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Encyclopedia > Geyser

A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. The name geyser comes from Geysir, the name of an erupting spring at Haukadalur, Iceland; that name, in turn, comes from the Icelandic verb gjósa, “to gush”. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2977x1983, 694 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geyser User:M&NCenarius/2 (2007) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2977x1983, 694 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geyser User:M&NCenarius/2 (2007) ... Strokkur, or The Churn in Iceland, is a geyser that is situated in the geothermic region beside the Hvitá River in Iceland at . A group of steaming, hot water and bubbling mud is located in this area and the Stóri Geysir, or Great Gusher, once the most powerful geyser... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... The erupting Great Geysir Geysir (sometimes known as The Great Geysir), in the Haukadalur valley, Iceland, is the oldest known geyser and one of the worlds most impressive examples of the phenomenon. ... Haukadalur is a name shared by three valleys in Iceland. ...


The formation of geysers requires a favourable hydrogeology which exists in only a few places on Earth, and so they are fairly rare phenomena. About 1,000 exist worldwide, with about half of these in Yellowstone National Park, U.S..[1] Geyser eruptive activity may change or cease due to ongoing mineral deposition within the geyser plumbing, exchange of functions with nearby hot springs, earthquake influences, and human intervention.[2] Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the part of hydrology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earths crust, (commonly in aquifers). ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Erupting fountains of liquefied nitrogen have been observed on Neptune's moon Triton, as have possible signs of carbon dioxide eruptions from Mars' south polar ice cap. These phenomena are also often referred to as geysers. Instead of being driven by geothermal energy, they seem to rely on solar heating aided by a kind of solid-state greenhouse effect. On Triton, the nitrogen may erupt to heights of 8 km. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... Martian spiders are geological formations thus far unique to the south polar region of Mars. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...

Contents

Eruptions

1. Steam rises from heated water
2. Pulses of water swell upward
3. Surface is broken
4. Ejected water spouts upward and falls back

Geyser activity, like all hot spring activity, is caused by surface water gradually seeping down through the ground until it meets rock heated by magma. The geothermally heated water then rises back toward the surface by convection through porous and fractured rock. Geysers differ from noneruptive hot springs in their subterranean structure; many consist of a small vent at the surface connected to one or more narrow tubes that lead to underground reservoirs of water. This image (C) User:Pcb21, 2003. ... Download high resolution version (922x614, 63 KB)This image (C) User:Pcb21, 2003. ... Download high resolution version (922x614, 63 KB)This image (C) User:Pcb21, 2003. ... Download high resolution version (922x614, 66 KB)This image (C) User:Pcb21, 2003. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ...


As the geyser fills, the water at the top of the column cools off, but because of the narrowness of the channel, convective cooling of the water in the reservoir is impossible. The cooler water above presses down on the hotter water beneath, not unlike the lid of a pressure cooker, allowing the water in the reservoir to become superheated, i.e. to remain liquid at temperatures well above the boiling point. Pressure cooking is a method of cooking things at high heat without boiling them. ... In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, boiling delay, or defervescence) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its standard boiling point, without actually boiling. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...


Ultimately, the temperatures near the bottom of the geyser rise to a point where boiling begins; steam bubbles rise to the top of the column. As they burst through the geyser's vent, some water overflows or splashes out, reducing the weight of the column and thus the pressure on the water underneath. With this release of pressure, the superheated water flashes into steam, boiling violently throughout the column. The resulting froth of expanding steam and hot water then sprays out of the geyser hole. For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ...


Eventually the water remaining in the geyser cools back to below the boiling point and the eruption ends; heated groundwater begins seeping back into the reservoir, and the whole cycle begins again. The duration of eruptions and time between successive eruptions vary greatly from geyser to geyser; Strokkur in Iceland erupts for a few seconds every few minutes, while Grand Geyser in the U.S. erupts for up to 10 minutes every 8–12 hours. Strokkur, or The Churn in Iceland, is a geyser that is situated in the geothermic region beside the Hvitá River in Iceland at . A group of steaming, hot water and bubbling mud is located in this area and the Stóri Geysir, or Great Gusher, once the most powerful geyser... Grand Geyser during an eruption. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Types of geysers

Vixen Geyser in Yellowstone
Vixen Geyser in Yellowstone

There are two types of geysers: fountain geysers erupt from pools of water, typically in a series of intense, even violent, bursts; and cone geysers which erupt from cones or mounds of siliceous sinter (also known as geyserite), usually in steady jets that last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. Old Faithful, perhaps the best-known geyser at Yellowstone National Park, is an example of a cone geyser. Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo taken by Daniel Mayer and released under terms of the GNU FDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geyserite is a form of opaline silica that is often found around hot springs and geysers. ... There is also an erupting geothermal well near Calistoga, California. ...


