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Encyclopedia > Ghost
Image by Henry Fuseli depicting Hamlet in the presence of his father's ghost.

A ghost is defined as the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and usually encountered in places she or he frequented, or in association with the person's former belongings. The word "ghost" may also refer to the spirit or soul of a deceased person, or to any spirit or demon.[1][2] Ghosts are often associated with hauntings, which is, according to the Parapsychological Association, "the more or less regular occurrence of paranormal phenomena associated with a particular locality (especially a building) and usually attributed to the activities of a discarnate entity; the phenomena may include apparitions, poltergeist disturbances, cold drafts, sounds of footsteps and voices, and various odours."[1] Look up ghost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2024x1536, 399 KB) [edit] Summary Henry Fuseli - Hamlet and his fathers Ghost (1780-1785, ink and pencil on cardboard, 38 × 49,5 cm) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2024x1536, 399 KB) [edit] Summary Henry Fuseli - Hamlet and his fathers Ghost (1780-1785, ink and pencil on cardboard, 38 × 49,5 cm) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... This page deals with the cessation of life. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... The Parapsychological Association was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by J.B. Rhine. ... Anomalous phenomena are phenomena which are observed and for which there are no suitable explanations in the context of a specific body of scientific knowledge, e. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... For the 1982 film, see Poltergeist (film). ...


Ghosts are a controversial anomalous phenomenon. According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organization, about 32% of Americans believe in the existence of ghosts.[3] The term ghost has been replaced by apparition in parapsychology, because the word ghost is deemed insufficiently precise.[4] For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... An anomalous phenomenon is an observed event which deviates from what is expected (an anomaly) according to existing rules or scientific theory. ... The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ...

Contents

Historical background

The belief in ghosts as souls of the departed is closely tied to the ancient concept of animism, which attributed souls to everything in nature, including human beings, animals, plants, rocks, etc. [5] As the nineteenth-century anthropologist James Frazer explained in his classic work, The Golden Bough, souls were seen as the creature within that animated the body. This page is about the core essence of a being. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... See Anthropology. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ...

"As the savage commonly explains the processes of inanimate nature by supposing that they are produced by living beings working in or behind the phenomena, so he explains the phenomena of life itself. If an animal lives and moves, it can only be, he thinks, because there is a little animal inside which moves it. If a man lives and moves, it can only be because he has a little man or animal inside, who moves him. The animal inside the animal, the man inside the man, is the soul. And as the activity of an animal or man is explained by the presence of the soul, so the repose of sleep or death is explained by its absence; sleep or trance being the temporary, death being the permanent absence of the soul... "[6]

Although the human soul was sometimes symbolically or literally depicted in ancient cultures as a bird or other animal, it was widely held that the soul was an exact reproduction of the body in every feature, even down to clothing the person wore. This is depicted in artwork from various ancient cultures, including such works as the Egyptian Book of the Dead, which shows deceased people in the afterlife appearing much as they did before death, including the style of dress. This article is about the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. ...


Another widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they were composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material. Anthropologists speculate that this may also stem from early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist.[5] This belief may have also fostered the metaphorical meaning of "breath" in certain languages, such as the Latin spiritus and the Greek pneuma, which by analogy became extended to mean the soul. In the Bible, God is depicted as animating Adam with a breath. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Spiritus (Latin for breathing, compare spirit) in Byzantine Greek orthography may refer to Spiritus lenis, the soft breathing Spiritus asper, the hard breathing This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ...

An artist's interpretation of a ghostly woman on a flight of stairs, based on common descriptions.

Although the evidence for ghosts is largely anecdotal, the belief in ghosts throughout history has remained widespread and persistent. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (815x1169, 491 KB) Summary False image of a ghost created using image manipulation software Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ghost Apparition (supernatural) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (815x1169, 491 KB) Summary False image of a ghost created using image manipulation software Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Ghost Apparition (supernatural) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... An anecdote is a short tale told about an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident. ...


In many historical accounts, ghosts were thought to be deceased people looking for vengeance, or imprisoned on earth for bad things they did during life. Most cultures have ghost stories in their mythologies. Many stories from the Middle Ages and the Romantic era rely on the macabre and the fantastic, and ghosts are a major theme in literature from those eras. Revenge is retaliation against a person or group in response to wrongdoing. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Macabre (disambiguation). ...


Ghost stories date back to ancient times, and can be found in many different cultures. The Chinese philosopher, Mo Tzu (470-391 BC), is quoted as having said: Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ...

