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Encyclopedia > Gettysburg Address
The only confirmed photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. To Lincoln's right is his bodyguard, Ward Hill Lamon.
The only confirmed photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. To Lincoln's right is his bodyguard, Ward Hill Lamon.

The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.[1] It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg. The only photo of Lincoln at Gettysburg, compliments of the US Library of Congress This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The only photo of Lincoln at Gettysburg, compliments of the US Library of Congress This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ward Hill Lamon (January 6, 1828 - May 7, 1893) was a personal friend and bodyguard of the American President Abraham Lincoln. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... American history redirects here. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...


Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens. It would also create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant, defined democracy in terms of government of the people, by the people, for the people, and defined republicanism in terms of freedom, equality and democracy. U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...


Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago," Lincoln referred to the events of the American Revolution and described the ceremony at Gettysburg as an opportunity not only to dedicate the grounds of a cemetery, but also to consecrate the living in the struggle to ensure that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.

Contents

Background

Union dead at Gettysburg, photographed by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, July 5–6, 1863.
Union dead at Gettysburg, photographed by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, July 5–6, 1863.

During the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), over 160,000 soldiers clashed in what would prove to be the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War, causing a major impact on both the course of the Civil War[2] and on the small town of Gettysburg itself, which in the 1860s numbered only 2,400 inhabitants.[3] The battlefield contained the bodies of more than 7,500 dead soldiers and several thousand horses of the Union's Army of the Potomac and the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, and the stench of rotting bodies in the humid July air was overpowering.[4] Download high resolution version (862x667, 63 KB)Incidents of the war. ... Download high resolution version (862x667, 63 KB)Incidents of the war. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Timothy H. OSullivan (c. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


Interring the dead in a dignified and orderly manner became a high priority for the few thousand residents of Gettysburg. Initially, the town planned to buy land for a cemetery and then ask the families of the dead to pay for their burial. However, David Wills, a wealthy 32-year-old attorney, objected to this idea and wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania, suggesting instead a National Cemetery to be funded by the states. Wills was authorized to purchase 17 acres (69,000 m²) for a cemetery to honor those lost in the summer's battle, paying $2,475.87 for the land.[5] Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ...

David Wills's letter inviting Abraham Lincoln to make a few remarks, noting that Edward Everett would deliver the oration.

Wills originally planned to dedicate this new cemetery on Wednesday, September 23, and invited Edward Everett, who had served as Secretary of State, U.S. Senator, U.S. Representative, Governor of Massachusetts, and president of Harvard University, to be the main speaker.[6] At that time, Everett was widely considered to be the nation's greatest orator.[7] In reply, Everett told Wills and his organizing committee that he would be unable to prepare an appropriate speech in such a short period of time, and requested that the date be postponed. The committee agreed, and the dedication was postponed until Thursday, November 19.[8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x750, 54 KB) Summary Page 2 of Judge David Wills written invitation to President Abraham Lincoln to speak at the dedication of the cemetary in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x750, 54 KB) Summary Page 2 of Judge David Wills written invitation to President Abraham Lincoln to speak at the dedication of the cemetary in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Almost as an afterthought, Wills and the event committee invited President Lincoln to participate in the ceremony. Wills's letter stated, "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks."[9] Lincoln received formal notice of his invitation to participate only seventeen days before the ceremony, while Everett had been invited months earlier: "Although there is some evidence Lincoln expected Wills's letter, its late date makes the author appear presumptuous...Seventeen days was extraordinarily short notice for presidential participation even by nineteenth-century standards."[10] Furthermore, Wills's letter "made it equally clear to the president that he would have only a small part in the ceremonies,"[11] perhaps akin to the modern tradition of inviting a noted public figure to do a ribbon-cutting at a grand opening. “Chief executive” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Lincoln arrived by train in Gettysburg on November 18, and spent the night as a guest in Wills's house on the Gettysburg town square, where he put the finishing touches on the speech he had written in Washington, D.C.[12] Contrary to popular belief, Lincoln neither completed his address while on the train nor wrote it on the back of an envelope.[13] This story is at odds with the existence of several early drafts on Executive Mansion stationery as well as the reports of Lincoln's final editing while a guest of David Wills in Gettysburg.[14] On the morning of November 19 at 9:30 A.M., Lincoln, astride a chestnut bay horse and riding between Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase,[15][16] joined in a procession with the assembled dignitaries, townspeople, and widows marching out to the grounds to be dedicated. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ...


