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Encyclopedia > Ghazal

In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal (Persian: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. Etymologically, the word literally refers to "the mortal cry of a gazelle". The animal is caled Ghizaal, from which the English word gazelles stems, or Kastori haran (where haran refers to deer) in Urdu. Ghazals are traditionally expressions of love, separation and loneliness, for which the gazelle is an appropriate image. A ghazal can thus be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 10th century Persian verse. It is derived from the Persian qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are more stringent than those of most poetic forms traditionally written in English. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central theme of love and separation. It is considered by many to be one of the principal poetic forms the Persian civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... This article is about the Indo-Iranian fusion classical group. ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ... A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Exotic to the region, as is indicated by the very sounds of the name itself when properly pronounced as ġazal, with its very un-Indian initial rolled g. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry, today, it has influenced the poetry of many languages. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ...


Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (13th century) and Hafez (14th century), the Turkish poet Fuzuli (16th century), as well as Mirza Ghalib (17971869) and Muhammad Iqbal (18771938), who both wrote Ghazals in Persian and Urdu. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (17491832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (17881866) and August von Platen (17961835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English." Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-DÄ«n Muhammad RÅ«mÄ«[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad BalkhÄ« (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Fuzûlî (1494?–1556), a Divan poet of Azeri origin Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in Iran (Safavid era), although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ خان ), pen-name Ghalib (Urdu/Persian: غالب, Ä¡hālib) and Asad (former pen-name)(27 December 1796 — 15 February 1869), was an all time great classical Urdu and Persian poet of the subcontinent. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Friedrich Rückert (May 16, 1788 - January 31, 1866) was a German poet, translator and professor of Oriental languages. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... August Graf von Platen-Hallermünde (October 24, 1796 - December 5, 1835), German poet and dramatist, was born at Ansbach, the son of the Oberforstmeister in the little principality of that name. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Agha Shahid Ali (आगा शाहिद अली) (1949-2001) was an English poet of Kashmiri ancestry and upbringing. ...


In some modernized ghazals the poet's name is hidden somewhere in the last verse, usually between the front and end of a word.

Contents

Details of the form

  • The second line of each couplet in a ghazal ends with the repetition of a refrain of one or a few words, known as a Radif, preceded by a rhyme (though in a less strict ghazal the rhyme does not need to precede the refrain immediately), known as a Qaafiyaa. In the first couplet, which introduces the theme, both lines end in the rhyme and refrain. I.e. AA BA CA etc
  • There can be no enjambment across the couplets in a strict ghazal; each couplet must be a complete sentence (or several sentences) in itself.
  • All the couplets, and each line of each couplet, must share the same meter.
  • Ghazal is simply the name of a form, and is not language-specific. Ghazals also exist, for example in the Pashto and Marathi languages.
  • Some Ghazals do not have any Radif. This is, however, rare. Such Ghazals are called "gair-muraddaf" Ghazal.
  • Although every Sher should be an independent poem in itself, it is possible for all the Shers to be on the same theme or even have continuity of thought. This is called a musalsal ghazal, or "continuous ghazal". The Ghazal "Chupke chupke raat din aasun bahaanaa yaad hai" is a famous example of this.
  • In modern Urdu poetry, there are lots of Ghazals which do not follow the restriction of same Beher on both the lines of Sher. But even in these Ghazals, Kaafiyaa and Radif are present.
  • The restriction of Maqta has become rather loose in modern times. The Maqta was used historically as a way for the poet to secure credit for his or her work and poets often make elegant use of their takhallus in the maqta. However, many modern Ghazals do not have a Maqta or, many Ghazals have a Maqta just for the sake of conforming to the structure or tradition. The name of the Shayar is sometimes placed unnaturally in the last Sher of the Ghazal.

Radif is a rule in Urdu poetry which states that, in the form of poetry known as a Ghazal, the second line of all the Shers must end with the same word/s. ... A device employed in a form of Urdu Poetry known as Ghazals. ... Enjambement is the breaking of a linguistic unit (phrase, clause or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ... Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Radif is a rule in Urdu poetry which states that, in the form of poetry known as a Ghazal, the second line of all the Shers must end with the same word/s. ... Sher can have a variety of meanings: Sher or Sher (Arabic: شعر) is the common word for poem in Arabic and Persian. ... Beher in Urdu poetry is the meter of a sher (a form of poetry in Urdu, essentially a couplet). ... Sher can have a variety of meanings: Sher or Sher (Arabic: شعر) is the common word for poem in Arabic and Persian. ... A device employed in a form of Urdu Poetry known as Ghazals. ... Radif is a rule in Urdu poetry which states that, in the form of poetry known as a Ghazal, the second line of all the Shers must end with the same word/s. ... The maqta is the last sher (couplet) of a ghazal, a collection of Urdu poems, in which the poets takhallus, or pen name, is employed, often in very creative ways. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ... The maqta is the last sher (couplet) of a ghazal, a collection of Urdu poems, in which the poets takhallus, or pen name, is employed, often in very creative ways. ...

