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Encyclopedia > Ghetto
Modern ghettos are characterised by extreme deprivation. This picture shows Royston, Glasgow.
Modern ghettos are characterised by extreme deprivation. This picture shows Royston, Glasgow.
Part of a series of articles on

Racial Discrimination Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Royston is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. ...

Racial segregation


White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ...


Antisemitism
Ghetto
Jewish Pale of Settlement
May Laws
Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... The Pale of Settlement (Черта оседлости in Russian, or cherta osedlosti) was the border region of Imperial Russia in which Jews were allowed to live. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
Racial steering
Blockbusting
White flight
Black flight
Gentrification
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Indian Reservation
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Ghettos
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ... This article needs to be expanded. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ...

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The term 'Ghetto' was originally used to refer to the Venetian Ghetto in Venice, Italy and then in Jewish ghettos in Europe, where Jews were required to live. The corresponding German term was Judengasse known as the Jewish Quarter. In Moroccan Arabic, ghettos were called mellah. The term came into widespread use for Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 with severely constrained conditions, where the Nazis required Jews to live prior to transporting them to concentration and death camps. A store window in Venices Jewish ghetto. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ... Moroccan Arabic, also known as Darija, is the language spoken in the Arabic-speaking areas of Morocco, as opposed to the official communications of governmental and other public bodies which use Modern Standard Arabic, as is the case in most Arabic-speaking countries, while a mixture of French and Moroccan... Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ...


A 20th century American co-opted usage of the term informs us that ghetto is a section of a city occupied by a sub-group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal pressure. The term "ghetto" is now commonly used to refer to any poverty-stricken urban area. In the U.S, "Rural ghetto" is used to describe mobile home parks, farm labor housing tracts, and Indian reservations. Urban neighborhoods where Mexican immigrants settled in the late 20th century (called barrios) are said to be comparable to ghettos, because most immigrants are clustered in culturally isolated enclaves.hey Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For the Beth Orton album, see Trailer Park (album). ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Look up barrios in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ghetto is formed in three ways:[1]

  • As ports of entry for racial minorities, and immigrant racial minorities.
  • When the majority uses compulsion (typically violence, hostility, or legal barriers) to force minorities into particular areas.
  • When the majority is willing and able to pay more than the minority to live with its own kind.

"Ghetto" is also used figuratively to indicate geographic areas with a concentration of any type of person (e.g. gay ghetto, student ghetto). A gay village (sometimes called a gay ghetto or gay enclave) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay and lesbian people, as well as bisexuals and transsexuals live, and usually contains a number of gay bars, clubs and pubs, restaurants and... A student ghetto is a residential neighbourhood, usually in proximity to a college or university, that houses mostly students. ...


Etymologies suggested for the word 'Ghetto' derive from "getto", the Italian term for casting, the Griko Ghetonia (Γειτονία, neighbourhood), the Italian borghetto for "small neighborhood", or the Hebrew word get (Hebrew: גט), literally a "bill of divorce." A common explanation is that the name is derived for the "campo gheto", an area that iron foundries in Venice in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries used for cooling slag (Venetian "gheta"; Italian "ghetta"), where Jews were forced to locate. Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ...

Contents

Ghettos for Jews

Main articles: Jewish Quarter (diaspora) , Jewish ghettos in Europe , Mellah , and Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944

In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding Christian authorities or in World War Two, the Nazi's. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is "Di yiddishe gas" (Yiddish: די ייִדדישע גאַס ), or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter and some still have it. An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ... Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due to being a cultural minority and due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities.[2] The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a relatively affluent population (for instance the Jewish ghetto in Venice). In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. The word is also used to describe gangsta ways. Residents had their own justice system. Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from without during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving during those times. An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish population were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. Usually, the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor, in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews. Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


During World War II ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe turning them into de-facto concentration camps and death camps in the Holocaust. Though the common usage is ghetto the Nazis most often referred to the areas in documents and signage at their entrances as Judischer Wohnberzirk or Wohngebiet der Juden (German), both translate as Jewish Quarter. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A boy working in the Warsaw Ghetto cemetery drags a corpse to the edge of the mass grave where it will be buried. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ...