Approximately 15,000 people are estimated to have attended the ceremony, including the sitting governors of six of the 24 Union states: Andrew Gregg Curtin of Pennsylvania, Augustus Bradford of Maryland, Oliver P. Morton of Indiana, Horatio Seymour of New York, Joel Parker of New Jersey, and David Tod of Ohio.[17] The precise location of the program within the grounds of the cemetery is disputed.[18] Reinterment of the bodies buried from field graves into the cemetery, which had begun within months of the battle, was less than half complete on the day of the ceremony.[19] Andrew Gregg Curtin (April 22, 1817 – October 7, 1894) was a U.S. lawyer and politician who served as Governor of Pennsylvania during the American Civil War. ... Augustus Williamson Bradford Augustus Williamson Bradford (January 9, 1806 – March 1, 1881), a Democrat, was the 32nd Governor of Maryland in the United States from 1862 to 1866. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton (August 4, 1823–November 1, 1877) was a U.S. politician of the Republican Party. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... This article is about the state. ... Joel Parker (November 24, 1816 – January 2, 1888) was an American politician, best known as the Governor of the State of New Jersey from 1863-1866 and from 1871-1874. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... David Tod (February 21, 1805 - November 13, 1868) was a politician from Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Program and Everett's "Gettysburg Oration"

Edward Everett delivered a two-hour Oration before Lincoln's few minutes of Dedicatory Remarks.
Edward Everett delivered a two-hour Oration before Lincoln's few minutes of Dedicatory Remarks.

The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ...

Music, by Birgfield's Band
Prayer, by Reverend T.H. Stockton, D.D.
Music, by the Marine Band
Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett
Music, Hymn composed by B.B. French, Esq.
Dedicatory Remarks, by the President of the United States
Dirge, sung by Choir selected for the occasion
Benediction, by Reverend H.L. Baugher, D.D.[9]

Everett's speech was the day's principal "Gettysburg address." His now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began:

Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed; — grant me, I pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy.[20]
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

And ended two hours later with: The Allegheny Mountain Range (also spelled Alleghany and Allegany) -- informally, the Alleghenies -- is part of the Appalachian Mountain Range of the eastern United States. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates the Battles of Gettysburg.[20]

Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

  • Gettysburg Address
    A modern recording of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Not long after those well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke in his high-pitched Kentucky accent for two or three minutes.[21] Lincoln's "few appropriate remarks" summarized the war in ten sentences and two hundred and seventy-two words. Image File history File links Gettysburg_by_Britton. ... // Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of to before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126). ...


Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure.[22][23] Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text.[24] Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by Lincoln before and after his speech. It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written.[25]

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

Lincoln's sources

Lincoln Speech Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Abraham Lincoln by Henry Kirke Brown. Erected at the Gettysburg Battlefield in 1912.
Lincoln Speech Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Abraham Lincoln by Henry Kirke Brown. Erected at the Gettysburg Battlefield in 1912.[26]

In a review of Garry Wills's book, Lincoln at Gettysburg, Civil War scholar James McPherson notes the parallels between Lincoln's speech and Pericles' Funeral Oration during the Peloponnesian War as described by Thucydides.[27] Pericles' speech, like Lincoln's, begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: "I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present"; then praises the uniqueness of the State's commitment to democracy: "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences"; honors the sacrifice of the slain, "Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger face to face"; and exhorts the living to continue the struggle: "You, their survivors, must determine to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier issue."[28][29] In contrast, writer Adam Gopnik, in The New Yorker, notes that while Everett's Oration was explicitly neoclassical, referring directly to Marathon and Pericles, "Lincoln’s rhetoric is, instead, deliberately Biblical. (It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in all of his speeches.) Lincoln had mastered the sound of the King James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and New Hampshire should be forever bound by a single post office sound like something right out of Genesis."[30] Regarding the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people," there are several theories advanced by Lincoln scholars to explain its origin. In a discussion "A more probable origin of a famous Lincoln phrase,"[31] in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Albert Shaw credits a correspondent with pointing out the writings of William Herndon, Lincoln's law partner, who wrote in the 1888 work Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life that he had brought to Lincoln some of the sermons of abolitionist minister Theodore Parker, of Massachusetts, and that Lincoln was moved by Parker's use of this idea: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 1385 KB) Summary C. John Chavis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 1385 KB) Summary C. John Chavis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A bust can be one of: Bust (sculpture), a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Henry Kirke Brown (born February 24, 1814 in Leyden, Massachusetts; died July 10, 1886 at Newburgh, New York) was an American sculptor. ... Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ... “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Adam Gopnik, an essayist and commentator, is primarily known for his work published by The New Yorker, for which he has written since 1986. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... William Henry Herndon was the law partner and biographer of Abraham Lincoln Works Life of Lincoln by Herndon with Jesse Weik Categories: Abraham Lincoln | Substubs ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... A minister can mean several things: A government minister is a politician who heads a government ministry A minister of religion is a member of the clergy A minister is the rank of diplomat directly below ambassador This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 - May 10, 1860) was a reforming American minister of the Unitarian church, and a Transcendentalist. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

