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Encyclopedia > Getae

The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (today's southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. This was in the hinterland of Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast, bringing the Getae into contact with the ancient Greeks from an early date. The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ...

Contents

Early history

From the 7th century BC onwards the Getae came into economic and cultural contact with the Greeks, who were establishing colonies on the western side of Pontus Euxinus, nowadays the Black Sea. The Getae are mentioned for the first time together in Herodotus (4.93-97) in his narrative of the Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513 BC. According to Herodotus, the Getae differed from other Thracian tribes in their religion, centered around the god (daimon) Zamolxis whom some of the Getae called Gebeleizis. Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Detail of the main fresco of the Aleksandrovo kurgan. ... Gebeleizis (or Nebeleizis) was the god of lightning and the horizon for the Dacians. ...


During the period that the Odrysian kingdom flourished between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC, the Getae were mostly under Odryssian rule, serving them militarily, especially as cavalry, for which they were famous. After the disintegration of the Odrysian kingdom, smaller Getic principalities began to consolidate themselves. The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Before setting out on his Persian expedition, Alexander the Great defeated the Getae and razed one of their settlements[1]. In 313, the Getae formed an alliance with Callatis, Odessos, and other western Pontic Greek colonies against Lysimachus, who held a fortress at Tirizis (modern Kaliakra) [2]. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Callatis was a Roman town which is modern Mangalia in Romania today. ... This article is about a city in Bulgaria. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Location of Kaliakra Kaliakra is a long and narrow headland on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located 12 km east of Kavarna and 60 km northeast of Varna. ...


The Getae flourished especially in the first half of the third century BC. By about 200 BC, the authority of the Getic prince Zalmodegicus stretched as far as Histria, as a contemporary inscription show [1] Other strong princes included Zoltes and Rhemaxos (about 180 BC). Several Getic rulers minted their own coins. The ancient authors Strabo (16.2.38-39) and Cassius Dio (68.9) say that Getae practiced ruler cult, and this is confirmed by archaeological remains.


In 72/1 BC, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus became the first Roman commander to march against the Getae. This was done to strike at the western Pontic allies of Mithridates VI, but he had limited success. A decade later, a coalition of Scythians, Getae, Bastarnae and Greek colonists defeated C. Antonius Hybrida at Histria (Liv. per. 103; Cass. Dio 38.10.1-3). This victory over the Romans allowed Byrebista to dominate the region for a short period (60-50 BC). Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus (c. ... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis...


Augustus aimed at subjugating the entire Balkan peninsula, and used an incursion of the Bastarnae across the Danube as a pretext to devastate the Getae and Thracians. He put M. Licinius Crassus in charge of the plan. In 29 BC, Crassus defeated the Bastarnae with the help of the Getic prince Rholes (Cass. Dio 52.24.7, 26.1). Crassus promised him help for his support against the Getic ruler Dapyx (Cass. Dio 51.26). After Crassus had reached as far the Danube delta, Rholes was appointed king and returned to Rome. In 16 BC, the Sarmatae invaded the Getic territory and were driven back by Roman troops (Cass. Dio 54.20.1-3). The Getae were placed under the control of the Roman vassal king in Thrace, Rhoemetalces I. In AD 12 and 15 these garrisons were fortified with Roman troops. In AD 45 the province of Moesia was founded. Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...


Getae and Dacians

There is dispute among scholars regarding the nature of the relations of the Getae with the Dacians. Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ...


Several sources from the Antiquity claim the ethnic or linguistic identity of the two people. In his Geographia, Strabo wrote about the two tribes speaking the same language[3]. Justin considers the Dacians are the successors of the Getae.[2]. In his Roman history, Cassius Dio shows the Dacians to live on both sides of the Lower Danube, the ones south of the river (today's northern Bulgaria), in Moesia, and are called Moesians, while the ones north of the river are called Dacians. He argues that the Dacians are "either Getae or Thracians of Dacian race" (51.22)[4] but also stresses the fact that he calls the Dacians with the name used "by the natives themselves and also by the Romans" and that he is "not ignorant that some Greek writers refer to them as Getae, whether that is the right form or not" (67.6)[5]. Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... The Geographika is an extensive work by Strabo, spanning 17 volumes, and can be regarded as an encyclopedia of the geographical knowledge of his time; except for parts of Book 7, it has come down to us complete. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In accordance with these testimonies some Romanian and Bulgarian scholars[3] developed hypotheses and theories arguing for common cultural, ethnical or linguistical features in the space north of Haemus mountains where both the populations of Dacians and of Getae were located. The linguist Ivan Duridanov identified a "Dacian linguistic area" [4] in Dacia, Scythia Minor, Lower Moesia and Upper Moesia. The archaeologist Mircea Babeş speaks of a "veritable ethno-cultural unity" between the Getae and the Dacians while the historian and archaeologist Alexandru Vulpe finds a remarkable uniformity of the Geto-Dacian culture.[5] There were also studies on Strabo's reliability and sources.[6] In earlier times the Balkan mountains were known as the Haemus Mons. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... In ancient geography, Moesia was bounded to the south by Balkan (Haemus) and Å ar (Scardus, Scordus, Scodrus) mountains, to the west by the Drina river (Drinus, on the north by the Danube and on the east by the Euxine. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ...


