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Encyclopedia > Ghaznavid Empire
History of Iran
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The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of today's Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. It was created under the Turkic Khan Alp Tigin with the city Ghazna (Ghazni) as capital, replacing the Samanids. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... See further the article on proto-Elamite at the education pages of the CDLI project. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Parthia[1] (Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân), situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as the modern countries of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the forth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chobanids (also known as the Chupanids) were members of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a mixed Turkic-Mongol and Persian (Turco) dynasty of Central Asia established by Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki were a Ghilzai Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty (1709-1738) that ruled the remnants of the Persian Empire (Iran) from 1722 to 1736 following the decline of the Safavids. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Provisional Government of Iran (PGOI) preceded the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Alptigin (Persian: الپتگین )was the grandfather of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ...

Contents


Rise to power

Two military families arose from the Turkic Slave-Guards of the Samanids — the Simjurids and Ghaznavids — who ultimately proved disastrous to the Samanids. The Simjurids received an appanage in the Kuhestan (Quhestan) region of southern Khorasan. Alp Tigin founded the Ghaznavid fortunes when he established himself at Ghazna (modern Ghazni, Afghanistan) in 962. He and Abu al-Hasan Simjuri, as Samanid generals, competed with each other for the governorship of Khorasan and control of the Samanid empire by placing on the throne emirs they could dominate when Abdul Malik I of Samanid died in 961. Abu al-Hasan died in 961, but when the Samanid Emir Abdul Malik I, died in 961 CE it created a succession crisis between Abdul Malik's brothers. A court party instigated by men of the scribal class—civilian ministers as contrasted with Turkic generals—rejected Alp Tigin's candidate for the Samanid throne. Mansur I was installed, and Alp Tigin prudently retired to his fief of Ghazna. The Simjurids enjoyed control of Khorasan south of the Oxus but were hard-pressed by a third great Iranian dynasty, the Buwayhids, and were unable to survive the collapse of the Samanids and the rise of the Ghaznavids. This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Alptigin (Persian: الپتگین )was the grandfather of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Abd al-Malik (d. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Abd al-Malik (d. ... Abu Salih Mansur (d. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


The struggles of the Turkic slave generals for mastery of the throne with the help of shifting allegiance from the court's ministerial leaders both demonstrated and accelerated the Samanid decline. Samanid weakness attracted into Transoxania the Qarluq Turks, who had recently converted to Islam. They occupied Bukhara in 992 to establish in Transoxania the Qarakhanid, or Ilek Khanid, dynasty. Alp Tigin had been succeeded at Ghazna by Sebüktigin (died 997). Sebüktigin's son Mahmud made an agreement with the Qarakhanids whereby the Oxus was recognized as their mutual boundary. . Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


Domination

Saboktekin made himself lord of nearly all the present territory of Afghanistan and of the Punjab by conquest of Samanid and Shahi lands. In 997, Mahmud, the son of Sebük Tigin, succeeded his father upon his death, and with him Ghazni and the Ghaznavid dynasty have become perpetually associated. He completed the conquest of Samanid, Shahi lands, the Ismaili Kingdom of Multan, Sindh as well as some Buwayhid territory. Under him all accounts was the golden age and the height of the Ghaznevid Empire. Mahmud carried out seventeen expeditions through northern India establishing his control and setting up tributary states. His raids also resulted in the looting of a great deal of plunder. From the borders of Kurdistan to Samarkand, from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna, he established his authority. Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... The IsmāīlÄ« (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) are shia muslims which recognize the continuation of the line of imams from the descendents Imam Ismail, rather than the concept of the hidden Imam Mahdi, which is advoacted by other shia muslims and has arisen among the followers of Ismails brother... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] (old: : Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarí) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited traditionally predominantly by the Kurds. ... , Colour photograph of Ulugh Beg Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a LAKE MY HOMIE DOGG of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The Triveni Sangam, or the intersection of Yamuna River and Ganges River. ...


The wealth brought back from the Indian expeditions to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Ferdowsi) give glowing descriptions of the magnificence of the capital, as well as of the conquerors munificent support of literature. Mahmud died in (1030), and his son Mas'ud was unable to control the conquered lands and lost the Battle of Dandanaqan in (1040). Even though there was some revival of importance under Ibrahim (1059-1099), the empire never reached anything like the same splendour and power. It was soon overshadowed by the Seljuk Turks of Iran. Abolfazl Beyhaghi (995-1077; Abd ul-Fazl Mohammad Ibn Hossein Beyhaği) was an Iranian historian and author. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... The Battle of Dandanaqan which happened between Turcoman army of Seljuk Turks and the Turkish Empire of Khorasan at those years,Ghaznavids,ended with the victory of Seljuks and it caused to reduce the Ghaznavid domination around Khorasan. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...