"I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. One of these was a lecture on 'The Effect of Slavery on the American People'...which I gave to Lincoln, who read and returned it. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: 'Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people.'"[32]

Craig R. Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity", suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the Gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster, the "Second Reply to Hayne", in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"[33] Specifically, in this January 26, 1830 speech before the United States Senate, Webster described the Federal Government as: "made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people," foreshadowing Lincoln's "government of the people, by the people, for the people."[34] Webster also noted, "This government, Sir, is the independent offspring of the popular will. It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties."[35] The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... The Webster-Hayne debate was a famous debate in the U.S. between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place on January 19-27, 1830 regarding protectionist tariffs. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


Some have noted Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth," "conceived," and that shall not "perish." Others, including Allen C. Guelzo, the director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania,[36] suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the King James Version of the Bible's Psalms 90:10, in which man's lifespan is given as "threescore years and ten".[37][38] Allen C. Guelzo is the Henry R. Luce Professor of the Civil War Era at Gettysburg College. ... Gettysburg College is a private national four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, adjacent to the famous battlefield. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...


The five manuscripts

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address are each named for the associated person who received it from Lincoln. Lincoln gave a copy to each of his private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay.[13] Both of these drafts were written around the time of his November 19 address, while the other three copies of the address, the Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss copies, were written by Lincoln for charitable purposes well after November 19.[39][40] In part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated the Bliss Copy, it has become the standard text of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.[41] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... John George Nicolay (1832–1901) was an American (German-born) biographer. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ...


The two earliest drafts of the Address are associated with some confusion and controversy regarding their existence and provenance. Nicolay and Hay were appointed custodians of Lincoln's papers by Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln in 1874.[13] After appearing in facsimile in an article written by John Nicolay in 1894, the Nicolay copy was presumably among the papers passed to Hay by Nicolay's daughter Helen upon Nicolay's death in 1901. Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy in 1908, which resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John Hay—a copy now known as the "Hay Draft."[13] Robert Todd Lincoln (August 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926) was the first son of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Ann Todd. ... Insert non-formatted text here For the machine that sends, receives, and produces facsimiles, see fax. ...


The Hay Draft differed from the version of the Gettysburg Address published by John Nicolay in 1894 in a number of significant ways: it was written on a different type of paper, had a different number of words per line and number of lines, and contained editorial revisions in Lincoln's hand.[13]


Both the Hay and Nicolay copies of the Address are within the Library of Congress, encased in specially-designed, temperature-controlled, sealed containers with argon gas in order to protect the documents from oxidation and continued degeneration.[42] General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Nicolay Copy

The Nicolay Copy[43] is often called the "first draft" because it is believed to be the earliest copy that exists. Scholars disagree over whether the Nicolay copy was actually the reading copy Lincoln held at Gettysburg on November 19. In an 1894 article that included a facsimile of this copy, Nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to Gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive Mansion stationery, and that he had written the second page in pencil on lined paper before the dedication on November 19.[44] Matching folds are still evident on the two pages, suggesting it could be the copy that eyewitnesses say Lincoln took from his coat pocket and read at the ceremony.[45][46] Others believe that the delivery text has been lost, because some of the words and phrases of the Nicolay copy do not match contemporary transcriptions of Lincoln's original speech.[citation needed] The words "under God", for example, are missing in this copy from the phrase "that this nation (under God) shall have a new birth of freedom…" In order for the Nicolay draft to have been the reading copy, either the contemporary transcriptions were inaccurate, or Lincoln would have had to depart from his written text in several instances. This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in 1901, when it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay.[13] It is on permanent display as part of the American Treasures exhibition of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.[47] This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ...


Hay Copy

The Hay Copy, with Lincoln's handwritten corrections.
The Hay Copy, with Lincoln's handwritten corrections.

The existence of the Hay copy was first announced to the public in 1906, after the search for the "original manuscript" of the Address among the papers of John Hay brought it to light.[48] Significantly, it differs markedly from the manuscript of the Address described by John Hay in his article, and contains numerous omissions and inserts in Lincoln's own hand, including omissions critical to the basic meaning of the sentence, not simply words that would be added by Lincoln to strengthen or clarify their meaning. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x1031, 93 KB) Summary Image of the Hay Draft of the Gettysburg Address, in Abraham Lincolns handwriting, from the Library of Congress website, accessed December 16, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x1031, 93 KB) Summary Image of the Hay Draft of the Gettysburg Address, in Abraham Lincolns handwriting, from the Library of Congress website, accessed December 16, 2005. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


This version has been described by historian Garry Wills as "the most inexplicable of the five copies Lincoln made," and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft." The "Hay Copy" was made either on the morning of the delivery of the Address, or shortly after Lincoln's return to Washington. Those that believe that it was completed on the morning of his address point to the fact that it contains certain phrases that are not in the first draft but are in the reports of the address as delivered and in subsequent copies made by Lincoln. It is probable, they conclude, that, as stated in the explanatory note accompanying the original copies of the first and second drafts in the Library of Congress, Lincoln held this second draft when he delivered the address.[49] Lincoln eventually gave this copy to his other personal secretary, John Hay, whose descendants donated both it and the Nicolay copy to the Library of Congress in 1916. Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ...