"The way to find out whether anything exists or not is to depend on the testimony of the ears and eyes of the multitude. If some have heard it or some have seen it then we have to say it exists. If no one has heard it and no one has seen it then we have to say it does not exist. So, then, why not go to some village or some district and inquire? If from antiquity to the present, and since the beginning of man, there are men who have seen the bodies of ghosts and spirits and heard their voices, how can we say that they do not exist? If none have heard them and none have seen them, then how can we say they do? But those who deny the existence of the spirits say: "Many in the world have heard and seen something of ghosts and spirits. Since they vary in testimony, who are to be accepted as really having heard and seen them?" Mo Tzu said: As we are to rely on what many have jointly seen and what many have jointly heard, the case of Tu Po is to be accepted."[7] (note: King Hsuan (827-783 BC) executed his minister, Tu Po, on false charges even after being warned that Tu Po's ghost would seek revenge. Three years later, according to historical chronicles, Tu Po's ghost shot and killed Hsuan with a bow and arrow before an assembly of feudal lords.) In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... eXist is an open source database management system entirely built on XML technology, also called a native XML database. ...

One of the earliest known ghost "sightings" in the west took place in Athens, Greece.[8] Pliny the Younger (c. 63 - 113 AD) described it in a letter to Licinius Sura: Athenodoros Cananites (c. 74 BC – 7 AD), a Stoic philosopher, decided to rent a large, Athenian house, to investigate widespread rumors that it was haunted. Athenodoros staked out at the house that night, and, sure enough, a dishevelled, aged spectre, bound at feet and hands with rattling chains, eventually "appeared". The spirit then beckoned for Athenodoros to follow him; Athenodoros complied, but the ghost soon vanished. The philosopher marked the spot where the old man had disappeared, and, on the next day, advised the magistrates to dig there. The man's shackled bones were reportedly uncovered three years later. After a proper burial, the hauntings ceased.[9] A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Athenodoros Cananites (Greek: ̉Αθηνόδωρος Κανανίτης, sometimes transliterated Athenodoros) (c. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...


Many Eastern religious traditions also subscribe to the concept of ghosts. The Hindu Garuda Purana has detailed information about ghosts.[10] The term Eastern can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ...


The Hebrew Torah and the Bible contain few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with forbidden occult activities cf. Deuteronomy 18:11. The most notable reference is in the First Book of Samuel (I Samuel 28:7-19 KJV), in which a disguised King Saul has the Witch of Endor summon the spirit of Samuel. In the New Testament, Jesus has to persuade the Disciples that he is not a ghost following the resurrection, Matthew 24. In a similar vein, Jesus' followers at first believe him to be a ghost when they see him walking on water. The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Not to be confused with Walk on Water . ...


The Child ballad Sweet William's Ghost recounts the story of a ghost returning to beg a woman to free him from his promise to marry her, as he can not, being dead; her refusal would mean his damnation. This reflects a popular British belief that the dead would haunt their lovers if they took up with a new love without some formal release.[11] The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child. ... Sweet Williams Ghost is a folk song, collected by Francis James Child in 1868 as Child ballad number 77. ...


The Unquiet Grave expresses a belief even more widespread, found in various location over Europe: ghosts can stem from the excessive grief of the living, whose mourning interferes with the dead's peaceful rest.[12] The Unquiet Grave is an English folk song in which a young man mourns his dead love too hard and prevents her from obtaining peace. ...


Skeptical analysis

Ghostly face of a murderer or just rippled glass? This image is undoctored, and some claim it shows a ghost. Others, however, say it is an illusion caused by the way the light hits ripples in the glass.
Ghostly face of a murderer or just rippled glass? This image is undoctored, and some claim it shows a ghost. Others, however, say it is an illusion caused by the way the light hits ripples in the glass.

Critics of "eyewitness ghost sightings" suggest that limitations of human perception and ordinary physical explanations can account for such sightings; for example, air pressure changes in a home causing doors to slam, or lights from a passing car reflected through a window at night.[13] Pareidolia, an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, can cause people to believe they have seen ghosts.[14] Reports of ghosts "seen out of the corner of the eye" may be accounted for by the sensitivity of human peripheral vision. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell: Image File history File linksMetadata FremantlePrisonWindowIllusion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FremantlePrisonWindowIllusion. ... The term pareidolia (pronounced or ), referenced in 1994 by Steven Goldstein,[1] describes a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant. ... The term pareidolia (pronounced or ), referenced in 1994 by Steven Goldstein,[1] describes a psychological phenomenon involving a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) being perceived as significant. ... Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze. ... Joe Nickell was born December 1, 1944 and is a prominent investigator of the paranormal. ...

