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Encyclopedia > Gettysburg Battlefield
Gettysburg Map
Gettysburg Map

The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. It is now the site of two historic landmarks: Gettysburg National Military Park and the Gettysburg National Cemetery. The town was the center of a road network that connected ten nearby Pennsylvania and Maryland towns, including well-maintained turnpikes to Chambersburg, York, and Baltimore, so was a natural concentration point for the large armies that descended upon it. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... Adams County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... Chambersburg is a borough in Pennsylvania, United States. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... Baltimore redirects here. ...


To the northwest, a series of low, parallel ridges lead to the towns of Cashtown and Chambersburg. Seminary Ridge, closest to Gettysburg, is named for the Lutheran Theological Seminary on its crest. Farther out are McPherson's Ridge, Herr's Ridge, and eventually South Mountain. Oak Ridge, a northward extension of Seminary Ridge, is capped by Oak Hill, a site for artillery that commanded a good area north of the town. Seminary Ridge is a geographic feature immediately to the west of the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Image:Olddorm. ... Edward McPherson (July 31, 1830 – December 14, 1895) was a prominent Pennsylvania newspaperman, attorney, and United States Congressman. ... South Mountain is a long mountain ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains. ...


Directly south of the town is Cemetery Hill, at 503 feet (153 m) above sea level, a gentle 80 foot (24 m) slope above downtown. The hill is named for the Evergreen (civilian) cemetery on its crest; the famous military cemetery dedicated by Abraham Lincoln now shares the hill. Adjacent, due east, is Culp's Hill, of similar height, divided by a slight saddle into two recognizable hills, heavily wooded, and more rugged. Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill were subjected to assaults throughout the battle by Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps. Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in North America... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


Extending south from Cemetery Hill is a slight elevation known as Cemetery Ridge, although the term ridge is rather extravagant; it is generally only about 40 feet (12 m) above the surrounding terrain and tapers off before Little Round Top into low, wooded ground. At the northern end of Cemetery Ridge is a copse of trees and a low stone wall that makes two 90-degree turns; the latter has been nicknamed The Angle and The High Water Mark. This area, and the nearby Codori Farm on Emmitsburg Road, were prominent features in the progress of Pickett's Charge during the third day of battle, as well as General Richard H. Anderson's division assault on the second. A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...

Bird's-eye view of Gettysburg battlefield, showing positions of Union & Confederate armies during the battle, lithograph by John B. Bachelder.
Bird's-eye view of Gettysburg battlefield, showing positions of Union & Confederate armies during the battle, lithograph by John B. Bachelder.

Dominating the landscape are the Round Tops to the south. Little Round Top is a hill with a rugged, steep slope of 130 feet above nearby Plum Run (the peak is 550 feet (168 m) above sea level), strewn with large boulders; to its southwest, the area with the most significant boulders, some the size of living rooms, is known as Devil's Den. [Big] Round Top, known also to locals of the time as Sugar Loaf, is 116 feet higher than its Little companion. Its steep slopes are heavily wooded, which made it unsuitable for siting artillery without a large effort to climb the heights with horse-drawn guns and clear lines of fire; Little Round Top was unwooded, but its steep and rocky form made it difficult to deploy artillery in mass. However, Cemetery Hill was an excellent site for artillery, commanding all of the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge and the approaches to them. Little Round Top and Devil's Den were key locations for General John Bell Hood's division in Longstreet's assault during the second day of battle, July 2, 1863. The valley formed by Plum Run between the Round Tops and Devil's Den earned the name Valley of Death on that day. John B. Bachelder and his wife Elizabeth at the Gettysburg battlefield in 1890. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... Devils Den is the nickname for a terrain feature south of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that was the site of fierce fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. ... Big Round Top from the entrenchments on Little Round Top photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863 Big Round Top (also called Round Top or Sugar Loaf) is the dominating terrain feature on the southern part of the Gettysburg Battlefield in Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Northwest from the Round Tops, towards Emmitsburg Road, are the Wheatfield, Rose Woods, and the Peach Orchard. As noted by General Daniel E. Sickles in the second day of battle, this area is about 40 feet higher in elevation than the lowlands at the south end of Cemetery Ridge. These all figured prominently in General Lafayette McLaws's division assault during the second day of battle. Portrait of Daniel Sickles during the Civil War Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1825–May 3, 1914) was an American soldier, statesman and diplomat. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Preserving the battlefield