Everett Copy

The Everett Copy,[50] also known as the "Everett-Keyes" copy, was sent by President Lincoln to Edward Everett in early 1864, at Everett's request. Everett was collecting the speeches given at the Gettysburg dedication into one bound volume to sell for the benefit of stricken soldiers at New York's Sanitary Commission Fair. The draft Lincoln sent became the third autograph copy, and is now in the possession of the Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield, Illinois, where it is currently on display in the Treasures Gallery of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. The United States Sanitary Commission was an official agency of the United States government, created by legislation signed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln on June 18, 1861, to coordinate the volunteer efforts of women who wanted to contribute to the war effort of the Union states during... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum looks at the life of the 16th U.S. President, Abraham Lincoln, and the course of the American Civil War. ...


Bancroft Copy

The Bancroft Copy of the Gettysburg Address was written out by President Lincoln in February 1864 at the request of George Bancroft, the most famous historian of his day.[51] Bancroft planned to include this copy in Autograph Leaves of Our Country's Authors, which he planned to sell at a Soldiers' and Sailors' Sanitary Fair in Baltimore. As this fourth copy was written on both sides of the paper, it proved unusable for this purpose, and Bancroft was allowed to keep it. This manuscript is the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln. This copy remained in the Bancroft family for many years, was sold to various dealers and purchased by Nicholas and Marguerite Lilly Noyes,[52] who donated the manuscript to Cornell in 1949. It is now held by the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections in the Carl A. Kroch Library at Cornell University.[49] It is the only one of the five copies to be privately owned.[53] George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Franking is also the passing of franking credits to shareholders in countries that have dividend imputation to reduce or eliminate double taxation of company profits. ... Cornell redirects here. ...


Bliss Copy

Discovering that his fourth written copy could not be used, Lincoln then wrote a fifth draft, which was accepted for the purpose requested. The Bliss Copy,[54] named for Colonel Alexander Bliss, Bancroft's stepson and publisher of Autograph Leaves, is the only draft to which Lincoln affixed his signature. Lincoln is not known to have made any further copies of the Gettysburg Address. Because of the apparent care in its preparation, and in part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated this copy, it has become the standard version of the address and the source for most facsimile reproductions of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.[41] A stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent marries someone new, whether the parent was widowed or divorced. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ...


This draft now hangs in the Lincoln Room of the White House, a gift of Oscar B. Cintas, former Cuban Ambassador to the United States.[49] Cintas, a wealthy collector of art and manuscripts, purchased the Bliss copy at a public auction in 1949 for $54,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a document at public auction.[55] Cintas' properties were claimed by the Castro government after the Cuban Revolution in 1959, but Cintas, who died in 1957, willed the Gettysburg Address to the American people, provided it would be kept at the White House, where it was transferred in 1959.[56] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Oscar B. Cintas, (b. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ...


Garry Wills concluded the Bliss Copy "is stylistically preferable to others in one significant way: Lincoln removed 'here' from 'that cause for which they (here) gave…' The seventh 'here' is in all other versions of the speech." Wills noted the fact that Lincoln "was still making such improvements," suggesting Lincoln was more concerned with a perfected text than with an 'original' one.


Contemporary sources and reaction

The New York Times article from November 20, 1863, indicates Lincoln's speech was interrupted five times by applause and was followed by "long continued applause."
The New York Times article from November 20, 1863, indicates Lincoln's speech was interrupted five times by applause and was followed by "long continued applause."[57]

Another contemporary source of the text is the Associated Press dispatch, transcribed from the shorthand notes taken by reporter Joseph L. Gilbert. It also differs from the drafted text in a number of minor ways.[58][59] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x1221, 229 KB) Summary Scanned image of the New York Times from November 20, 1863 reporting on the program and speeches at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in which President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x1221, 229 KB) Summary Scanned image of the New York Times from November 20, 1863 reporting on the program and speeches at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in which President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Applause (Latin applaudere, to strike upon, clap) is primarily the expression of approval by the act of clapping, or striking the palms of the hands together, in order to create noise; generally any expression of approval. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Eyewitness reports vary as to their view of Lincoln's performance. In 1931, the printed recollections of 87-year-old Mrs. Sarah A. Cooke Myers, who at the age of 19 was present, suggest a dignified silence followed Lincoln's speech: "I was close to the President and heard all of the Address, but it seemed short. Then there was an impressive silence like our Menallen Friends Meeting. There was no applause when he stopped speaking.";[60] The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ...