...peripheral vision is very sensitive and can easily mislead, especially late at night, when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds.[13]

Nickell also states that a person's belief that a location is haunted may cause them to interpret mundane events as confirmations of a haunting:

Once the idea of a ghost appears in a household . . . no longer is an object merely mislaid. . . . There gets to be a dynamic in a place where the idea that it's haunted takes on a life of its own. One-of-a-kind quirks that could never be repeated all become further evidence of the haunting.[13]

Sound is thought to be another cause of ghost sightings. Frequencies lower than 20 hertz are called infrasound and are normally inaudible, but British scientists Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to feel a "presence" in the room, or unexplained feelings of anxiety, and/or dread.[15] Additionally, the symphonic resonance of the eye is around 18 hertz, which may interfere with the eye's normal functions and cause a person to see things that aren't there. This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... Infrasound is sound with a frequency too low to be detected by the human ear. ... Uhm!? ...


Carbon monoxide poisoning, which can cause powerful auditory and visual hallucinations, depression, and a generalized sensation of illness and dread,[16] was recognized as a possible explanation for haunted houses as early as 1921. Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Another potential explanation of apparitions is that they are hypnagogic hallucinations. Hypnagogia (also spelled hypnogogia) describes vivid dream-like auditory, visual, or tactile sensations, which are often accompanied by sleep paralysis and experienced when falling asleep or waking up. ...


The traditional perception of ghosts wearing clothing is considered illogical, given the supposed spiritual nature of ghosts, suggesting that the basis of what a ghost is said to look like and consist of is quite dependent on preconceptions made by society.[17] Skeptics also say that, to date, there is no credible scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead.[18]


Some researchers, such as Professor Michael Persinger (Laurentian University, Canada), have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields (created, e.g., by tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust or solar activity) could stimulate the brain's temporal lobes and produce many of the experiences associated with hauntings. This theory has been tested in various ways. Some scientists have examined the relationship between the time of onset of unusual phenomena in allegedly haunted locations and any sudden increases in global geomagnetic activity. Others have investigated whether the location of alleged hauntings is associated with certain types of magnetic activity. Finally, a third strand of work has involved laboratory studies in which stimulation of the temporal lobe with transcerebral magnetic fields has elicited subjective experiences that strongly parallel phenomena associated with hauntings. All of this work is controversial and thus has attracted a large amount of debate and disagreement.[19] Dr. Michael Persinger Dr. Michael Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a cognitive neuroscience researcher employed at Laurentian University, Canada since 1971. ... Laurentian University (Université Laurentienne), founded in 1960, is a mid-sized bilingual university in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. ... The cause of Earths magnetic field (the surface magnetic field) is not known for certain, but is possibly explained by dynamo theory. ...


Popular culture

19th century etching by John Leech of the Ghost of Christmas Present as depicted in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol

Ghosts are prominent in the popular cultures of various nations. The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 822 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scrooges Third Visitor hand colored etching by John Leech from A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 367 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (504 × 822 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scrooges Third Visitor hand colored etching by John Leech from A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens (1812 - 1870) source: http://www. ... The Ghost of Christmas Present was a character in what was one of the best-known works of the English novelist, Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Christmas Carol (disambiguation). ... A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or simply takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or the belief of some character(s) in them. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ...


Perhaps the most recognizable ghost in English literature is the shade of Hamlet's father in the play The Tragical History of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. In Hamlet, it is the ghost that encourages the title character to investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon King Claudius, the suspected murderer of Hamlet's father. The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... King Hamlet is a character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet, also known as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and one of his most well-known and oft-quoted plays. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... Claudius is a fictional character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet. ...


Possibly the next most famous apparitions are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol, where the ghost of Jacob Marley, The Ghost of Christmas Past, The Ghost of Christmas Present and The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come help Ebenezer Scrooge see the error of his ways. For other uses, see A Christmas Carol (disambiguation). ... Jacob Marley is a fictional character who appears in the Charles Dickens novel, A Christmas Carol. ... The Ghost of Christmas Past is a character in what is one of the best-known works of the English novelist, Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. ... The Ghost of Christmas Present is a character in one of the best-known works of the English novelist Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. ... The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come is a character in English novelist Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol. ... Ebenezer Scrooge encounters Ignorance and Want in Dickenss novel, A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is the main character in Charles Dickens 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol. ...


Oscar Wilde's The Canterville Ghost has been adapted for film and television on several occasions. Henry James's The Turn of the Screw has also appeared in a number of adaptations, notably the film The Innocents and Benjamin Britten's opera The Turn of the Screw. Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... The Canterville Ghost is a popular novella by Oscar Wilde, widely adapted for the screen and stage. ... The Turn of the Screw may also refer to the opera by Benjamin Britten or an album by the band 1208. ... The Innocents is a 1961 film based on the novel The Turn of the Screw by Henry James. ... Britten redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Turn of the Screw is a little-known 20th century English opera composed by Benjamin Britten, based on the novel The Turn of the Screw by Henry James. ...


Films including or centering on ghosts are common, and span a variety of genres. Ghosts can also be found in various television programs.


