This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopędia Britannica.
Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. It lies on the road between Kandahar and Kabul at 68 18 E. long., 33 44 N. lat. Ghazni is the capital of the Ghazni province.
Around the nearby village of Rowzeh-e Sultan, on the old road to Kabul, 130 km northeast), are the ruins of ancient Ghazna, including two 43-metre towers and the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazna (971-1030), the most powerful emir (or sultan) of the Ghaznavid dynasty.
The city, named Ghazna in ancient times, was flourishing by the 7th cent.
Alptigin's son-in-law Sebuktigin succeeded him in 977 CE and was recognized as governor of Ghazna by the Samanids.
In his last Indian campaign in 1024 CE, Mahmud reached the southern coast of Kathiawar along the Arabian Sea, where he sacked the city of Somnath and destroyed its famous Hindu temple to Shiva (whose mystical idol was apparently levitated by magnetic forces).
In the interim, the Ghaznavid ruler Bahram was able to briefly reoccupy the remains of Ghazna until his death, when the Seljuqs forced the next Ghaznavid monarch to retire to Lahore.
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