According to historian Shelby Foote, after Lincoln's presentation, the applause was delayed, scattered, and "barely polite."[61] In contrast, Pennsylvania Governor Curtin maintained, "He pronounced that speech in a voice that all the multitude heard. The crowd was hushed into silence because the President stood before them...It was so Impressive! It was the common remark of everybody. Such a speech, as they said it was!"[62] Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ... This is a list of Governors of Pennsylvania. ...


In an oft-repeated legend, Lincoln is said to have turned to his bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon and remarked that his speech, like a bad plow, "won't scour." According to Garry Wills, this statement has no basis in fact and largely originates from the unreliable recollections of Lamon.[9] In Garry Wills's view, "[Lincoln] had done what he wanted to do [at Gettysburg]." Ward Hill Lamon (January 6, 1828 - May 7, 1893) was a personal friend and bodyguard of the American President Abraham Lincoln. ...


In a letter to Lincoln written the following day, Everett praised the President for his eloquent and concise speech, saying, "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes."[63] Lincoln was glad to know the speech was not a "total failure."[64]


Other public reaction to the speech was divided along partisan lines. The next day the Chicago Times observed, "The cheek of every American must tingle with shame as he reads the silly, flat and dishwatery utterances of the man who has to be pointed out to intelligent foreigners as the President of the United States." In contrast, the New York Times was complimentary. A Massachusetts paper printed the entire speech, commenting that it was "deep in feeling, compact in thought and expression, and tasteful and elegant in every word and comma." Newspaper accounts were themselves not free of error, however; for example, the Times' coverage of the speech referred to the site of Lincoln's address as "Gettysburgh."[57] The Chicago Times was a newspaper in Chicago, Illinois. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Audio recollections

William R. Rathvon is the only known eyewitness of both Lincoln's arrival at Gettysburg and the address itself to have left an audio recording of his recollections.[65] One year before his death in 1939, Rathvon's reminiscences were recorded on February 12, 1938 at the Boston studios of radio station WRUL, including his reading the address, itself, and a 78 rpm record was pressed. The title of the 78 record was "I Heard Lincoln That Day - William R. Rathvon, TR Productions." A copy wound up at National Public Radio during a "Quest for Sound" project in 1999. NPR continues to air them around Lincoln's birthday. William Roedel Rathvon, CSB, (1854–1939), is the only known eye-witness to Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address to have left an audio recording in 1938, one year before his death, of his impressions of that experience. ... NPR redirects here. ...


Photographs

The only known and confirmed photograph of Lincoln at Gettysburg, taken by photographer David Bachrach[66] was identified in the Mathew Brady collection of photographic plates in the National Archives and Records Administration in 1952. While Lincoln's speech was short and may have precluded multiple pictures of him while speaking, he and the other dignitaries sat for hours during the rest of the program. Given the length of Everett's speech and the length of time it took for 19th century photographers to get "set up" before taking a picture, it is quite plausible that the photographers were ill prepared for the brevity of Lincoln's remarks. Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


In 2006, another photo from the Library of Congress web site was identified as potentially showing President Lincoln on horseback on the day of the ceremony. If the tall, bearded man in the distance wearing a top hat is in fact Lincoln it would be only the second known photograph of Lincoln taken on the day of his historic speech.[67] Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Usage of "under God"

The words "under God" do not appear in the Nicolay and Hay drafts but are included in the three later copies (Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss). Accordingly, some skeptics maintain that Lincoln did not utter the words "under God" at Gettysburg.[68] However, at least three reporters telegraphed the text of Lincoln's speech on the day the Address was given with the words "under God" included: Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...

"Every stenographic report, good, bad and indifferent, says 'that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of freedom.' There was no common source from which all the reporters could have obtained those words but from Lincoln's own lips at the time of delivery. It will not do to say that [Secretary of War] Stanton suggested those words after Lincoln's return to Washington, for the words were telegraphed by at least three reporters on the afternoon of the delivery."[69] The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ...