The intense transient forces inside erupting geysers are the main reason for their rarity. There are many volcanic areas in the world that have hot springs, mud pots and fumaroles, but very few with geysers. This is because in most places, even where other necessary conditions for geyser activity exist, the rock structure is loose, and eruptions will erode the channels and rapidly destroy any nascent geysers. Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Fountain Paint Pots, Yellowstone National Park A mud pot (technically known as solfatare) is a hot spring or fumarole formed in high-temperature geothermal areas where water is in short supply. ... “Solfatara” redirects here. ...


Most geysers form in places where there is volcanic rhyolite rock which dissolves in hot water and forms mineral deposits called siliceous sinter, or geyserite, along the inside of the plumbing systems. Over time these deposits cement the rock together tightly, strengthening the channel walls and enabling the geyser to persist. This page is about a volcanic rock. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Geyserite is a form of opaline silica that is often found around hot springs and geysers. ...


Geysers are fragile phenomena and if conditions change, they can ‘die’. Many geysers have been destroyed by people throwing litter and debris into them; others have ceased to erupt due to dewatering by geothermal power plants. The Great Geysir of Iceland has had periods of activity and dormancy. During its long dormant periods, eruptions were sometimes humanly-induced — often on special occasions — by the addition of surfactants to the water. Inducing eruptions at Geysir is no longer done, as the forced eruptions were damaging the geyser's special plumbing system. Following an earthquake in Iceland in 2000 the geyser became somewhat more active again. Initially the geyser erupted about eight times a day. As of July 2003, Geysir erupts several times a week. Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... The erupting Great Geysir Geysir (sometimes known as The Great Geysir), in the Haukadalur valley, Iceland, is the oldest known geyser and one of the worlds most impressive examples of the phenomenon. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Hyperthermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park
Hyperthermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park

Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Image File history File links Aerial view of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park Image by NPS Photo - http://www. ... Grand Prismatic Spring. ...

Biology of geysers

Main article: Thermophile, Hyperthermophile.

The specific colours of geysers derive from the fact that despite the apparently harsh conditions, life is often found in them (and also in other hot habitats) in the form of thermophilic prokaryotes. No known eukaryote can survive over 60 °C (140 °F). This article is about a type of organism. ... Hyperthermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments - that is, hotter than around 60°C. The optimal temperatures are between 80°C and 110°C; in fact, the recently-discovered Strain 121 [1... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Thermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A thermophile is an organism – a type of extremophile – which thrives at relatively high temperatures, up to about 60 °C. Many thermophiles are archaea. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...


In the 1960s, when the research of biology of geysers first appeared, scientists were generally convinced that no life can survive above around 73 °C (163 °F)—the upper limit for the survival of cyanobacteria, as the structure of key cellular proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) would be destroyed. The optimal temperature for thermophilic bacteria was placed even lower, around 55 °C (131 °F). [citation needed] Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


However, the observations proved that it actually is possible for life to exist at high temperatures and that some bacteria prefer even temperatures higher than boiling point of water. Dozens of such bacteria are known nowadays.[citation needed] Thermophiles prefer temperatures from 50 to 70 °C whilst hyperthermophiles grow better at temperatures as high as 80 to 110 °C. As they have heat-stable enzymes that retain their activity even at high temperatures, they have been used as a source of thermostable tools, that are important in medicine and biotechnology, for example in manufacturing antibiotics, plastics, detergents (by the use of heat-stable enzymes lipases, pullulanases and proteases), and fermentation products (for example ethanol is produced).[citation needed] The fact that such bacteria exist also stretches our imagination about life on other celestial bodies, both inside and outside of solar system. Among these, the first discovered and the most important for biotechnology is Thermus aquaticus.[citation needed] H2O and HOH redirect here. ... This article is about a type of organism. ... Hyperthermophiles produce some of the bright colors of Grand Prismatic Spring, Yellowstone National Park A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments - that is, hotter than around 60°C. The optimal temperatures are between 80°C and 110°C; in fact, the recently-discovered Strain 121 [1... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. ... Pullulanase is a specific kind of glucanase, an amylolytic exoenzyme, that degrades pullulan. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... See lists of astronomical objects for a list of the various lists of astronomical objects in Wikipedia. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Binomial name Thermophilus aquaticus Brock & Freeze, 1969 Thermophilus aquaticus is a species of bacterium that can tolerate high temperatures; it is the source of the heat-resistant enzyme Taq DNA Polymerase, one of the most important enzymes in molecular biology because of its use in the polymerase chain reaction. ...