An undeveloped portion of the battlefield site
An undeveloped portion of the battlefield site

After the battle, the Army of the Potomac and the citizens of Gettysburg were left with appalling burdens. The battlefield was strewn with over 7,000 dead men and the houses, farms, churches, and public buildings were struggling to deal with 30,000 wounded men. The stench from the dead soldiers and from the thousands of animal carcasses was overwhelming. To the east of town, a massive tent city was erected to attempt medical care for the soldiers, which was named Camp Letterman after Jonathan Letterman, chief surgeon of the Army of the Potomac. Contracts were let with entrepreneurs to bury men and animals and the majority were buried near where they fell. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1455 KB) Gettysburg Battlefield, taken Fall 2005 by User:Staecker. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1455 KB) Gettysburg Battlefield, taken Fall 2005 by User:Staecker. ... Jonathan Letterman Jonathan K. Letterman was an American surgeon credited as being the originator of the modern methods for medical organization in armies. ...


Two individuals immediately began to work to help the town recover and to preserve the memory of those who had fallen: David Wills and David McConaughy, both attorneys living in Gettysburg. A week after the battle, Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin visited Gettysburg and expressed the state's interest in finding its veterans and giving them a proper burial. Wills immediately arranged for the purchase of 17 acres (69,000 m²) next to the Evergreen Cemetery, but the priority of burying Pennsylvania veterans soon changed to honoring all of the Union dead. David McConaughy (July 23, 1823 – 1902) was a noted attorney, cemetery president, and civic leader in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as well as a part-time intelligence officer for the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Andrew Gregg Curtin (1815 - 1894) was a U.S. political figure. ...


McConaughy was responsible for purchasing 600 acres (2.4 km²) of privately held land to preserve as a monument. His first priorities for preservation were Culp's Hill, East Cemetery Hill, and Little Round Top. On April 30, 1864, the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association was formed to mark "the great deeds of valor ... and the signal events which render these battlegrounds illustrious", and it began adding to McConaughy's holdings. In 1880, the Grand Army of the Republic took control of the Memorial Association and its lands. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Stephenson GAR Memorial, Washington, D.C. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. ...


On November 19, 1863, the Soldiers' National Cemetery was dedicated in a ceremony highlighted by Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. The night before, Lincoln slept in Wills's house on the main square in Gettysburg, which is now a landmark administered by the National Park Service. The cemetery was completed in March of 1864 with the last of 3,512 Union dead reburied. It became a National Cemetery on May 1, 1872, when control was transferred to the U.S. War Department. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The only confirmed photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The removal of Confederate dead from the field burial plots was not undertaken until seven years after the battle. From 1870 to 1873, upon the initiative of the Ladies Memorial Associations of Richmond, Raleigh, Savannah, and Charleston, 3,320 bodies were disinterred and sent to cemeteries in those cities for reburial, 2,935 being interred in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond. Seventy-three bodies were reburied in home cemeteries. Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... For other uses of this name, see Raleigh. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... A view of Hollywood Cemetery and Presidents Circle Hollywood Cemetery is a large, sprawling cemetery in Richmond, Virginia, characterized by rolling hills and winding paths overlooking the James River. ...


Tourism and commercial development

Since the battle, Gettysburg has been a prominent attraction for visitors. Immediately after the battle, thousands of relatives arrived in search of their dead and wounded. (This was possible only because Gettysburg was in Northern territory. No similar trips could be made by relatives to, say, Chancellorsville, Virginia.) After the war, due to its proximity to major eastern cities, Gettysburg was one of the most popular tourist destinations of all the battlefields. Commercial development followed this influx. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville...