The reporters present included Joseph Gilbert, from the Associated Press; Charles Hale, from the Boston Advertiser[70]; John R. Young, from the Philadelphia Press (and future Librarian of Congress); and reporters from the Cincinnati Commercial;[71], New York Tribune,[72] and New York Times.[73] Charles Hale "had notebook and pencil, and as Lincoln spoke very slowly, Mr. Hale was positive that he caught every word.[74] He took down what he declared was the exact language of Lincoln’s address, and his declaration was as good as the oath of a court stenographer. His associates confirmed his testimony, which was received, as it deserved to be at its face value."[75] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... John Russell Young John Russell Young (November 20, 1840 – January 17, 1899) an American journalist, author, diplomat, and the seventh Librarian of Congress, serving from 1897 to 1899. ... The Philadelphia Press (The Press) was published from August 1, 1857 to October 1, 1920. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is one of four official national libraries of the United States (along with the National Library of Medicine, National Agricultural Library, and National Archives and Records Administration). ...

Legacy

The words of the Gettysburg Address can be seen carved into the south wall of the interior of the Lincoln Memorial, designed by Henry Bacon and sculpted and painted by Daniel Chester French and Jules Guerin, respectively.
The words of the Gettysburg Address can be seen carved into the south wall of the interior of the Lincoln Memorial, designed by Henry Bacon and sculpted and painted by Daniel Chester French and Jules Guerin, respectively.

The importance of the Gettysburg Address in the history of the United States is underscored by its enduring presence in American culture. In addition to its prominent place carved into a stone cella on the south wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., the Gettysburg Address is frequently referred to in works of popular culture, with the implicit expectation that contemporary audiences will be familiar with Lincoln's words. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5978x5544, 6143 KB) The Lincoln Memorial is dramatically lit by a combination of sunlight streaming in the east facing opening which is obstructed, reflected, and scattered by the marble columns and walls and the dim and moody illumination which enters through... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (5978x5544, 6143 KB) The Lincoln Memorial is dramatically lit by a combination of sunlight streaming in the east facing opening which is obstructed, reflected, and scattered by the marble columns and walls and the dim and moody illumination which enters through... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Lincoln Memorial Henry Bacon (November 28, 1866 – February 17, 1924) an American Beaux-Arts architect, is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–1922), which was his final project. ... Daniel Chester French Signature, Daniel Chester French (April 20, 1850 – October 7, 1931) was an American sculptor. ... Jules Guerin (1866-1946), American muralist, painter and illustrator. ... Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


In the many generations that have passed since the Address, it has remained among the most famous speeches in American history.[76] Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is itself referenced in another of those famed orations, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. Standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963, King began with a reference to President Lincoln and his enduring words: "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice." Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ...


Bibliography

  • Barton, William E. (1950). Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say; What He Said; What he was Reported to have Said; What he Wished he had Said. New York: Peter Smith.
  • Boritt, Gabor (2006). The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows
  • Gramm, Kent. (2001) November: Lincoln's Elegy at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34032-2.
  • Herndon, William H. and Welk, Jesse W. (1892) Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life (Vol II). New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  • Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr. (1983) A New Birth of Freedom: Lincoln at Gettysburg.
  • Lafantasie, Glenn. "Lincoln and the Gettysburg Awakening." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 1995 16(1): 73–89. Issn: 0898-4212
  • McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • McPherson, James M. (1996). Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509679-7
  • Murphy, Jim. (1992) The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books.
  • Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. (1944). Great Stories from Great Lives. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 083692018X
  • Rawley, James A. (1966). Turning Points of the Civil War. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8935-9.
  • Reid, Ronald F. "Newspaper Responses to the Gettysburg Addresses." Quarterly Journal of Speech 1967 53(1): 50–60. Issn: 0033-5630.
  • Sauers, Richard A. (2000) "Battle of Gettysburg." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Selzer, Linda. "Historicizing Lincoln: Garry Wills and the Canonization of the 'Gettysburg Address." Rhetoric Review Vol. 16, No. 1 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 120–137.
  • Simon, et al., eds. (1999) The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company. ISBN 1-882810-37-6
  • White, Ronald C. Jr. (2005) The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9
  • Wieck, Carl F. (2002) Lincoln's Quest for Equality: The Road to Gettysburg.
  • Wills, Garry. (1992) Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America.
  • Wilson, Douglas L. (2006). Lincoln's Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words.