Numbers and distribution

Eruption of White Dome Geyser in Yellowstone
Eruption of White Dome Geyser in Yellowstone

Geysers are quite rare, requiring a combination of water, heat, and fortuitous plumbing. The combination exists in few places on Earth. The five largest geyser fields in the world are:[3] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ...

  1. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States, North America
  2. Dolina Geiserov, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, Asia - partially destroyed by a mudslide on June 3, 2007.
  3. El Tatio, Atacama Desert, Chile, South America
  4. Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand, Oceania
  5. Iceland, Europe

There used to be two large geysers fields in NevadaBeowawe and Steamboat Springs — but they were destroyed by the installation of nearby geothermal power plants. At the plants, geothermal drilling reduced the available heat and lowered the local water table to the point that geyser activity could no longer be sustained. There are more individual geysers around the world, in California, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Dominica, Azores, Kenya, Slovakia and Japan, but no other large clusters. Yellowstone redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Valley of Geysers The Valley of Geysers (Russian: ) is the only geyser field in Eurasia and the second largest concentration of geysers in the world. ... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Geyser of El-Tatio El Tatio Geyser Field (locally known as Los Géiseres del Tatio) is located within the Andes Mountains of northern Chile at 4,200 meters above mean sea level. ... Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, extending 966 km (600 mi) between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Thermally active area - Craters of the Moon, North Island, New Zealand. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Beowawe, Nevada is an unincorporated area and ghost town in Eureka County, Nevada in the United States. ... The Steamboat Springs were a collection of geysers located in northern Nevada. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi...


Yellowstone is the largest geyser locale, containing thousands of hot springs, and between three and five hundred geysers. Yellowstone includes the tallest active geyser (Steamboat Geyser in Norris Geyser Basin) and the renowned Old Faithful Geyser in Upper Geyser Basin. Major eruption, Steamboat Geyser, circa 1960s. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ... There is also an erupting geothermal well near Calistoga, California. ... The geothermal areas of Yellowstone include several geyser basins in Yellowstone National Park as well as other geothermal features such as hot springs (including mud pots) and fumaroles. ...


Many of New Zealand’s geysers have been destroyed by humans in the last century. Several New Zealand geysers have also become dormant or extinct by natural means. The main remaining field is Whakarewarewa at Rotorua. Two thirds of the geysers at Orakei Korako were flooded by the Ohakuri hydroelectric dam in 1961. The Wairakei field was lost to a geothermal power plant in 1958. The Taupo Spa field was lost when the Waikato River level was deliberately altered in the 1950s. The Rotomahana field was destroyed by the Mount Tarawera eruption in 1886. The Waimangu Geyser which existed from 1900 to 1904 was the largest geyser ever known. It ceased to erupt after a landslide covered its crater. Small numbers of geysers still exist at other places within the Taupo Volcanic Zone including Ketetahi, Tokaanu and Wai-O-Tapu. Whakarewarewa is a geothermal area within Rotorua city in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. ... The Rotorua Museum today. ... The Hidden Valley Orakei Korako (translated in English meaning “The Place of Adorning”), is a highly active geothermal area most notable for its series of fault-stepped sinter terraces, located in a valley north of Taupo on the banks of the Waikato River in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. ... Wairakei is just a few miles south of Taupo, in the central North Island of New Zealand, on the Waikato River. ... The Waikato River system The Waikato River is the longest river in New Zealand. ... Mount Tarawera is a volcanic mountain 24 kilometres southeast of Rotorua in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Waimangu Geyser was the most powerful geyser in the world, located in New Zealand. ... Wai-O-Tapu (Māori for “Sacred Waters”) is an active geothermal area in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. ...


Misnamed geysers

In a number of places where there is geothermal activity wells have been drilled and fitted with impermeable casements that allow them to erupt like geysers. Though these so-called artificial geysers, technically known as erupting geothermal wells, are not true geysers, they can be quite spectacular. Little Old Faithful Geyser, in Calistoga, California, is probably an erupting geothermal well.[citation needed] Coordinates: , Country State County Napa Incorporated 6 January 1886 Government  - Mayor Jack Gingles Area  - City  2. ...


Sometimes drilled cold-water wells erupt in a geyser-like manner due to the build-up of pressure from dissolved carbon dioxide in the water. These are not true geysers either, but are often called cold-water geysers. The best known of these is probably Crystal Geyser, near Green River, Utah.[4] Crystal Geyser is in Green River, Utah. ... Green River is a city in Utah. ...