United States

History

The Irish immigrants of the 19th century were the first ethnic group to form Urban Areas in America’s cities, followed by Italians and Poles in the late Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... You may also be looking for the plural of the word pole. ...


19th and early 20th centuries. Irish and Eastern European immigrants in the early twentieth century actually were more segregated than blacks of that era. They lived almost as segregated as blacks do today.[3] Because there was no official housing segregation against most European Bold textimmigrants, the second or third generation families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II if possible. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Other ethnic ghettos in New York were the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which was predominantly Jewish until the 1950s, and Spanish Harlem, which was home to a large Puerto Rican community dated back to the 1930s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... 125th Street between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio, is a neighborhood in the East Harlem area of New York City, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. ... Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated (or formerly populated) primarily by Italians or people of Italian ancestry, usually in an urban neighborhood. ...


In the United States, between the abolition of slavery and the passing of the civil rights laws of the 1960s, discriminatory mores (sometimes codified in law, or through redlining) often forced urban African Americans to live in specific neighborhoods, which became known as "ghettos." Slave redirects here. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


The black ghetto

See also: White flight and Racial segregation in the United States

Black-White segregation is decreasing fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas and cities. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[4]. Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which both blacks and whites inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[5][6] Cities throughout history have contained distinct ethnic districts. But rarely have they been so isolated and impoverished as the African American neighborhoods found in U.S. cities today.[3] The racial segregation found in ghettos can lead to social, economic and political tensions.[7] White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ...


Due to segregated conditions and widespread poverty, despite Brown v. Board of Education, some black neighborhoods in the United States have been called "ghettos"[original research?]. Most of these neighborhoods are in North-eastern cities where African Americans moved during The Great Migration (1914-1950) a period when over a million[8] African Americans moved out of the rural Southern United States to escape the widespread racism of the South, to seek out employment opportunities in urban environments, and to pursue what was widely perceived to be a better life in the North.[8] African-American ghettos started out well, economically. In the Midwest, ghettos were built on high wages from manufacturing jobs. The African-American ghettos of the mid-twentieth century appear to have been much less harmful than those of today.[3] However, segregation increased most in those cities with the greatest black in-migration.[7] Whites felt more threatened by larger influxes of blacks, and the possibility of an increase in crime in their neighborhoods. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


In the years after World War II, many white Americans began to move away from inner cities to newer suburban communities, a process known as white flight. White flight occurred, in part, as a response to black people moving into white urban neighborhoods, and remains a significant cause in the spread of urban decay.[9][7] Discriminatory practices, especially those intended to "preserve" emerging white suburbs, restricted the ability of non-whites to move from inner-cities to suburbs, even when they were economically able to afford it. In contrast to this, the same period in history marked a massive suburban expansion available primarily to whites of both wealthy and working class backgrounds, facilitated through highway construction and the availability of federally subsidized home mortgages (VA, FHA, HOLC). These made it easier for families to buy new homes in the suburbs, but not to rent apartments in cities.[10][7] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ...


In response to the influx of black people from the South, banks, insurance companies, and businesses began redlining denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[11] access to health care,[12] or even supermarkets[13] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[14] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-twentieth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods.[15] This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States.[16] The creation of these highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors. For example, Birmingham’s interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the city’s 1926 racial zoning law. The construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.[17] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[15] Some social scientists suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege that have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism.[18] For the automotive term, see redline. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks, governments or other lending institutions denying loans to one or more groups of people primarily on the basis of race, ethnic origin, sex or religion. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... A mortgage loan is a loan secured by real property through the use of a mortgage (a legal instrument). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... White Privilege is the concept that White people are inherently more deserving of consideration than non-white people. ... Environmental policy making or enforcement thereof that specifically and directly affects people of color, certain ethnic/racial groups, or native wild species in a negative manner. ...