Notes

  1. ^ Historian James McPherson has called it "The most eloquent expression of the new birth of freedom brought forth by reform liberalism.", in McPherson, James M. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 185. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  2. ^ Rawley, p. 147. Sauers, p. 827. McPherson, p. 665; McPherson cites the combination of Gettysburg and Vicksburg as the turning point.
  3. ^ "Yes, there was a Gettysburg before the 1863 battle.". Retrieved on 2007-11-27. Dobbin House, Inc., 2006.
  4. ^ Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books, 1992, p. 97. Amazon Books. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  5. ^ Murphy, pp. 98-99.
  6. ^ American Treasures of the Library of Congress. "An Official Invitation to Gettysburg (Top Treasure).". Retrieved on 2007-11-23. December 5, 2002.
  7. ^ Numerous biographical sources describe Everett as a famed orator e.g. his official biographical profile by the State of Massachusetts notes he was "Recognized for his intellect and oratorical skill."[1] Encarta observes that "his orations, including the one he delivered before Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, were published in four volumes (1850-1892).[2] A biography at the Harvard Square Library describes him as "the most prominent orator of his day."[3]
  8. ^ "Asked in September to deliver the oration...Everett had said that he could not possibly be ready until November 19." Gramm, Kent. November: Lincoln's Elegy at Gettysburg, Indiana University Press. Bloomington: 2001. p. 119 ISBN 0-253-34032-2. Amazon Books. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 24–5, p. 35, pp. 34–5, p. 36.
  10. ^ American Treasures of the Library of Congress. "An Official Invitation to Gettysburg (Top Treasure).". Retrieved on 2007-11-23. December 5, 2002.
  11. ^ American Treasures of the Library of Congress. "An Official Invitation to Gettysburg (Top Treasure).". Retrieved on 2007-11-23. December 5, 2002.
  12. ^ Abraham Lincoln in the Wills House Bedroom at Gettysburg. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Johnson, Martin P. (Summer 2003). "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24 (2): 1–19. 
  14. ^ The Lincoln Museum: Lincoln urban legends debunked. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  15. ^ Abraham Lincoln at the Gettysburg Town Square. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  16. ^ Saddle Used by Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  17. ^ The New York Times, November 20, 1863, p.1. "THE HEROES OF JULY.; A Solemn and Imposing Event. Dedication of the National Cemetery at Gettysburgh.". Full article in PDF available here.
  18. ^ Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg Cemetery. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  19. ^ getaddinfo. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  20. ^ a b Edward Everett's complete "Gettysburg Oration". Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  21. ^ Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg, New York: Clarion Books, 1992. p. 105, "with a pronounced Kentucky accent." Google Book search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  22. ^ Gopnik, Adam. "Lincoln's language and its legacy.". Retrieved on 2007-11-23. Gopnik notes, Gabor Boritt, in his book The Gettysburg Gospel, has a thirty-page appendix that compares what Lincoln (probably) read at the memorial with what people heard and reported. Most of the differences are small, and due to understandable confusions...A few disputes seem more significant."
  23. ^ Also note Johnson's reference that "In 1895 Congress had voted to place at Gettysburg a bronze tablet engraved with the address but had mandated a text that does not correspond to any in Lincoln's hand or to contemporary newspaper accounts. The statute is reprinted in Henry Sweetser Burrage, Gettysburg and Lincoln: The Battle, the Cemetery, and the National Park (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906), 211."
  24. ^ Borrit, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows., Appendix B p. 290: "This is the only copy that...Lincoln dignified with a title: 'Address delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg.', a rare full signature, and the date: 'November 19, 1863.' ..This final draft, generally considered the standard text, remained in the Bliss family until 1949." Google Book search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  25. ^ op.cit.
  26. ^ Loski, Diana. "A Visit to Gettysburg’s National Cemetery:Ten Places of Interest". Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
  27. ^ McPherson, James (July 16, 1992). "The Art of Abraham Lincoln". The New York Review of Books 39 (13). 
  28. ^ Pericles' Funeral Oration from Thucydides: Peloponnesian War. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  29. ^ The New York Review of Books: The Art of Abraham Lincoln. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  30. ^ Gopnik, op. cit.
  31. ^ Shaw, Albert, ed. The American Monthly Review of Reviews. Vol. XXIII, January-June 1901. New York: The Review of Reviews Company, 1901. p. 336. Google Book search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  32. ^ Herndon, William H. and Jesse W. Welk. Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1892. Vol II., p 65. Google Book search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  33. ^ Smith, Craig. American Communication Journal. Volume 4, Issue 1, Fall 2000. "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity". Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  34. ^ The Second Reply to Hayne (January 26–27, 1830). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  35. ^ op.cit.
  36. ^ Guelzo, Allen C. "When the Court lost its Conscience.". Retrieved on 2006-11-26. The Wall Street Journal, November 24, 2006.
  37. ^ H-Net Review: Daniel J. McInerney. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  38. ^ Guelzo, Allen C. (1999). Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-3872-3. 
  39. ^ Rao, Maya. Cornell Daily Sun, April 6, 2005. "C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address.". Retrieved on 2007-11-23.: "Several months after President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg address, renowned historian George Bancroft attended a reception at the White House. There, he asked Lincoln for a hand-written copy of the address, and that manuscript is now the highlight of Cornell University Library's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections." "[Visitors]...can also see the letter Lincoln enclosed when he mailed the copy to Bancroft, which is dated Feb. 29, 1864."