In 1884, the Gettysburg and Harrisburg Railroad completed construction of a spur that ran from the town, over the field of Pickett's Charge, and to the eastern side of Little Round Top. The railroad purchased 13 acres (53,000 m²) of land at the terminus and established Round Top Park. The park hosted a pavilion, two wells with pumps, a full kitchen, a photography studio, and several other buildings. It was a popular tourist destination, but soon fell prey to problems that included alcohol abuse, prostitution, and gambling. In 1896, the railroad sold its property to the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission, but Round Top Park was not removed immediately. In 1913, a casino was added. During this period, its popularity increased with the number of visitors able to reach the battlefield by automobile. The train tracks were finally removed in 1939 and the pavilions and the dance hall were torn down. Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...


Another blight on the battlefield was the Gettysburg Electric Railway Company, owned by William H. Tipton. From 1894 until the government purchased back his property in 1917, his trolley cars left the town of Gettysburg, rode down Emmitsburg Road across the field of Pickett's Charge, through the Peach Orchard and the bloody Wheatfield, and terminated south of Little Round Top, near the area of Plum Run known since July 2, 1863, as the Slaughter Pen. Here the visitor found Tipton Park, another popular attraction. Both the trolley line and the railroad spur were located on private property, but right at the edge of sacred battlefield lands. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Yet another blight came in more modern times. The Gettysburg National Tower, soaring 393 feet (120 m) above private land on the edge of the battlefield, was erected in 1974 to the dismay of preservationists. Eventually the National Park Service obtained a court order to seize the tower under eminent domain, compensating the owners $3 million, and in a great public ceremony, the tower was demolished on July 3, 2000. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Prominent generals

Two Union generals who fought at Gettysburg played a prominent role in preservation. Samuel W. Crawford, who led the Pennsylvania Reserve Division in the V Corps had a great desire to promote his contributions to the battle. He purchased a 47 acre (190,000 m²) tract of land that included Devil's Den and the Valley of Death, and this area became known as Crawford Park. He promoted a scheme to build a prominent Memorial Hall on the top of Little Round Top, a building over 120 feet (37 m) long that would contain monuments and memorabilia of all of the individual Pennsylvania units that fought in that area. He angered battlefield preservationists by selling the right-of-way for the trolley line to Tipton for one dollar. Samuel W. Crawford Samuel Wylie Crawford (November 8, 1829 – November 3, 1892) was a U.S. Army surgeon and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ...


The second general was Daniel E. Sickles, critically wounded on July 2 commanding the III Corps. Sickles was a U.S. Congressman after the war and took a prominent role in establishing government control and funding of the battlefield as a National Military Park. At the 50th anniversary celebration in 1913, Sickles, the only still-surviving corps commander, was asked why there were no monuments in his honor on the battlefield. He replied, "Why Hell, the whole battlefield is my monument." Portrait of Daniel Sickles during the Civil War Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1825–May 3, 1914) was an American soldier, statesman and diplomat. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


History and monuments

Regimental monument on Little Round Top for the 20th Maine.
Regimental monument on Little Round Top for the 20th Maine.
Pennsylvania State Memorial, the largest monument on the battlefield. A viewing area at the top of the monument is accessible to visitors.
Pennsylvania State Memorial, the largest monument on the battlefield. A viewing area at the top of the monument is accessible to visitors.