Despite mainstream America’s use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor, culturally or racially-homogenous urban area, those living in the area often used it to signify something positive. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home" a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America.[19] Langston Hughes relays in the "Negro Ghetto" (1931) and "The Heart of Harlem" (1945): "The buildings in Harlem are brick and stone/And the streets are long and wide,/But Harlem’s much more than these alone,/Harlem is what’s inside." Playwright August Wilson used the term "ghetto" in Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom (1984) and Fences (1987), both of which draw upon the author’s experience growing up in the Hill district of Pittsburgh, a black ghetto.[2] The degree to which an individual is sympathetic to or a part of the culture of African-Americans. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... August Wilson August Wilson (April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... The Hill District is considered by many to be the cultural center of African-American life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...


Other ghettos

Chinatowns, where most Chinese immigrants settled from the 1850s onward in Chicago, New York City, Boston, San Francisco, Oakland (Near San Francisco), Los Angeles, Newark, Trenton and Camden, New Jersey and other major cities originated as racially segregated enclaves. However, most Chinese Americans no longer reside in those urban sections, but Asian immigration since the 1970s repopulated Chinatowns, even though Little Italys, Chinatowns and other ethnic neighborhoods have become more middle-class in recent times, dominated by successful restaurant owners, family-owned stores and businessmen able to start up their own companies. Many have become tourist attractions in their own right.[citation needed] This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Newark is the name of several places. ... Trenton is the name of several places in Canada and the United States. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ...


In the Southwest U.S., Mexican Americans had historical low-income urban areas known as barrios located in cities such as Los Angeles, Phoenix, San Diego, Escondido, Oceanside, National City, Houston, Denver, San Jose, Santa Ana, San Bernardino and San Antonio struggled with issues of crime, drugs, youth gangs and family breakdown. However, middle-class and college-educated Hispanics moved out of barrios for the suburbs. The barrios continually thrived by the large influx of immigration from Mexico, this largely due to the explosion of the Hispanic/Latino population in the late 20th century. The majority of residents in these urban barrios are immigrants directly from Mexico and Latin America.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... For the album by J.J. Cale and Eric Clapton, see The Road to Escondido Escondido is a city located in northern San Diego County, California just north of the city of San Diego. ... Oceanside is the third largest city in San Diego County, California. ... National City is a city in San Diego County, California, United States. ... Houston redirects here. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... San José – or its anglicised form San Jose – is the Spanish for Saint Joseph. ... Location of Santa Ana within Orange County, California. ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


England

The term "ghetto" is not widely used in Great Britain to describe present-day areas of poverty, though these do exist in many inner cities. Areas where low incomes and high proportions of ethnic minorities (including West Indians, sub-Saharan Africans, and Asians of Indian and Pakistani origin) are found together in the London areas of Brixton, Hackney, Harlesden, Queen's Crescent, Tottenham and Peckham. Parts of Lewisham, Southwark, Lambeth, Brent, Newham and Camden are known as ghettos. More recently formed 'affluent' ghetto in Golders Green, the London Borough of Barnet. It appears that a Jewish ghetto has formed over the years to such a high extent that it has created its own sub-form of affluent ghetto unique to the area. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Brixton is an area of South London, England, part of the London Borough of Lambeth. ... The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in the east end of London and part of inner London. ... , Harlesden is a district in the London Borough of Brent. ... Tottenham is an urban area of north London in the London Borough of Haringey, situated 6. ... , Peckham is an area of London, England, in the London Borough of Southwark, located 3. ... The London Borough of Lewisham is a London borough in south east London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Southwark is a London borough in London, England. ... The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London and forms part of Outer London. ... This article is about the London borough. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... , Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in London, England. ... The London Borough of Barnet is a London borough in North London and forms part of Outer London. ...