A perpetual spouter is a natural hot spring that spouts water constantly. Some of these are incorrectly called geysers, but because they are not periodic in nature they are not considered true geysers.


Geysers on Triton

Dark streaks deposited by geysers on Triton

One of the great surprises of the Voyager 2 flyby of Neptune in 1989 was the discovery of geysers on its moon, Triton. Astronomers noticed dark plumes rising to some 8 km above the surface, and depositing material up to 150 km downstream. Dark streaks of geyser deposits on Triton. ... Dark streaks of geyser deposits on Triton. ... Trajectory Voyager 2 is an unmanned interplanetary spacecraft, launched on August 20, 1977. ... Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ...


All the geysers observed were located between 40° and 60°S, the part of Triton's surface close to the subsolar point. This indicates that solar heating, although very weak at Triton's great distance from the Sun, probably plays a crucial role. It is thought that the surface of Triton probably consists of a semi-transparent layer of frozen nitrogen, which creates a kind of greenhouse effect, heating the frozen material beneath it until it breaks the surface in an eruption. A temperature increase of just 4 K above the ambient surface temperature of 38 K could drive eruptions to the heights observed. Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Wikinews has related news: Scientists warn thawing Siberia may trigger global meltdown A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


Geothermal energy may also be important. Unusually for a major satellite, Triton orbits Neptune in a retrograde orbit—that is, in the opposite direction to Neptune's rotation. This generates tidal forces which are causing Triton's orbit to decay, so that in several billion years time it will reach its Roche limit [1] with Neptune. The tidal forces may also generate heat inside Triton, in the same way as Jupiter's gravity generates tidal forces on Io which drive its extreme volcanic activity. Prograde motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called direct motion, especially in astrology. ... Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after breaking up under the influence of Jupiters tidal forces. ... The Roche limit, sometimes referred to as the Roche radius, is the distance within which a celestial body held together only by its own gravity will disintegrate due to a second celestial bodys tidal forces exceeding the first bodys gravitational self-attraction. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ...


Each eruption of a Triton geyser may last up to a year, and during this time about 0.1 km³ of material may be deposited downwind. Voyager's images of Triton's southern hemisphere show many streaks of dark material laid down by geyser activity.


References

  1. ^ Glennon, J.A. 2007
  2. ^ Bryan, T.S. 1995
  3. ^ Glennon, J.A. and Pfaff R.M. 2003; Bryan 1995
  4. ^ Glennon, J.A. 2005; Glennon, J.A. and Pfaff, R.M. 2005
  • Bryan, T. Scott (1995). The geysers of Yellowstone. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-365-X
  • Glennon, J.A., Pfaff, R.M. (2003). The extraordinary thermal activity of El Tatio Geyser Field, Antofagasta Region, Chile, Geyser Observation and Study Association (GOSA) Transactions, vol 8. pp. 31-78.
  • Glennon, J.A. (2005). Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold Water Geysers, University of California, Santa Barbara. Originally posted February 12, 2004, last update 6 May 2005. Accessed 8 June 2007.
  • Glennon, J.A. (2007). About Geysers, University of California, Santa Barbara. Originally posted January 1995, updated June 4, 2007. Accessed 8 June 2007.
  • Glennon, J.A., Pfaff, R.M. (2005). The operation and geography of carbon-dioxide-driven, cold-water geysers, GOSA Transactions, vol. 9, pp. 184-192.
  • Kelly W.D., Wood C.L. (1993). Tidal interaction: A possible explanation for geysers and other fluid phenomena in the Neptune-Triton system, in Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: 789-790.
  • Rinehart, J.S. (1980) Geysers and Geothermal Energy. Springer-Verlag, 223 p.
  • Schreier, Carl (2003). Yellowstone's geysers, hot springs and fumaroles (Field guide) (2nd ed.). Homestead Pub. ISBN 0-943972-09-4
  • Soderblom L.A., Becker T.L., Kieffer S.W., Brown R.H., Hansen C.J., Johnson T.V. (1990). Triton's geyser-like plumes - Discovery and basic characterization. Science 250: 410-415.

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See also

This is an alphabetical list of notable geysers, a type of erupting hot spring. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Geyser

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
USGS Photo Glossary: geyser (186 words)
Most geysers are hot springs that episodically erupt fountains of scalding water and steam.
Some geysers erupt from cold or warm springs and are powered by gas pressure instead of the actual boiling of water.
Most of the world's geysers are near regions of volcanic activity, which supply the heat needed to boil shallow ground water.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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