The first efforts to chronicle the details of the battle were by historian John B. Bachelder of New Hampshire. He arrived on the field before many of the dead were buried and escorted convalescing officers around to pinpoint and sketch locations of important events. During the winter of 1863–64, he interviewed officers in every Union regiment and battery. Immediately after the war he invited over a thousand officers, including 49 generals, to revisit the field with him. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 769 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (999 × 779 pixel, file size: 485 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment monument, Little Round Top, Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 769 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (999 × 779 pixel, file size: 485 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment monument, Little Round Top, Gettysburg Battlefield, Gettysburg, Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a combat unit of the United States Army during the American Civil War, most famous for its defense of Little Round Top at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. ... John B. Bachelder and his wife Elizabeth at the Gettysburg battlefield in 1890. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


Wade Hampton, a Confederate cavalry general at Gettysburg, a governor of South Carolina, and then a U.S. Senator, was instrumental in authorizing $50,000 in government funds in 1880 to hire Bachelder to produce an official survey of the battlefield, accompanied by detailed maps that showed troop locations in each of the major phases of the battle. These maps were important, although ultimately not fully definitive, in recommending the placement of monuments on the field. Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


Bachelder's lengthy manuscript on the battle was not published at the time. Since he was reluctant to adjudicate conflicting claims from the veterans he interviewed, critics claimed that the manuscript was full of inconsistencies and redundancies. Since the Official Records were being published by the War Department at about the same time, Bachelder's work was filed away at the Park. In the 1990s, major editorial surgery was performed on the stored document and it was finally published.


On June 7, 1894, the U.S. Congress passed a law championed by Dan Sickles that gave the War Department the power to condemn land at Gettysburg so that it could be preserved. While all of the commercial development was going on, numerous veterans organizations were mounting volunteer efforts to preserve and memorialize the actions of their units on the battlefield. The first monument to be placed on the battlefield was in the National Cemetery in 1867, a marble urn dedicated to the 1st Minnesota Infantry, the gallant regiment that was virtually annihilated on Cemetery Ridge, July 2.[1] The first monument to be erected outside of the cemetery was on Little Round Top on August 1, 1878, when the Strong Vincent GAR Post of Erie, Pennsylvania, memorialized their namesake with a marble tablet on the spot where he was mortally wounded.[2] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Strong Vincent (1837-06-17–1863-07-07) was a lawyer who became famous as a U.S. Army officer during the fighting on Little Round Top at the American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, where he was mortally wounded. ... Stephenson GAR Memorial, Washington, D.C. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. ... “Erie” redirects here. ...


As the 25th anniversary of the battle approached, veterans groups stepped up the pace of erecting monuments and many of the state governments got into the act as well. By the 1890s, Gettysburg had one of the largest outdoor collections of bronze and granite statues anywhere in the world. For the Union side, virtually every regiment, battery, brigade, division, and corps has a monument, generally placed in the portion of the battlefield where that unit made the greatest contribution (as judged by the veterans themselves). Most regiments also have boundary markers placed to show their positions in defensive lines or in the starting lines for their assaults. The placements are not always definitive, due to sometimes faulty memories of the veterans or to the problems resulting from attempts to represent multiple days of battle fought on the same ground, most notably Cemetery Ridge. A slate boundary stone on Maesglase A boundary marker or boundary stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in a direction of a boundary. ...


The Confederates have few monuments on the battlefield, in comparison with those of the Union. There are several reasons why this is the case. First, the initial emphasis was to preserve the land on which the Union army fought, not the land held by the Confederates. Second, the Grand Army of the Republic, the Union veterans' association, strongly resisted such monuments. The Confederates had their own reservations. If they placed monuments on the field where the Union Army defeated them, would they be glorifying the Union victory? The Southerners who wanted to place monuments to the Confederate soldiers at Gettysburg did not have adequate money, due to Reconstruction and the effects of the war, to erect a monument for each regiment, as the Union veterans had done. Instead, the former Confederates erected state monuments. There are only two Confederate monuments inside the areas of battle held by the Union. The first is a plaque near the Angle commemorating Lewis A. Armistead's farthest advance on July 3. The second is a monument to the 2nd Maryland Infantry on Culp's Hill, renamed from its original designation of 1st Maryland because there was already a Union regiment by that name. This small number is partly due to Bachelder's strict requirement that monuments were only to be erected along lines of battle, only allowing small advance markers off the line. Stephenson GAR Memorial, Washington, D.C. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Lewis Addison Armistead (February 18, 1817 - July 5, 1863) was a brigadier general in the Army of the Confederate States of America. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