Similar underprivileged non-white inner-city areas outside the capital include the Aston, Handsworth and Lozells areas of Birmingham; Chapeltown and Harehills in Leeds; St Ann's in Nottingham; Burngreave and Park Hill in Sheffield; Moss Side, Longsight, Stretford, Hulme, Denton, Gorton and Cheetham Hill in Manchester and Toxteth, Croxteth, Norris Green, Wavertree and Anfield in Liverpool. Racial tensions and the impact of immigration are strongly felt in areas with a working-class majority. Gang Culture, and gun crime have also affected areas, like the ones mentioned. Aston is an area of the City of Birmingham, in the West Midlands of England. ... Handsworth is an inner city suburb of Birmingham in the West Midlands, England. ... Lozells is a loosely-defined area in the West of Birmingham, England. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see Chapeltown. ... Harehills Parade from Roundhay Road Harehills is an inner-city area of north-east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, situated between Burmantofts and Gipton, and adjacent to Chapeltown, characterised by its streets of dense, back-to-back terraced housing. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mother of the Virgin Mary. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Burngreave ward—which includes the districts of Burngreave, Fir Vale, Grimesthorpe, Pitsmoor, and Shirecliffe—is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield, England. ... Park Hill from Sheffield City Centre. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moss Side (disambiguation) , Moss Side is a residential suburb, district and electoral ward of Manchester in North West England situated two miles (3. ... Longsight is an area in Manchester, England, around 3 miles south of the city centre. ... , Stretford (pop. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Denton is the name of many places. ... , Gorton is a district of the City of Manchester in North West England. ... Cheetham Hill is a district of Manchester, England located approximately 2 miles to the north of Manchester city centre. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... , Toxteth is an inner-city area of Liverpool, Merseyside. ... Croxteth is a suburb of Liverpool, on Merseyside and a Liverpool City Council Ward. ... // Norris Green is a large housing estate and council ward in Liverpool, England comprising some 1,500 dwellings, it is locally known as Noggsy. It was built in the 1920s on land donated to the city by Lord Derby, who was at the time resident at nearby Knowsley Hall. ... Location within the British Isles Wavertree is an area of Liverpool. ... This article is about the football stadium. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...


Wales

The term "ghetto" is not widely used in Wales to describe present-day areas of poverty, though these do exist in every layer of every city. For instance, in Cardiff, Wales's capital city, there are the rough inner city areas- Cathays, Gabalfa, Roath, and Splott, which are to the north/east of the city, while Canton, Grangetown, Riverside, Butetown, Ely, which is the Chinatown, Caerau, and some areas of Fairwater are to the south/west. These are made of people of all races, white, eastern, and africans. Although Radyr, Llandaff, Whitchurch, Pentyrch, and Rhiwbina are mostly made up of middle-class households, there are rough streets and council houses dotted everywhere. The wealthier area is Llandaff although it is not a rich area. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... Cathays (pronounced ; Cattays) is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Gabalfa is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Roath Brook flowing through Roath Park in the snow Roath (Welsh: Y Rhâth) is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Wilson Street, Splott (photo by Linda Bailey) Splott (Welsh: ) is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales, east of the city centre. ... See also: Kanton Canton or canton may refer to: canton (country subdivision), a territorial subdivision of a country the upper left (hoist) quarter of a flag, see flag terminology canton (heraldry), a subordinary occupying the (shield holders) upper right-hand ninth of the field canton (liqueur), a ginger-flavored... Grangetown is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Riverside is a name common to a number of cities and counties. ... Butetown electoral division of Cardiff The Docks is a district of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Statistics Population: 15,102 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TL535799 Administration District: East Cambridgeshire Shire county: Cambridgeshire Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Cambridgeshire Historic county: Cambridgeshire Services Police force: Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town: ELY... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... Caerau is a Welsh place name. ... Fairwater is a village located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... Radyr and Morganstown electoral ward in Cardiff Radyr (strictly Radyr and Morganstown) is an outer suburb of the city of Cardiff, Wales. ... Llandaff electoral ward of Cardiff Llandaff (Welsh Llandaf llan church + Taf) is a district in the city of Cardiff, Wales, having been incorporated into the city in 1922, and is also the name of a diocese of the Church in Wales, covering the most populous area of south Wales. ... Whitchurch is the name of more than one place. ... Pentyrch is situated about seven miles north west of Cardiff the capital city of Wales. ... Rhiwbina electoral ward in Cardiff Image:Rhiwbina village. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Llandaff electoral ward of Cardiff Llandaff (Welsh Llandaf llan church + Taf) is a district in the city of Cardiff, Wales, having been incorporated into the city in 1922, and is also the name of a diocese of the Church in Wales, covering the most populous area of south Wales. ...


