusse by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
  • The film The Silent Enemy was filmed on location in Gibraltar in 1958. It is a dramatisation of the period during the Second World War when Lionel "Buster" Crabb served as a mine and disposal officer in Gibraltar while frogmen of the Italian Navy's Tenth Light Flotilla were sinking vital shipping.
  • Anthony Burgess's novel A Vision of Battlements (1965), chronicling the troubled love-life of the British soldier Richard Ennis, is set in Gibraltar.
  • The satirical novel Gil Braltar by Jules Verne (1887) describes an almost successful attack of the monkeys on the fortress.
  • "The Day of an American Journalist in 2889", an 1889 Jules Verne short story, also mentions Gibraltar as the last territory of a British Empire that has lost the British Isles themselves.
  • In 1782 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed a fragment for voice and piano to celebrate the Great Siege of Gibraltar titled Bardengesang auf Gibraltar: O Calpe! Dir donnert's am Fusse.
  • Raffles' Crime in Gibraltar by Barry Perowne, a Sexton Blake story set in Gibraltar in 1937 (U.S. title: They Hang Them in Gibraltar).
  • Scruffy by Paul Gallico is set on Gibraltar during World War II. It follows the steady decline in the size of the Macaque colony and the possible fulfilment of the superstition that Gibraltar will fall if it disappears.
  • As Molly Bloom is a native Gibraltarian, references to Gibraltar appear throughout James Joyce's Ulysses (1922). A sculpture of Molly Bloom as imagined by local artist Jon Searle is on display in the Alameda Gardens.
  • The opening scene of the film The Living Daylights (from the James Bond film series) takes place in Gibraltar.
  • In the German film Das Boot, the submarine has to get past Gibraltar in order to relocate to a base in the Mediterranean sea.
  • The last chapters of the Swedish book Luftslottet som sprängdes by Stieg Larsson take place in Gibraltar.
  • Arthur C. Clarke's novel The Fountains of Paradise mentions about the 'Gibraltar Bridge', a novel infrastructure connecting Europe and Africa.
  • Arturo Perez-Reverte's novel Queen of the South, is set in and around Gibraltar.
  • The Beatles' song The Ballad of John & Yoko identifies Gibraltar as the place that John Lennon and Yoko Ono were married.
  • John Masters' book The Rock is a collection of short stories set in Gibraltar: ranging from a story set in prehistoric times to one suggesting a possible future for the Rock.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (461 × 623 pixel, file size: 546 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (461 × 623 pixel, file size: 546 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... The film The Silent Enemy was released in 1958. ... Buster Crabb redirects here. ... Pre-unitarian navies of the Italian states Regia Marina - Royal Navy of the Kingdom of Italy (1861 - 1946) Marina Militare - Navy of the Italian Republic (1946 - today) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... A Vision of Battlements is a 1965 novel by Anthony Burgess based on his experiences during World War II in Gibraltar, where he was serving with the British army. ... Illustration by Georges Roux Gil Braltar is a satirical novel by Jules Verne parodying British colonialism. ... This article is about the French author. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... An unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper. ... For the painting, see The Defeat of the Floating Batteries at Gibraltar, September 1782. ... Barry Perowne was a British writer, best known for crime fiction. ... Sexton Blake Sexton Blake is a fictional detective who has appeared in many British comic strips and novels. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Paul Gallico, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Paul William Gallico (July 26, 1897-July 15, 1976) was a fabulously successful U.S. novelist and short story writer. ... Molly Bloom is a fictional character in the novel Ulysses by James Joyce. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... For other uses, see The Living Daylights (disambiguation). ... 007 redirects here. ... For the song Das Boot, see U96. ... Stieg Larsson (Born August 15, 1954 in Skelleftehamn, Sweden as Karl Stig-Erland Larsson, died November 9, 2004 in Stockholm of a massive heart attack) was a Swedish journalist and writer. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... The Fountains of Paradise is a 1979 novel by Arthur C. Clarke. ... The Gibraltar Bridge is a conceptual structure spanning the Strait of Gibraltar that has been described in a TV program on the Discovery Channel Engineering the Impossible - Part 1 [1] Several engineers have advanced designs for the Gibraltar Bridge on various alignments and with differing structural configurations. ... (Redirected from Arturo P rez Reverte) Arturo P rez-Reverte (b. ... Queen of the South F.C. Queen of the South is a part-time Scottish football club who currently play in the Scottish first divison. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... Alternate cover UK 7 re-release cover Ballad of John and Yoko is a song released by The Beatles as a single in May 1969. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Yoko Ono Lennon (小野 洋子 Ono Yōko), born February 18, 1933) is a Japanese-American artist and musician. ... John Masters (1914–1983) was an English officer in the British Indian Army and novelist. ...