The Ghaznavid Empire ended in (1149) with the capture of Ghazna by the Ghurids. Ghaznavid power in northern India continued until the conquest of Lahore in (1187). The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ... The Minar-e-Pakistan represents Pakistani independence The Hazuri Bagh, looking towards the Roshnai Gate Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ...


After their loss of power, the remaining Ghaznavids stayed in Ghazni, where – over the centuries – a new tribe evolved, namely the Ghilzai tribe, first documented in the 16th century. The historical sources are quite unclear but it is assumed that it was the Nasher, the former Ghaznavid Khans, who ruled the Ghilzai Kharoti tribe for ten centuries. They became prominent again between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khans founded several dynasties, among them the Hotaki Dynasty, ruling Persia and the (Lodi) Moghul Dynasty in Delhi. Nasher may refer to: Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University Nasher Sculpture Center a surname: Gholam Serwar Nasher Gholam Nabi Nasher Gholam Rabani Nasher G. Raymond Nasher Farhad Darya Nasher This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Legacy

The Ghaznevid Empire was the first significant Islamic empire in Central Asia and marked a break of political control from the Abassids and Baghdad. The Ghaznavid empire grew to cover much of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, and northwest India and Pakistan, and the Ghaznavids are generally credited with launching Islam into Hindu-dominated India. In addition to the wealth accumulated through raiding Indian cities, and exacting tribute from Indian Rajas the Ghaznavids also benefited from their position as an intermediary along the trade routes between China and the Mediterranean. They were however unable to hold power for long and by 1040 the Seljuks had taken over their Persian domains and a century later the Ghurids took over their remaining sub-continental lands. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... The Ghurids (or Ghoris) were rulers from Ghor in Central Afghanistan. ...


The Ghaznavid Dynasty

History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,000–7000 BCE
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
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Maha Janapadas 700–321 BCE
Magadha Empire 684–321 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 321 BCE–1279 CE
- Maurya Empire 321–184 BCE
- Sunga Empire 184–73 BCE
- Indo-Greeks 180 BCE–10 CE
- Kushan Empire 80–250 CE
- Gupta Empire 240–550 CE
- Chola Empire 848–1279 CE
Islamic Sultanates 979–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Delhi Sultanate 1210–1526
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Era 1526–1707
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Colonial Era 1757–1947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
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India · Pakistan . Bangladesh
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  • Alptigin (963-977)
  • Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin Khan (977-997)
  • Ismail (997-998)
  • Yamin ud-Dawlah Mahmud (998-1030)
  • Jalal ud-Dawlah Mehmed (Mohammed) (1030-1031)
  • Shihab ud-Dawlah Mas'ud I (1031–1041)
  • Jalal ud-Dawlah Mehmed (Mohammed) (second time) (1041)
  • Shihab ud-Dawlah Mawdud (1041-1050)
  • Mas'ud II (1050)
  • Baha ud-Dawlah Ali (1050)
  • Izz ud-Dawlah Abd ul-Rashid (1053)
  • Qiwam ud-Dawlah Toğrül (Tughril) (1053)
  • Jamal ud-Dawlah Farrukhzad (1053-1059)
  • Zahir ud-Dalah Ibrahim (1059-1099)
  • Ala ud-Dawlah Mas'ud III (1099-1115)
  • Kemal ud-Dawlah Shirzad (1115)
  • Sultan ud-Dawlah Arslan Shah (1115-11180
  • Yamin ud-Dawlah Bahram Shah (1118-1152)
  • Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Khusrau Shah (1152-1160)
  • Taj ud-Dawlah Khusrau Malik (1160-1187)
  • Nasher Khans, later Ghilzai Khans (from the 16th century)

This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1500 BCE) was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and Northern India. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Ashoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century AD). ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... Alptigin (Persian: الپتگین )was the grandfather of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Ismail of Ghazni was the second Sultan of Ghaznavi dynasty. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ...

See also

Afghanistans history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The history of India can be traced in fragments to as far back as 9,500 years ago. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...

External link

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christoph Marcinkowski. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... The British Academy is the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. ...

Reference

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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