Themes

Illicit unattainable love

The ghazal not only has a specific form, but traditionally deals with just one subject: Love. And not any kind of love, but specifically, an illicit, and unattainable love. The subcontinental ghazals have an influence of Islamic Mysticism and the subject of love can usually be interpreted for a higher being or for a mortal beloved. The love is always viewed as something that will complete the being, and if attained will ascend the ranks of wisdom, or will bring satisfaction to the soul of the poet. Traditional ghazals' love does not have an explicit element of sexual desires in it, and hence the love is spiritual. Consequently, ghazals are not to be confused with poetry of seduction. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the art form. ... // In sociology, seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person into an act. ...


Persian historian Ehsan Yar-Shater notes that "As a rule, the beloved is not a woman, but a young man. In the early centuries of Islam, the raids into Central Asia produced many young slaves. Slaves were also bought or received as gifts. They were made to serve as pages at court or in the households of the affluent, or as soldiers and body-guards. Young men, slaves or not, also, served wine at banquets and receptions, and the more gifted among them could play music and maintain a cultivated conversation. It was love toward young pages, soldiers, or novices in trades and professions which was the subject of lyrical introductions to panegyrics from the beginning of Persian poetry, and of the ghazal." (Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1986. Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods, Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.973-974. 1986) Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ...


The ghazal is always written from the point of view of the unrequited lover, whose beloved is portrayed as unattainable. Most often either the beloved does not return the poet's love or returns it without sincerity, or else the societal circumstances do not allow it. The lover is aware and resigned to this fate but continues loving nonetheless; the lyrical impetus of the poem derives from this tension. Representations of the lover's powerlessness to resist his feelings often include lyrically exaggerated violence. The beloved's power to captivate the speaker may be represented in extended metaphors about the "arrows of her eyes", or by referring to the beloved as an assassin or a killer. Take for example the following couplets from Amir Khusro's Persian ghazal Nami danam chi manzil bood shab: Abul Hasan Yamīn al-Dīn Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as Amīr Khusrow Dehlawī, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ...

Nami danam chi manzil bood shab jaay ki man boodam;
Baharsu raqs-e bismil bood shab jaay ki man boodam.
Pari paikar nigaar-e sarw qadde laala rukhsare;
Sarapa aafat-e dil bood shab jaay ki man boodam.

I wonder what was the place where I was last night,
All around me were half-slaughtered victims of love, tossing about in agony.
There was a nymph-like beloved with cypress-like form and tulip-like face,
Ruthlessly playing havoc with the hearts of the lovers.

(translated by S.A.H. Abidi)

In the context of Sufism

It is not possible to get a full understanding of ghazal poetry without at least being familiar with some concepts of Sufism. All the major historical ghazal poets were either avowed Sufis themselves (like Rumi or Hafiz), or were sympathizers of Sufi ideas. Most ghazals can be viewed in a spiritual context, with the Beloved being a metaphor for God, or the poet's spiritual master. It is the intense Divine Love of sufism that serves as a model for all the forms of love found in ghazal poetry. Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam which encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ...


Most ghazal scholars today recognize that some ghazal couplets are exclusively about Divine Love (ishq-e-haqiqi), others are about "metaphorical love" (ishq-e-majazi), but most of them can be interpreted in either context.


Ghazal and its popularity

Ghazal has been confined to the upper class of the society for many decades. This is due to the use of difficult words and phrases in it. Moreover the traditional classical music fails to attract the common masses.


But today the scenario has been changed the ghazal has undergone some transformations which helps it to reach a huge audience around the world. The simplification of ghazal in terms of the words and phrases helps the masses to enjoy it. Ghazal is now sung with various styles which are not limited to 'khaayyal', 'thumri', 'raaga' and other classical music. Singers like Jagjit Singh and many others have been able to give ghazal a new shape by its incorporation in the field of modern music.