Notable people from Gibraltar

William George Penney (June 24, 1909 – March 3, 1991) was a British physicist who was responsible for the development of British nuclear technology following the World War II. A mathematician by training, he became an expert on wave dynamics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Galliano CBE (born January 28, 1960, in Gibraltar) is a British - Gibraltarian fashion designer. ... Albert Hammond (born 18 May 1944) is a singer-songwriter, whose family came originally from Gibraltar. ... Henry Francis Cary (December 6, 1772 - August 14, 1844) was an English author and translator. ... Thomas William Bowlby (1818 - 1860) was a British correspondent for The Times in Germany and China. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Sengge Rinchen also Senggelinqin (僧格林沁, 1811-1865)a Mongol nobleman and general during the Qing dynasty, who is mainly known for his role during the Second Opium War and the suppression of the Taiping and Nian rebellions. ... // Overview Tongzhou District (Simplified Chinese: 通州区; Traditional Chinese: 通州區; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngzhōu QÅ«), located in southeast Beijing, is considered as the capitals eastern gate. ... Peking redirects here. ... General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude (June 24, 1864 - November 18, 1917) was a British soldier. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... John Beikie (February 14, 1766 – March 20, 1839) was a merchant and political figure in Upper Canada. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Don Pacifico became famous in 1850 as the trigger of a notorious international incident. ... Don Pacifico Incident This incident concerned a Portuguese Jew, named David Pacifico (known as Don Pacifico), who was a trader in Athens during the reign of King Otto. ... John Montresor (22 April 1736 – 26 June 1799) was a British military engineer in North America. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Music

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A successful alternative band from Gibraltar, signed by Sony Music, who achieved popularity in Spain. ...

Twin towns

For other uses, see Goole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Ballymena Borough Council UK Parliament: North Antrim European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Ballymena Postal District(s): BT42-44 Population (2001) 28,717 Ballymena (from the Irish: An Baile Meánach meaning middle townland) is a... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...

