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Encyclopedia > Ghee
Ghee in a jar

Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit ghṛtə घृत "sprinkled"; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning "ghee" or "fat") is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. Ghee is made by simmering unsalted butter in a large pot until all water has boiled off and protein has settled to the bottom. The cooked and clarified butter is then spooned off to avoid disturbing the milk solids on the bottom of the pan. Unlike butter, ghee can be stored for extended periods without refrigeration, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation and remains moisture-free.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (543 × 968 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ghee in a jar This image was created by Whitebox, and is licensed under the following license I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 336 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (543 × 968 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ghee in a jar This image was created by Whitebox, and is licensed under the following license I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Clarified butter is butter that has been rendered to separate the milk solids and water from the butter fat. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... One of the most highly evolved cuisines in the world over the past three thousand years, the multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. ... Simmering is a cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just barely below the boiling point of water (at average sea level air pressure), 100 °C (212 °F). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cookware and bakeware. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...

Contents

Preparation of Ghee

Milk is curdled. The curd is then manually churned until it precipitates butter and leaves behind some whey. The butter is then heated on a low flame until a layer of white froth covers the surface. This state indicates the end of process and the liquid obtained on filtering the suspension is pure ghee. In addition to the ghee, Egyptians use the remaining solids as an alternate cooking butter called "Morta". A glass of cows milk. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Adding a spoonful of water may help the texture and lower future melting point for use in cooking (when mounting sauces with fat to create a more silky sauce.)


Religious uses

Ghee was frequently used for libations in Vedic rituals (see Yajurveda), and there is even a hymn to ghee. Ghee is also burnt in the Hindu religious ritual of Aarti and is the principal fuel used for the Hindu votive lamp known as the diya or deep. It is used in marriages and funerals, and for bathing idols during worship. In other religious observances, such as the prayers to Shiva on Maha Shivaratri, ghee is sacrificed along with four other sacred substances: sugar, milk, yogurt, and honey. According to the Mahabharata, ghee is the very root of sacrifice by Bhishma. Libation scene, Greek red figure cup, c. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Priest performing navami arati in front of a golden statue of Durga slaying Mahisasur. ... Diya (plural diyas) is a contracted form of deep or light given by small earthen pots (also known as Pradeep), with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee. ... For other uses, see Siva (disambiguation). ... Maha Shivratri or Maha Sivaratri or Shivaratri or Sivaratri (Night of Shiva) is a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month Maagha (as per Shalivahana) or Phalguna(as per Vikrama) in the Hindu Calendar. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ...


Ayurvedic medicine

Ayurvedic texts describe many diverse mind/body benefits. For example, Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ...

  • Absorption: Ghee is an integral part of the science of ayurvedic herbal formulation. Since ghee is an oil, it can bond with lipid-soluble nutrients and herbs to penetrate the lipid-based cell membranes of the body. It is stated to increase the potency of certain herbs by carrying the active components to the interior of the cells where they impart the most benefit.
  • Digestion: The ayurvedic texts say that ghee helps balance excess stomach acid, and helps maintain/repair the mucus lining of the stomach.
  • Mild Burns: Like aloe, ghee is said to prevent blisters and scarring if applied quickly to affected skin.
  • Mind: Ghee is said to promote all three aspects of mental functioning -- learning, memory and recall.
  • Ayurvedic Balance: Ghee balances both Vata (the dosha that controls movement in mind and body) and Pitta (the dosha that controls heat and metabolism).

Eating ghee is also believed to enhance virility and sexual potency. Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Ayurveda uses a different concept of humours than the four humours of traditional Greco-Roman and European medieval medicine. ... One of three bodily humors that make up ones constitution. ... Ayurveda uses a different concept of humours than the four humours of traditional Greco-Roman and European medieval medicine. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Virility is part of the traditional idealized male gender role. ...