For both sides, the War Department erected numerous informative bronze plaques that describe the units, their leaders, and their contributions. There are over 1,600 monuments and markers on the field. Several of the monuments were created by noted sculptors and artists, including Caspar Buberl, James E. Kelly, Lee Lawrie, Randolph Rogers, Cyrus Dallin, Edward Potter, John Quincy Adams Ward, and Gutzon Borglum. Soldiers and Sailors Memorial, Hillsbobo, Ohio Caspar Buberl, American sculptor, born in 1834 in Königsberg, Bohemia, (now Kynsperk nad Ohrí in the Czech Republic) and died August 22, 1899 in New York City. ... Engraving by Kelly of George G. Meade and the Council of War at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. ... Grill work from Education Building, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Lee Oscar Lawrie (October 16, 1877 - January 23, 1963) was one of Americas foremost architectural sculptors and a key figure in the American art scene preceding World War II. His work includes the details on the Capitol building in Lincoln, Nebraska and... Randolph Rogers (July 6, 1825, Waterloo, New York – January 15, 1892) was an American sculptor. ... Appeal to the Great Spirit - a life-size bronze statue cast by Cyrus E. Dallin in 1909. ... Edward Clark Potter (November 26, 1857 - June 21, 1923) was an American sculptor. ... J.Q.A. Wards statue of George Washington (1882) in front of Federal Hall, New York John Quincy Adams Ward ( June 29, 1830 – 1910) was an American sculptor, who is most familiar for his colossal standing statue of Washington (illustration, right) on the steps of Federal Hall in Wall... Mt Rushmore, Black Hills, South Dakota (John) Gutzon Borglum (March 25, 1867 –March 6, 1941). ...


Park establishment

On February 11, 1895, President Grover Cleveland signed legislation sponsored by Dan Sickles that directed the War Department to establish Gettysburg National Military Park. It accepted from the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association a deed conveying ownership to over 800 acres (3.2 km²) and 300 monuments in the Park. In 1933, control passed to the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior, where it remains today. is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ... An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638. ... The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ...

Eternal Light Peace Memorial
Eternal Light Peace Memorial

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2137x1240, 788 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Gettysburg Battlefield Eternal flame User:Accurizer ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2137x1240, 788 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Gettysburg Battlefield Eternal flame User:Accurizer ...

Reunions

Although veterans returned many times over the years, there were two great reunions at the battlefield. For the 50th anniversary, in 1913, all honorably discharged veterans in the Grand Army of the Republic and the United Confederate Veterans were invited. Forty thousand accepted the invitation. The highlight of the event on July 3, 1913, was a reenactment of Pickett's Charge that reached the high water mark at "the Angle" only to be met across the wall by the outstretched hands of friendship from the Union survivors. Stephenson GAR Memorial, Washington, D.C. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. ... The United Confederate Veterans, also known as the UCV, was a veterans organization for former Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War, and was equivalent to the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) which was the organization for Union veterans. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


For the 75th anniversary, in 1938, there were only 8,000 known living veterans of the war. Of these, 1,845 veterans were able to attend—1,359 from the North and 486 from the South—although only 65 of them had been at the battle. Their average age was 94 and special arrangements had to be made to care for these elderly men. The highlight of this reunion was the lighting of the eternal flame and dedication of the Eternal Light Peace Memorial on Oak Hill by President Franklin D. Roosevelt the evening of July 3. The eternal flame at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier in Sofia, Bulgaria Eternal Flame is also a song originally performed by The Bangles. ... FDR redirects here. ...