Ireland

Major cities and towns in Northern Ireland can be roughly divided into ghettos, of Catholic Irish nationalists/republicans and Protestant British unionists/loyalists. This division is less apparent in more affluent areas, but in more working class areas, territory is marked, particularly in loyalist areas, by flags and murals. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Scandinavia (Nordic Countries)

In Scandinavia most "ghettos" are concrete suburbs, expecially those around Stockholm, Copenhagen, Malmö, Oslo, Århus, Helsinki and Gothenburg. No "ghetto" areas are made up by a major ethnic-group. The areas are mostly mixed, with few Scandinavians and a higher concentration of immigrants, mostly from the Middle-east, Eastern Europe/Balkans, Turkey, Africa, Asia and Latin-America. The areas are troubled by gang violence and vandalism, also riots have been seen in the last couple of years. In finnish "ghettos" crime rate aren`t notably bigger but difference can be seen. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... The cityhall of Ã…rhus. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Balkan redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Latin America Latin America (Portuguese and Spanish: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages, those derived from Latin (particularly Spanish and Portuguese), are primarily spoken. ...


Notable "ghettos" are Rinkeby, Tensta, Angered, Arlöv, Möllevång and Rosengård in Sweden. Ishøj, Brøndby, Ydre Nørrebro, Avedøre, Vollsmose and Gellerup in Denmark. Romsås,Gulset, Klyve, Skien and Ammerud in Norway. Jakomäki, Itäkeskus, Kallio, Kontula and Hakunila in Finland Rinkeby is a part of the city of Stockholm in Sweden. ... Tensta and its water tower. ... House in Angered Angereds Centrum is the shopping center of Angered Angered is a suburb outside Gothenburg in Sweden. ... Along the E22, Arlöv has these high-rise buildings with 9 floors. ... Central RosengÃ¥rd, near the RoCent shopping mall RosengÃ¥rd is a borough in Swedens third largest city Malmö (272,000 inhabitants). ... Location in Denmark Ishøj is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. ... Brøndby is a municipality in eastern Denmark, in the county of Copenhagen on the island of Zealand. ... Ydre Nørrebro (lit. ... Gellerup is a western suburb to the city of Aarhus, Denmark. ... County Telemark District Grenland Municipality NO-0806 Administrative centre Skien Mayor (2005) Rolf Erling Andersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 140 779 km² 719 km² 0. ... Ammerud is a part of Grorud in Oslo, Norway known for its large Le Corbusier style housing blocks. ... Itäkeskus (Östra centrum in Swedish - both names mean eastern centre in English) is a shopping centre in Helsinki, Finland. ... Kallio is a district in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ... Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish: ), or Helsingfors in Swedish   listen?, is the capital of Finland. ... Hakunila (HÃ¥kansböle in Swedish), is a town located within eastern Vantaa, a city in southern Finland bordering Helsinki. ...


Bulgaria

Ghettos in Bulgaria are rarely seen but there are some in the larger cities. Sofia's only ghetto - Fakulteta (The Faculty) is a Roma ghetto near Zapaden Park (Western Park) and Ovcha Kupel Neighbourhoods. In Plovdiv are the largest Bulgarian ghettos - Sheker Mahala (Sheker - turkish word for sugar & Mahala - small neighbourhood), Filipovtsi and other. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Post-World War II France