Western context: English-language ghazal

After nearly a century of "false starts" (that is, early exploratory instances by James Clarence Mangan, James Elroy Flecker, Adrienne Rich, Phyllis Webb., etc., many of which not adhering wholly or properly to the traditional principles of the style), the ghazal finally began to be recognized as a viable closed form in English-language poetry sometime in the early to mid 1990s. This came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. S. Merwin and Elise Paschen, as well as by acclaimed Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali (d. 2001), who had been teaching and spreading word of the ghazal at various U.S. universities over the previous two decades. Ali, it is worth noting, had also published by this time a collection (The Rebel's Silhouette) of translations of the legendary Urdu poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz (b. 1911, d. 1984), and although the selected poems were presented in English in a free verse style, their romantic and revolutionary-Marxist sociopolitical impact was not entirely lost upon Western readers. John Hollander (born October 29, 1929) is an American poet and literary critic. ... William Stanley (W.S.) Merwin was born on September 30, 1927 in New York City and grew up in Union City, New Jersey, and Scranton, Pennsylvania. ... Faiz Faiz Ahmed Faiz (فيض احمد فيض), (1984 - 1911) is considered by many to be a poet in the great tradition of Urdu poets like Ghalib and Iqbal. ...


Recognizing the growing interest, in 1996 Ali decided to compile and edit the world's first anthology of English-language ghazals. Finally published by Wesleyan University Press in 2000, Ravishing DisUnities: Real Ghazals in English served as material proof that the ghazal had indeed finally arrived in the English-speaking Western world. Sadly, Ali did not live long enough to witness the book's full impact and further evolution of the Western ghazal, succumbing to brain cancer in December 2001.


Much of the ghazal's English-language evolution in the years subsequent to Ali's death can be seen in or traced to the work of R. W. Watkins and Gene Doty (also known as Gino Peregrini). Watkins, a rather controversial enfant terrible on the fringes of avant-garde Canadian poetry, launched Contemporary Ghazals, the world's first English-language poetry journal dedicated exclusively to the ghazal, in the spring of 2003. Four years before that, Doty introduced The Ghazal Page, a website dedicated to the verse form in English. Both have done much to advance the Western ghazal, publishing many new and seasoned practitioners alike, critical essays and articles, and translations or adaptations of classic Persian and Urdu ghazals.


Other notable English-language poets currently working in the ghazal form include Marcyn Del Clements, R. L. Kennedy, Teresa M. Pfeifer, Taylor Graham and Denver Butson. Also, vocalist and poet Paula Jeanine explores the ghazal musically in her project, American Ghazal.


Ghazals composed in English by Western poets

  • Agha Shahid Ali, "The Country Without A Post Office", "Ghazal ('...exiles')"
  • Denver Butson, "Drowning Ghazals (1, 2 & 3)", "Four Drowning Ghazals"
  • Robert Bly, The Night Abraham Called to the Stars and My Sentence Was a Thousand Years of Joy
  • Gabrielle Calvocoressi, "Backdrop"
  • Marcyn del Clements, "Night"
  • William Dennis, "Lunar Ruin", "Brim-Full Again",
  • Gene Doty (also known as Gino Peregrini), "Ghazal Spirit", "...silence"
  • Taylor Graham, "A Ghazal of Gardens", "Almost Every Day Now"
  • John Hollander, "Ghazal On Ghazals"
  • R. L. Kennedy, "Memphis Jazz"
  • Maxine Kumin, "On the Table"
  • W. S. Merwin, "The Causeway"
  • William Matthews, "Guzzle", "Drizzle"
  • Elise Paschen, "Sam's Ghazal"
  • Teresa M. Pfeifer, "In Open Meadow"
  • Spencer Reece, "Florida Ghazals"
  • Adrienne Rich, "Ghazals: Homage to Ghalib"
  • R. W. Watkins, "That Nice, Clean, Filthy Lucre", "Ghazal For Shahid"
  • Bill West, "Daybreak"
  • Bruce Williams, "End Without World"
  • John Edgar Wideman, "Lost Letter"
  • Robert Pinsky, "The Hall"

Ghazal singers

Some well-known ghazal singers are:

Many Indian and Pakistani film singers are also famous for singing ghazals. These include: Begum Abida Parveen (Urdu: عابدہ پروین), a Pakistani singer, is one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anup Jalota is a famous Indian singer/musician, best known for his performances in the Indian musical form the bhajan and the ghazal. ... Begum Akhtar was a Ghazal singer from Uttar Pradesh in India. ... Bhupinder Singh (born April 8, 1939 New Delhi) is an Indian musician, chiefly a Bollywood playback singer. ... Chitra Singh is a famous Ghazal singer. ... Farida Khanum is renowned Pakistani Ghazal singer. ... One of the prominent and young Vocalist of India, Ghulam Abbas Khan belongs to the RAMPUR-SAHASWAN Gharana which owes its allegiance to MIYAN TANSENs tradition. ... Ghulam Ali (1940-) is a famous Pakistani ghazal singer of Patiala Gharana. ... Habib Wali Mohammad, April 30, 2005, event in Newark, CA Habib Wali Mohammad is a very senior and highly regarded ghazal singer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Iqbal Bano is a ghazal singer from Pakistan and singer both classical and modern ghazals. ... For Jagjit Singh the science writer, see Jagjit Singh (writer). ... Jasvinder Singh is an Indian singer. ... Malika Pukhraj (1912 - 2004) was a highly popular singer of Pakistan. ... Master Madan was a talented Ghazal singer of India of pre-independence era. ... Mehdi Hassan, Tamgha-e-Imtiaz, Pride of Performance, Hilal-e-Imtiaz (Urdu: مہدی حسن) affectionately called Khan Sahib and titled as Shahenshah-e-Ghazal (English: King of Ghazals)is a well-known Pakistani Ghazal singer and a former playback singer for Lollywood. ... Ustad Mohammad Hussain Sarahang (1924–1983) is a renowned Afghan musician famous in all over India, Pakistan and Iran. ... Mohammad Reza Shajarian (Persian: محمد رضا شجريان) (born September 23, 1940 in Mashhad, Iran) is a Persian traditional singer and undisputed Master (Ostad) of Persian music. ... Munni Begum (Devanagari:मुन्नी बेगम) Munni Begum is a Famous Ghazal Singer from Indian Subcontinent origin and now based in Chicago, IL, USA. Her real name is Nadira (Devanagari:नादिरा ) but she prefers to go by Munni Begum. ... Najma Akhtar (born 18 September 1962, Chelmsford, Essex), also known as Najma, is an English pop singer of South Asian ancestry. ... Nur Jehan (alternative spelling Noor Jehan, Nur Jahan, etc. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pankaj Udhas is a pre-eminent Ghazal singer from India. ... Because Wikipedia is an effort to create an encyclopedia, its content is restricted to materials that are appropriate for an encyclopedia, in which case this page may qualify for deletion as a vanity page. ... Runa Laila Runa Laila (Bangla: রুনা লায়লা) is a popular singer of Bangladeshi origin. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tahira Syed (Urdu: طاہرہ سيد) is a popular Ghazal singer of Pakistan. ... Talat Aziz (born May 14, 1955) in Hyderabad, India is a famous Indian ghazal singer. ... Talat Mahmood (February 24, 1924 -- May 9, 1998) was an Indian Bollywood singer and actor. ...

Noor Jehan (Urdu: نور جہاں) (September 21, 1926 – December 23, 2000) was a famous Punjabi and Urdu singer and actress. ... Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi/Hindi:लता मंगेशकर) (born September 28, 1929) is an Indian singer. ... Asha Bhosle[1] (Marathi: ) (born September 8, 1933) is an Indian singer. ... Kundan Lal (K.L.) Saigal (April 11, 1904 - January 18, 1947) was an Indian actor and singer who is considered the first big superstar of Bollywood, the Hindi film industry centred in Mumbai. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ghulam Abbas was an afsaana nigaar, or short story writer. ...

See also

Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Urdu poetry (Urdu: اردو شاعری, Urdu Shayari) is one of the most dominant and prominent poetries of times and has many different colours & types. ...

Notes

References

  • Agha Shahid Ali (ed.). Ravishing Disunities: Real Ghazals in English. ISBN 0-8195-6437-0.
  • Agha Shahid Ali. Call Me Ishmael Tonight: A Book of Ghazals. ISBN 0-393-05195-1.
  • Doty, Gene (ed./sitemaster). The Ghazal Page; various postings, 1999--2006.
  • Faiz, Faiz Ahmed. The Rebel's Silhouette: Selected Poems. Translated by Agha Shahid Ali. University of Massachusetts Press, 1995.
  • Kanda, K.C., editor. Masterpieces of the Urdu Ghazal: From the 17th to the 20th Century. Sterling Pub Private Ltd., 1991.
  • Mufti, Aamir. "Towards a Lyric History of India." boundary 2, 31: 2, 2004
  • Reichhold, Jane (ed.). Lynx; various issues, 1996--2000.
  • Watkins, R. W. (ed.). Contemporary Ghazals; Nos. 1 and 2, 2003--2004.

External links

  • Ghazal Collection

 
 

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