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Encyclopedia > Giardiasis
Giardiasis
Classification & external resources
Giardia cell, SEM
ICD-10 A07.1
ICD-9 007.1
DiseasesDB 5213
MedlinePlus 000288
eMedicine emerg/215 
MeSH D005873

Giardiasis (also known as beaver fever) is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis).[1] The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, including humans. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans, infecting approximately 200 million people worldwide. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x876, 34 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Giardia lamblia ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Binomial name (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (synonymous with Lamblia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonises and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...

Contents

Transmission

Giardiasis is passed via the fecal-oral route. Primary routes are personal contact and contaminated water and food. People who spend time in institutional or day-care environments are more susceptible, as are travelers and those who consume improperly treated water. It is a particular danger to people hiking or backpacking in wilderness areas worldwide. Giardia is suspected to be zoonotic—communicable between animals and humans. Major reservoir hosts would include beavers, dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. Many diseases can be passed when fecal particles from one host are introduced into the mouth of another potential host. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... This article is about backpacking in the wilderness. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... Cats may refer to: Felines, members of the animal family Felidae The domesticated animal, cat The musical, yeah right, I bet that this was really dumb. ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


Symptoms

Symptoms include loss of appetite, lethargy, fever, explosive diarrhea, loose or watery stool, stomach cramps, upset stomach, projectile vomiting (uncommon), bloating, flatulence, and burping (often sulphurous). Symptoms typically begin 1–2 weeks after infection and may wane and reappear cyclically. Symptoms are caused largely by the thick coating of Giardia organisms coating the inside of the small intestine and blocking nutrient absorption. Most people are asymptomatic; only about a third of infected people exhibit symptoms. Untreated, symptoms may last for six weeks or longer. In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ...


Symptomatic infections are well recognised as causing lactose intolerance,[2] and whilst usually temporary, may be permanent.[3][4] Whereas in asymptomtic infection, although hydrogen breath tests indicate poorer rates of carbohydrate absorption, this is not to a diagnostic level.[5] It has been suggested that these observations are explained by symptomatic giardia infection allowing for the overgrowth of other bacteria.[6][5] A Hydrogen Breath Test (or HBT) is used as a clinical medical diagnosis for people with irritable bowel syndrome, and common food intolerances. ...


Treatment

Drugs used to treat adults include metronidazole, albendazole and quinacrine. Furazolidone and nitazoxanide may be used in children. Treatment is not always necessary, as the body can defeat the infection by itself. Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Albendazole marketed as Albenza or Zentel, is indicated for the treatment of a variety of work infestations. ... Quinacrine (trade name: Atabrine) is a drug with a number of different medical applications. ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ...


The drug tinidazole can treat giardiasis in a single treatment of 2000 mg, instead of the longer treatment of the other medications listed. The shorter duration of treatment may also cause less patient distress. Tinidazole is now approved by the FDA[7] and available to U.S. patients. Tinidazole is an anti-parasitic drug used against protozoan infections. ...


Lab Diagnosis

  • The mainstay of diagnosis of Giardiasis is stool microscopy. This can be for motile trophozoites or for the distinctive oval G.lamblia cysts.
  • The entero-test uses a gelatin capsule with an attached thread. One end is attached to the inner aspect of the patient's cheek, and the capsule is swallowed. Later the thread is withdrawn and shaken in saline to release trophozoites which can be detected microscopically.
  • A new immunologic test referred to as ELISA, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is now available. These tests are capable of a 90 percent detection rate or more.[8]

The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA for short) is a biochemical technique used in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. ...

References

  1. ^ Huang, White. An Updated Review on Cryptosporidium and Giardia Gastroenterol Clin N Am 35 (2006) 291–314
  2. ^ Pettoello Mantovani M, Guandalini S, Ecuba P, Corvino C, di Martino L (1989). "Lactose malabsorption in children with symptomatic Giardia lamblia infection: feasibility of yogurt supplementation". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 9 (3): 295–300. PMID 2614615. 
  3. ^ Wolfe MS (1975). "Giardiasis". JAMA 233 (13): 1362–5. PMID 1174208. 
  4. ^ Vega-Franco L, Meza C, Romero JL, Alanis SE, Meijerink J (1987). "Breath hydrogen test in children with giardiasis". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 6 (3): 365–8. PMID 3430245. 
  5. ^ a b Moya-Camarena SY, Sotelo N, Valencia ME (2002). "Effects of asymptomatic Giardia intestinalis infection on carbohydrate absorption in well-nourished Mexican children" (PDF). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66 (3): 255–9. PMID 12139217. 
  6. ^ Tomkins AM, Wright SG, Drasar BS, James WP (1978). "Bacterial colonization of jejunal mucosa in giardiasis". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72 (1): 33–6. PMID 635972. 
  7. ^ FDA info on Tindamax.
  8. ^ Giardia Lamblia and Giardiasis by Robert L. Rockwell, PhD

External links

Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms with nuclei) that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... Coccidia are microscopic, single-celled parasites that infect the intestine. ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Isosporiasis is a human intestinal disease caused by a parasite called Isosporiasis belli. ... Cyclospora cayetanensis is a pathogenic protozoan transmitted by feces or feces-contaminated fresh produce and water. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria characterized by intravascular haemolysis, haemoglobinuria and kidney failure. ... Babesiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis. ... Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar and black fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Blastocystosis refers to a medical condition caused by infection with Blastocystis. ... Dientamoebiasis is a medical condition caused by infection with Dientamoeba fragilis. ... An intestinal infection that causes diarrhea and wasting in persons with HIV. It results from two different species of microsporidia, a protozoal parasite. ... Binomial name Naegleria fowleri Carter (1970) Naegleria fowleri (pronounced nuh-GLEER-e-uh) is a free living amoeba typically found in warm fresh water, from 25-35 degrees Celsius in a flagellated stage. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Giardiasis: Encyclopedia of Medicine (1179 words)
Giardiasis is a common intestinal infection spread by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water, or through direct contact with the organism that causes the disease, Giardia lamblia.
Giardiasis is found throughout the world and is a common cause of traveller's diarrhea.
Giardiasis is spread by food or water contaminated by the Giardia lamblia protozoan organism found in the human intestinal tract and feces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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