Battlefield today

Gettysburg National Military Park
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Location Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA
Nearest city Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Coordinates 39°48′31″N 77°14′12″W / 39.80861, -77.23667
Area 5,990 acres (24.24 km²)
Established February 11, 1895
Visitors 1,666,365 (in 2006)
Governing body National Park Service

Today, the battlefield is administered by the National Park Service as the Gettysburg National Military Park. In addition to maintaining the 6,000 acres (24.3 km²) of park lands, 30 miles (50 km) of roads, and over 1,400 monuments and markers, and welcoming 2 million visitors annually, the NPS runs a Visitor Center and an attraction known as the Gettysburg Cyclorama, an enormous 360° painting of the battle completed in 1884 by French artist Paul Philippoteaux. These two buildings sit on the area known as Ziegler's Grove, covering a prime Union defensive position on Cemetery Hill, just to the west of the National Cemetery. However, a new visitor's center and building for the cyclorama have been built on land west of the Baltimore Pike at Hunt Avenue. The old buildings are to be demolished, and the land will be restored to its 1863 appearance. There will be a grand opening in September 2008 when the newly conserved Cyclorama painting will be completed.[3] The NPS also administers the Eisenhower National Historic Site, adjacent to the National Military Park. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Adams County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The Gettysburg National Military Park Cyclorama Center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is the home of the Battle of Gettysburg Cyclorama, a 360 degree circular oil-on-canvas painting that depicts Picketts Charge, the climactic Confederate attack on the Union center on July 3, 1863. ... The Eisenhower National Historic Site is the home and farm of General and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ...


Visitors to Gettysburg today will find that there is more wooded land than in 1863. The National Park Service has an ongoing program to restore portions of the battlefield to their historical non-wooded conditions, as well as to replant historic orchards and woodlots that are now missing. There are also considerably more roads and facilities for the benefit of tourists visiting the battlefield park.


Some large sections of the 1863 battlefield are not part of the Gettysburg National Military Park (predominantly Confederate positions), and many of these have been lost to modern development, including much of the area surrounding Cemetery Hill. Within the boundaries of the park itself, there are small pockets still in private hands.


References

  • Adelman, Garry E., and Smith, Timothy H., Devil's Den: A History and Guide, Thomas Publications, 1997, ISBN 1-57747-017-6.
  • Eicher, David J., Gettysburg Battlefield: The Definitive Illustrated History, Chronicle Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8118-2868-9.
  • Grimsley, Mark, and Simpson, Brooks D., Gettysburg: A Battlefield Guide, University of Nebraska Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8032-7077-1.
  • Hawthorne, Frederick W., Gettysburg: Stories of Men and Monuments, Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides, 1988, ISBN 0-9657444-0-X.
  • McPherson, James M., Hallowed Ground: A Walk at Gettysburg, Crown Publishers, 2003, ISBN 0-609-61023-6.
  • Unrau, Harlan D., Administrative History of Gettysburg National Military Park, National Park Service, 1991.
  • History of Gettysburg NMP

For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

External links

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) This department was established on July 1, 1995. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gettysburg Battlefield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2908 words)
The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time.
The first monument to be erected on the battlefield was in the National Cemetery in 1887, to the 1st Minnesota Infantry, the gallant regiment that was virtually annihilated on Cemetery Ridge, July 2.
It accepted from the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association a deed conveying ownership to over 800 acres (3.2 km²) and 300 monuments in the Park.
Gettysburg National Battlefield Museum Foundation (1284 words)
The Gettysburg Electric Railway Company had built a trolley line over the southern part of the battlefield, in the vicinity of the Round Tops and Devil’s Den, to carry tourists to these spots.
Although the Court at that time was quite conservative, it nevertheless ruled unanimously that Gettysburg was vested with such importance for the fact of the United States that the government had the right to "take possession of the field of battle, in the name and for the benefit of all the citizens of the country.
I believe in it because I have personally experienced the powerful intellectual and emotional impact the battlefield and the cemetery has on people who walk the ground where so many men gave their lives 140 years ago and are now at eternal rest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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