The ghost hunting theme has also become prevalent in reality television series such as Ghost Hunters, Most Haunted, A Haunting, and many others. It is also represented in children's television by such programmes as The Ghost Hunter. Ghost hunting is the process of investigating locations said to be haunted. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses of the name, see Ghosthunters (disambiguation). ... Most Haunted is a British paranormal television programme based on investigating purported paranormal activity. ... A Haunting is a television series on Discovery Channel that, according to its website[1] chronicles the terrifying true stories of the paranormal told by people who experienced real-life horror tales. ...


The Grateful Dead adopted their name and iconography from a series of traditional ghost stories known as Grateful Dead (folktale). This article is about the band. ... Grateful Dead or Grateful ghost is a folktale present in many cultures throughout the world. ...


One of the odder manifestations in recent years has been a so-called "Ghost in a Bottle" which turned up on Ebay and which, it was reported, singer Michael Jackson wanted to bid on.[20] This article is about the online auction center. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ...


See also

(In alphabetical order)

Haunted locations are places that are allegedly inhabited by ghosts. ... Electronic voice phenomenon (EVP) is a term used to refer to sounds captured on recorded media or other electronic devices that are said by paranormal investigators to be voices of paranormal origin. ... For other uses of the name, see Ghosthunters (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ghostbusters (disambiguation). ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... For the 1982 film, see Poltergeist (film). ... The Brown Lady of Raynham Hall Raynham Hall is a country house in Norfolk, England. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Main Holding Seller who had undertaken to inform the public at large about the existence of poltergeists on the premises to be sold was estopped to deny existence of poltergeists on the premises, so the house was haunted as a matter of law and seller must inform the purchaser of... Stigmatized property is a term used in the real estate business which describes possible detrimental features of a property or home, all the result of unfortunate occurrences. ... The Atlantic Paranormal Society (TAPS) is an organization based in Warwick, Rhode Island, USA that investigates paranormal activity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Canterville Ghost is a popular novella by Oscar Wilde, widely adapted for the screen and stage. ... YÅ«rei (幽霊) are Japanese ghosts. ...

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.parapsych.org/glossary_e_k.html#g Parapsychological Association, glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 13 2006
  2. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ghost Retrieved December 13 2006
  3. ^ Musella, David park (Sept-Oct 2005). Gallup poll shows that Americans' belief in the paranormal persists. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  4. ^ http://parapsych.org/glossary_a_d.html Parapsychological Association, Glossary of key words frequently used in parapsychology, Retrieved December 13 2006, see entries on ghost and apparition
  5. ^ a b Some people belthe ghost or spirit never leaves earthe until there is no one left to remember the one whod died. Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology edited by J. Gordon Melton Gale Research, ISBN 0-8103-5487-X
  6. ^ The Golden Bough, Project Gutenberg, accessed January 16, 2007
  7. ^ http://www.cic.sfu.ca/nacc/articles/legalmohist/mozi_mei/wadegiles/momei_31wg1.html The Ethical and Political Works of Motse [Mo-tzu] Book VIII, Chapter XXXI "On Ghosts (III) Electronic republication of the translation by W. P. Mei (London: Probsthain, 1929) Retrieved Dec 19, 2006
  8. ^ Jaehnig, K.C. (1999-03-11). Classical ghost stories. Southern Illinois University. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  9. ^ LXXXIII. To Sura. bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  10. ^ Vedic cosmology, accessed February 27, 2007
  11. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 2, p 227, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  12. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 2, p 234, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  13. ^ a b c Weinstein, Larry (June 2001). The Visit. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  14. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (June 2001). pareidolia. skepdic.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  15. ^ Sounds like terror in the air. Reuters. smh.com.au (2003-09-09). Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  16. ^ Choi IS (2001). "Carbon monoxide poisoning: systemic manifestations and complications". J. Korean Med. Sci. 16 (3): 253–61. PMID 11410684. 
  17. ^ Nickell, Joe (December 2006). Headless Ghosts I Have Known. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  18. ^ Nickell, Joe (Sept-Oct 2000). Haunted Inns Tales of Spectral Guests. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  19. ^ Wiseman, Richard (0). Research of Professor Richard Wiseman. Society for Psychical Research. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  20. ^ "Jackson 'bid to buy ghost'", BBC News, 2004-10-08. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 

The Skeptical Inquirer is a magazine of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) dedicated to debunking pseudoscience. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Francis James Child (February 1, 1825 - September 11, 1896), was an American scholar and educationist, and collector of what came to be known as the Child Ballads. ... The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is a U.S. nonprofit organization whose stated purpose is to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is a U.S. nonprofit organization whose stated purpose is to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is a U.S. nonprofit organization whose stated purpose is to encourage the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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