There are also ghettos in modern France. The poorer banlieues, or suburbs, of France, especially those of Paris, house an impoverished population largely of North African and sub-Saharan African origin in large medium- and high-rise building developments known as "Cités". They were built in the 1960s and 1970s in the industrial suburbs to the north and east of Paris, especially in the Département of Seine-Saint-Denis (also known from its departmental code as "le 93" or "le 9-3"), and in other French cities like Venissieux near Lyon. They are similar in style and have similar problems as the large inner-city urban renewal projects in the US (like Cabrini Green in Chicago). Social issues that inhabitants of French ghettos must deal with regularly, including racism and police brutality, were famously highlighted in the 1996 film La Haine (which depicts the adventures of three young people from the ghetto: one white , one black and the other arabic). Although there has been civil unrest (sometimes resulting in rioting) in these ghettos for decades, many people outside of France were not fully aware of the situation until the more internationally publicised 2005 riots, which largely originated within these areas. Banlieue is the French word for outskirts. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Seine-Saint-Denis is a French département located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Vénissieux is a commune of the Rhône département, in France. ... This article is about the French city. ... A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. ... Newly-built market-rate housing sharply contrasts with Green Homes, under demolition. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... La Haine (the hate) is a French black-and-white film directed by Mathieu Kassovitz, released in 1995. ... French riots and French civil unrest redirect here. ...

la forestiere in clichy sous bois in Seine-Saint-Denis For other places with the same name, see Clichy. ... Seine-Saint-Denis is a French département located in the Île-de-France région. ...

Czech Republic

A few ghettos have appeared in the Czech Republic. These ghettos are mainly inhabited by Roma who move there both voluntarily or involuntarily (municipalities often try to relocate them from other areas). The majority of the people are unemployed and uneducated, and the crime rate is high. As a ghetto begins to appear non-Roma people move away. The most infamous ghetto in the Czech Republic is Chánov (part of the city of Most). Other cities with neighborhoods slowly transforming into ghettos include Karviná.[citation needed] Image File history File links I have permission of author that this picture can be used for free for any purpose. ... Image File history File links I have permission of author that this picture can be used for free for any purpose. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... This panelak is inhabited Rudolice nad Bílinou (Rudolice upon river Bílina) is widely known under unofficial name Chánov (and this name is used almost exclusively). ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ... This panelak is inhabited Rudolice nad Bílinou (Rudolice upon river Bílina) is widely known under unofficial name Chánov (and this name is used almost exclusively). ... Most is a city in the northwest of the Czech Republic, in Ústí nad Labem Region. ... Location of Karviná in the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Moravian-Silesian District Karviná First mentioned 1268  - Mayor Tomáš Hanzel (ÄŒSSD) Area    - City 57. ...


During the Second World War, the Terezín ghetto was created to house mass numbers of Czech Jews before deportation to concentration camps (typically Auschwitz), where the Jews would be exterminated. The Nazis sanitized the ghetto to appear like a "joyful place" to dupe the Red Cross during two visits. The Jewish artists of Terezin created memorable artwork during their stay before being shipped out to concentration camps and gas chambers. Fortress plan, 1869 For the Nazi concentration camp, see Theresienstadt concentration camp Terezín (IPA: ; German: ) is the name of a former military fortress and garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. ...