Outside of India

Several cultures make ghee outside of India. Egyptians make a product called سمن بلدي (samn baladi, literally meaning "local fat") virtually identical to ghee in terms of process and end result. In Ethiopia, niter kibbeh (Amharic: ንጥር ቅቤ niṭer ḳibē) is made and used in much the same way as ghee, but with spices added during the process that result in a distinctive taste. Niter kibbeh or niter qibe (Geez ንጥር ቅቤ niá¹­er ḳibÄ“) is a seasoned clarified butter used in Ethiopian cooking. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Nutrition and health concerns

Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed almost entirely of saturated fat. Ghee has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol in one rodent study.[2] Studies in Wistar rats have revealed one mechanism by which ghee reduces plasma LDL cholesterol. This action is mediated by an increased secretion of Biliary Lipids. The Nutrition facts label found on bottled cow's ghee produced in the USA indicates 8mg of cholesterol per teaspoon. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Clarified butter is butter that has been rendered to separate the milk solids and water from the butter fat. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Rattus norvegicus redirects here. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) belongs to the lipoprotein particle family. ... A simple statistical mediation model. ... X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and various other slight variations) is a label required on most pre-packaged foods in North America, United Kingdom and other countries. ...


Indian restaurants and some households may use hydrogenated vegetable oil (also known as vanaspati, Dalda, or "vegetable ghee") in place of ghee for economic reasons. This "vegetable ghee" is actually polyunsaturated or monounsaturated partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, a trans fat. Trans fats are increasingly linked to serious chronic health conditions. Not only is "vegetable ghee" implicated in causing high LDL, it also lacks the health-promoting benefits claimed for "Shuddh" (Hindi for Pure) ghee. The term Shuddh Ghee, however, is not officially enforced in many regions, so partially hydrogenated oils are marketed as Pure Ghee in some areas. Where this is illegal in India, law-enforcement often cracks down on the sale of fake ghee[3]. Ghee is also sometimes called desi (country-made) ghee or asli (genuine) ghee to distinguish it from "vegetable ghee". Vanaspati is the 4th melakarta raga in the sampoorna mela system used in carnatic music. ... Dalda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Trans fatty acids (commonly termed trans fats) are a type of unsaturated fat (and may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated). ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... This article is about the South Asian people. ...


When cooking, it can be unhealthy to heat polyunsaturated oils such as vegetable oils to high temperatures. Doing so creates peroxides and other free radicals. These substances lead to a variety of health problems and diseases. On the other hand, ghee has a very high burning point and doesn't burn or smoke easily during cooking. Because ghee has the more stable saturated bonds (i.e., it lacks double bonds which are easily damaged by heat) it is not as likely to form the dangerous free radicals when cooking. [citation needed]
Ghee's short chain fatty acids are also metabolized very readily by the body, which would seem to negate concerns of its health effects. However, there is significant controversy between traditional oils and modern industrially processed oils which tends to heavily cloud the facts and issues surrounding oil consumption. In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Burning Point are a power metal band from Finland. ... “Covalent” redirects here. ...


The American Heart Association recommends choosing dishes prepared without ghee.[4]


References

  1. ^ Ghee -- Indian clarified butter. food-india.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  2. ^ Matam Vijaya Kumara; Kari Sambaiaha; Belur R. Lokesh (February 2000). "Hypocholesterolemic effect of anhydrous milk fat ghee is mediated by increasing the secretion of biliary lipids". The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11 (2): 69-75. doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(99)00072-8. 
  3. ^ Sellers of fake ghee booked in Hyderabad. hindu.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  4. ^ Tips for Eating Indian Food. American Heart Association. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
  • Articles on ghee from Ancient Organics: http://www.ancientorganics.com/articles.htm (commercial site)
  • Table comparing various commercially available ghee products: http://blog.freeradicalfederation.com/archive/2006/07/25/Ghee_Comparison_Table.aspx (non commercial site)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Food-India.com - Ghee (Indian Clarified Butter) (288 words)
Ghee is a clarified butter without any solid milk particles or water.
Ghee is used in India and throughout the South Asia in daily cooking.
Ghee can be great assets for people who are on low fat diet since even a lower quantity of ghee can add lot of flavor to the food than any other oil or fat products.
Ghee - LoveToKnow 1911 (362 words)
Ghee which is rancid or tainted, as is often that of the Indian bazaars, is said to be rendered sweet by boiling with leaves of the Moringa pterygosperma or horse-radish tree.
Old ghee is in special repute among the Hindus as a medicinal agent, and its efficacy as an external application is believed by them to increase with its age.
Medicated ghee is made by warming ordinary ghee to remove contained water, melting, after the addition of a little turmeric juice, in a metal pan at a gentle heat, and then boiling with the prepared drugs till all moisture is expelled, and straining through a cloth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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