References

  1. ^ Origin of Name
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/3851047.stm
  3. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/gibraltar/story/0,,634007,00.html
  4. ^ Terms of Surrender 1704
  5. ^ "Gibraltar." Microsoft® Encarta® 2006 [DVD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
  6. ^ The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War By John H. Waller P 264
  7. ^ http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Gibraltar.html
  8. ^ NYT article
  9. ^ Details of 18 September tripartite agreement
  10. ^ Foreign and Commonwealth Office - New Governor of Gibraltar Appointed
  11. ^ http://www.gibnet.com/eurovote
  12. ^ http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/media-centre/newsreleasereviews.cfm/news/226
  13. ^ http://www.gibnet.com/texts/con061.htm
  14. ^ http://www.gibnet.com/texts/hoon1.htm
  15. ^ http://www.aquagib.gi/gibraltar_water_supply.html
  16. ^ Major changes to Gibraltar's corporate tax regime were announced in Chief Minister Peter Caruana's June 2007 Budget speech
  17. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gi.html#Econ CIA World Fact Book
  18. ^ Currency Notes Act, 11 May 1934, Section 6
  19. ^ Gibraltar Government Website on the economy
  20. ^ Official Government of Gibraltar London website
  21. ^ Official Government of Gibraltar London website
  22. ^ Government Website on the Constitution and Legal Services
  23. ^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office Gibraltar Country Profile
  24. ^ http://www.guardianfx.com/information/europe/gibraltar.html
  25. ^ p. 232 Lonely Planet Andalucia, Susan Forsyth, John Noble, Vesna Maric
  26. ^ Gibraltar - Population and Demographics. intute:science, engineering & technology. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  27. ^ Spaniards in GibraltarPDF (157 KiB)
  28. ^ Gibraltar Methodist Church. The Methodist Church. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  29. ^ The Bahá'í Community in Gibraltar. Gibnet. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  30. ^ People. Official Government of Gibraltar London website (2005). Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  31. ^ Jacobs, Joseph. Gibraltar. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  32. ^ Culture of Gibraltar. Everyculture. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  33. ^ Government of Gibraltar Education & Training page
  34. ^ Gibraltar health
  35. ^ The Gibraltar Chronicle ALWAYS A PLEASURE TO PERFORM IN GIBRALTAR
  36. ^ Friends of Gibraltar Heritage Society Newsletter No 70 November 2004
  37. ^ Hansard 27 Oct 2004 : Column 1436
  38. ^ Gibraltar Rugby Union FC. MyGibraltarDirectory.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-13.
  39. ^ http://www.gfa.gi/uefa.htm
  40. ^ The Cordoba Trilateral Agreement 2006
  41. ^ Madrid flights resume
  42. ^ http://www.gibnet.com/airport/index.htm
  43. ^ http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/latest_news/press_releases/2007/111-2007.pdfPDF (36.1 KiB)
  44. ^ http://www.7daysgibraltar.com/article.php?id=655
  45. ^ http://www.gibnet.com/fish/pirana.htm
  46. ^ Gibraltar: Fact File. Birmingham UK International Directory - Gibraltar. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  47. ^ http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199798/cmhansrd/vo981109/text/81109w21.htm
  48. ^ [http://jya.com/nsa-scs.htm Foreign-operated "accommodation site" that provides occasional SIGINT product to the USSS]
  49. ^ COMINT in Gibraltar
  50. ^ Operation Algeciras
  51. ^ Journal of Law and Society
  52. ^ Summary of ECHR review and full report.
  53. ^ World News Briefs; Rights Court Says Britain Illegally Killed 3 in I.R.A.. The New York Times, September 28, 1995. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  54. ^ Gibraltar-Goole connection
  55. ^ Mayor set for Gibraltar - Ballymena ‘twinning’

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

External links

Gibraltar Portal
Find more information on Gibraltar by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Maps

  • Maps and aerial photos for 36°08′35″N 5°21′11″W / 36.143, -5.353Coordinates: 36°08′35″N 5°21′11″W / 36.143, -5.353
    • Maps from MapQuest, MSN Maps, Multimap and Yahoo! Maps
    • Satellite images and maps from Google Maps and Live Search
    • Enhanced versions of Google Maps from GlobalGuide and WikiMapia

General information

  • PJHQ Overseas Bases — Gibraltar
  • Reference Documents and images
  • Government of Gibraltar
  • Gibraltar Financial Services Commission
  • Political comment and live webcam
  • Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society GONHS
  • Gibraltar, CIA Factbook
  • Jewish Gibraltar, The Jerusalem Post
  • WIKI on Gibraltar
  • Gibraltar Local Disability Movement

Culture

  • Literary Figures with connections to Gibraltar, 1700–1900
  • Musicians with Gibraltar connections, 1600–1950

Television, radio and new media

  • Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (with radio streaming)
  • Gibfocus
  • Gibnews

Newspapers with online editions

  • The Gibraltar Chronicle
  • Panorama Daily
  • VOX - Gibraltar weekly, with site updated daily
  • The New People

Image galleries

  • Gibraltar Image Databank based in Gibraltar
  • Gibraltar Photographs
Geographic locale
Gibraltar and the United Kingdom

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gibraltar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2910 words)
Gibraltar was named at that time as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the legend of the creation of the Straits of Gibraltar.
The Marinids ceded Gibraltar to the Nasri Kingdom of Granada in 1374.
The Rock of Gibraltar is a popular tourist attraction, particularly among British tourists and residents in the southern coast of Spain.
Rock of Gibraltar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (373 words)
The Rock of Gibraltar, sometimes called the Pillar of Hercules is located in Gibraltar, off the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Rock of Gibraltar is a monolithic Jurassic limestone promontory.
This history has inspired the simile "solid as the Rock of Gibraltar", which is used to describe a person or situation that cannot be overcome and does not fail.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m