Cultural life

Some ghettos have been known as vibrant cultural centers, for example the late 19th century Paris, or Harlem in the 1920s and 1930s. Many African-American artists and musicians such as Tupac Shakur, John Lee Hooker, Notorious B.I.G., Akon, Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, Nina Simone, and Cab Calloway, to name only a handful, were born and raised in ghettos, and much of their music comes from their own suffering, experiences and life in the ghetto or their own experiences with desegregation, eg. Nina Simone's "Mississippi Goddam" (on the 1964 Nina Simone In Concert), John Lee Hooker's "Rent Blues", Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five's "The Message", Donny Hathaway's "The Ghetto", Huey's "Nobody Loves The Hood", and Calloway's "Minnie the Moocher". The 1970s sitcom Good Times was modeled after life in the Cabrini-Green housing projects in Chicago. The show portrays a ghetto family that always triumphs over adversity and it has been criticized for painting too rosy a picture of how the ghetto really works[citation needed]. This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ... John Lee Hooker (August 22, 1917 – June 21, 2001) was an influential American post-war blues singer, guitarist, and songwriter born in Coahoma County near Clarksdale, Mississippi. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game). ... Kishan Aliaune Damala Bouga Time Puru Nacka Badara Akon Thiam,[1][2] often going by the shorter Aliaune Thiam[3] (born October 14, 1981),[4] and better known by his stage name Akon, is an American R&B singer, rapper, songwriter, record producer, and record executive. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... For the New York radio and television presenter, see Doctor Dre. ... Eunice Kathleen Waymon, better known by her stage name Nina Simone (IPA: ninɐ sÊŒmÉžnÉ‘) (February 21, 1933 – April 21, 2003), was a fifteen-time Grammy Award-nominated American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger and civil rights activist. ... Cab Calloway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1933 Cab Calloway (December 25, 1907–November 18, 1994) was a famous American jazz singer and bandleader. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Nina Simone in Concert is an album by singer/pianist/songwriter Nina Simone (1933-2003). ... For Nas song, see The Message (Nas song). ... Cab Calloway and His Orchestra, from the opening credits of Max Fleischers Minnie the Moocher, which included a recording of the titular Calloway song. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Cabrini-Green is one of the most notorious and infamous housing projects in the world. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


In the United States and Britain, the word "ghetto" is often glorified in popular culture and sometimes used as an adjective to describe a certain way of dressing, speaking, and behaving.


See also

The Shanghai ghetto was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, where about 20,000 Jewish refugees[1] lived during World War II, having fled from Nazi Germany, Austria, Poland and Lithuania. ... Slums in Delhi, India. ... Look up favela in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Joe Slovo shanty town in Langa on the Cape Flats simmers after a fire (Cape Town, South Africa) Shanty town near Tijuana, Mexico. ... The term skid row or skid road is used to refer to a run-down or dilapidated urban area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term rural ghetto was coined by Osha Gray Davidson in the book Broken Heartland: The Rise of Americas Rural Ghetto and is used to describe the influx of poverty and neglect in the small towns of Midwestern United States that occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. ...

References

  1. ^ Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation
  2. ^ a b GHETTO Kim Pearson
  3. ^ a b c Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation Spring 1997 by Ed Glaeser
  4. ^ Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan - Journal of Political Economy, 2004
  5. ^ SEGREGATION AND STRATIFICATION: A Biosocial Perspective Douglas S. Massey Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race (2004), 1: 7-25 Cambridge University Press
  6. ^ Inequality and Segregation Rajiv Sethi and Rohini Somanathan Journal of Political Economy, volume 112 (2004), pages 1296–1321
  7. ^ a b c d The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods By William Dennis Keating. Temple University Press. 1994. ISBN 1566391474
  8. ^ a b The Great Migration
  9. ^ Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes William H. Frey American Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jun., 1979), pp. 425-448
  10. ^ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual, 1938

    Recommended restrictions should include provision for: prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended …Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location. The FHAs logo The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. ... The Federal Housing Administration was begun as part of the New Deal in 1934. ...

  11. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
  12. ^ See: Race and health
  13. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  14. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  15. ^ a b The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Vigdor The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 455-506
  16. ^ Crabgrass im cool=D Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States by Professor Kenneth T. Jackson ISBN 0195049837
  17. ^ From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment: The Interstate Highway System and the African American Community in Birmingham, Alabama Charles E. Connerly Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 99-114 (2002)
  18. ^ Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California Laura Pulido Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 12-40
  19. ^ Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1980. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ghetto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2790 words)
A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion.
This was the last of the original ghettos to be abolished in Western Europe; not until 1870, when the kingdom of Italy conquered Rome from the Pope, was the Ghetto finally opened, with the walls themselves being torn down in 1888.
Ghettos often became known as vibrant cultural centers, for example the late 19th century Paris, or Harlem in the 1920s and 1930s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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