  40. ^ White, Ronald C. Jr. The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9 Appendix 9, p. 390: "The Bliss copy...Lincoln made in March 1864...The Everett and Bancroft copies, both of which Lincoln made in February 1864." Amazon Books. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  41. ^ a b Borrit, Gabor. "In Lincoln's Hand.". Retrieved on 2007-11-23.Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2006.
  42. ^ Preservation of the drafts of the Gettysburg Address at the Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  43. ^ Library of Congress website, Nicolay Copy, page 1, page 2
  44. ^ Nicolay, J. "Lincoln's Gettysburg Address," Century Magazine 47 (February 1894): 596–608, cited by Johnson, Martin P. "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address," Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24(2) (Summer 2003): 1–19.
  45. ^ Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. Great Stories from Great Lives Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 083692018X, p. 13: "The Cincinnati Commercial reporter wrote 'The President rises slowly, draws from his pocket a paper...[and] reads the brief and pithy remarks." Google Book search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  46. ^ "The Gettysburg Address drafts.". Retrieved on 2007-11-26. Library of Congress online exhibit.
  47. ^ Library of Congress website, Top Treasures of the American Treasures exhibition
  48. ^ Library of Congress website, Hay Copy, page 1, page 2
  49. ^ a b c Gettysburg National Military Park Historical Handbook website, http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/misc/gettysburg/g2.htm GNMP website]
  50. ^ Virtual Gettysburg website, Everett Copy
  51. ^ Cornell University Library website, Bancroft Copy cover letter, Bancroft Copy, page 1, page 2
  52. ^ Founding Collections. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. Cornell University Library.
  53. ^ The Cornell Daily Sun - C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address Manuscript. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  54. ^ Illinois Historic Preservation Agency website, Bliss Copy, page 1, page 2, page 3
  55. ^ Oscar B. Cintas foundation website.. Retrieved on 2005-12-23.
  56. ^ Boritt, Gabor. The Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2006, page D6. "Change of Address: The Gettysburg Drafts". Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  57. ^ a b Now, Via 'NYT' Online Archives: How Did Paper Cover the "Gettysburg Address"?, a September 2006 Editor & Publisher article
  58. ^ Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The World's Famous Orations Vol. IX. America: II. (1818–1865). V. The Speech at Gettysburg by Abraham Lincoln.. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  59. ^ History/Archives: The Associated Press. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  60. ^ Recollections of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  61. ^ Foote, Shelby (1958). The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian. Random House. ISBN 0-394-49517-9. 
  62. ^ Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg Cemetery (See above). Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  63. ^ Simon, et al., eds. The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 1-882810-37-6, p.41 Amazon Books. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  64. ^ op. cit.
  65. ^ 21 Minute audio recording of William R. Rathvon's audio recollections of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address recorded in 1938. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  66. ^ History of Bachrach photography studio. Retrieved on 2005-12-19.
  67. ^ WGAL News, "Historic Gettysburg Photo May Contain Lincoln's Image". Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
  68. ^ Cliff Walker, editor of Positive Atheism Magazine [4]; James Randi, the noted skeptic: "The Gettysburg address...is often given as the source of the addition to the Pledge of Allegiance that we often hear, that phrase, 'under God.' Wrong."[5]
  69. ^ Barton, pp. 138–139
  70. ^ Prochnow, p. 14
  71. ^ Prochnow, p. 13
  72. ^ Prochnow, p. 15
  73. ^ Prochnow, p. 15
  74. ^ Prochnow, p. 14: "Charles Hale...had notebook and pencil in hand, took down the slow-spoken words of the President."
  75. ^ Barton, p. 81
  76. ^ United States Department of State, "Famous Speeches". Retrieved on 2007-11-27.

For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... E&P redirects here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Library of Congress, Gettysburg Address exhibit
  • Bancroft Copy at Carl A. Kroch Library of Cornell University [6]
  • Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) Gettysburg Historical Handbook
  • Lincoln Legends debunked at urban legends debunked The Lincoln Museum
  • Dramatic readings of the Gettysburg Address by American celebrities. [7]
  • Cornell University Library exhibit on Contemporary newspaper reactions.
  • NPR presentation of William V. Rathvon's audio recollections, 6 min. version,21 min. version

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gettysburg Address - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3948 words)
The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted famous speeches in United States history.
This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in 1901, when it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay, and after years of being lost to the public, it was reported found in March 1916.
The importance of the Gettysburg Address in the history of the United States is underscored by its enduring prllson's 1957 musical, The Music Man, in which the Mayor of River City consistently begins speaking with the words "Four score.
Gettysburg Address - MSN Encarta (369 words)
Gettysburg Address, famous speech delivered by United States president Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
He presented it at the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery, honoring those who died in the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg earlier that year.
This brief discourse followed a two-hour oration by Edward Everett, the main speaker at the event and one of the most famous speakers of the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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