Some of these interpretation have echoed in other historiographies.[7]


The Romanian historian of ideas and historiographer Lucian Boia states: "At a certain point, the phrase Geto-Dacian was coined in the Romanian historiography to suggest a unity of Getae and Dacians" [8]. Lucian Boia takes a skeptical position and argues the ancient writers distinguished among the two people, treating them as two distinct groups of the Thracian ethnos.[8][9] Boia contends that it would be naive to assume Strabo knew the Thracian dialects so well,[8] alleging that Strabo had "no competence in the field of Thracian dialects".[9] He also stresses that some Romanian authors cited Strabo indiscriminately.[9] The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


His position was supported by other scholars. The historian and archaeologist G. A. Niculescu also criticized the Romanian historiography and the archaeological interpretation, particularily on the "Geto-Dacian" culture. [10]


Culture

According to Herodotus (4.93), the Getae were "the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes." When the Persians, led by Darius the Great, campaigned against the Scythians, the Thracian tribes in the Balkans surrendered to Darius on his way to Scythia, and only the Getae offered resistance (Herod. 4.93). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3026 KB) Reproduction of the Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3026 KB) Reproduction of the Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2,5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, which is located 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in the northeast of Bulgaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice concerns the proper ordering of things and persons within a society. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


One episode from the history of the Getae is attested by several ancient writers (Strabo[6], Pausanias[7], Diodorus Siculus). When Lysimachus tried to subdue the Getae he was defeated by them. The Getae king, Dromichaetes, took him prisoner but he treated him well and convinced Lysimachus there is more to gain as an ally than as an enemy of the Getae and released him. According to Diodorus, Dromichaetes entertained Lysimachus at his palace at Helis, where food was served on gold and silver plates. The discovery of the celebrated tomb at Sveshtari (1982) suggests that Helis was located perhaps in its vicinity[11], where remains of a large antique city are found along with dozens of other Thracian mound tombs. Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Dromichaetes was ruler of the Getae north of Danube (present day Romania) around 300 BC. His capital was named Helis and was probably somewhere in the Romanian Plain (in Wallachia). ... Thracian tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2. ...


The Getae's two principal[citation needed] gods were Zalmoxis and Gebeleixis. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Detail of the main fresco of the Aleksandrovo kurgan. ... Gebeleizis (or Nebeleizis) was the god of lightning and the horizon for the Dacians. ...

"This same people, when it lightens and thunders, aim their arrows at the sky, uttering threats against the god; and they do not believe that there is any god but their own." - Herodotus, 4.94.

Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia mentions[8] a tribe called the Tyragetae, apparently a Daco-Thracian tribe[citation needed] who dwelt by the river Tyras (the Dniester). Their tribal name appears to be a combination of Tyras and Getae. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A thunderstorm over Piracicaba, Brazil. ... Traditional target arrow and replica medieval arrow. ... A typical daytime sky. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: , translit. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ...


Legacy

At the close of the fourth century CE, Claudian, court poet to the emperor Honorius and the patrician Stilicho, habitually uses the ethnonym Getae to refer poetically[citation needed] to the Visigoths. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


During 5th and 6th centuries several writers (Marcellinus Comes, Orosius, John Lydus, Isidore of Seville, Procopius of Caesarea) used the same ethnonym Getae to name populations invading the Eastern Roman Empire (Goths, Gepids, Kutrigurs, Slavs). For instance, in the third book of the History of the Wars Procopius details: "There were many Gothic nations in earlier times, just as also at the present, but the greatest and most important of all are the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepaedes. In ancient times, however, they were named Sauromatae and Melanchlaeni; and there were some too who called these nations Getic."[9] Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... The writings of Procopius of Caesarea (500 ? - 565 ?), in Palestine, are the primary source of information for the rule of the emperor Justinian. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


The Getae were also assumed to be the ancestors of the Goths by Jordanes in his Getica written at the middle of the 6th century. Jordanes assumed the earlier testimony of Orosius. The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De origine actibusque Getarum), commonly referred to as Getica, was written by Jordanes, probably in Constantinople, and was published in AD 551. ...


See also

Tomyris was, according to Herodotus, a queen of the Massagetae. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Thyssagetae were an ancient tribe described by Herodotus (IV. 22, 123) as occupying a district to the north-east of Scythia separated from the Budini by a desert seven days journey broad, perhaps the Voguls. ... Gautr, Gauti, Guti, Gothus and Geats are name forms based on the same Proto-Germanic root, * (see god). ... Oium (from Aujom, meaning in the waterlands in Gothic) was according to Jordanes, a name for Scythia, where the Goths settled after leaving Gothiscandza. ...

References

  1. ^ Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 18.288
  2. ^ Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus: "Daci quoque suboles Getarum sunt" (The Dacians as well are a scion of the Getae)
  3. ^ Giurescu, Constantin C. (1973). Formarea poporului român (in Romanian), p.23. : "They (Dacians and Getae) are two names for the same people [...] divided in a large number of tribes". See also the hypothesis of a Daco-Moesian language / dialectal area supported by linguists like Vladimir Georgiev, Ivan Duridanov and Sorin Olteanu.
  4. ^ Duridanov, Ivan. The Thracian, Dacian and Paeonian languages. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  5. ^ (2001) in Petrescu-Dîmboviţa, Mircea; Vulpe, Alexandru (eds): Istoria Românilor, vol. I (in Romanian).  It should be noted Al. Vulpe speaks of Geto-Dacians as a conventional and instrumental concept for the Thracian tribes inhabiting this space, but not meaning an "absolute ethnic, linguistic or historical unity".
  6. ^ Janakieva, Svetlana (2002). "La notion de ΟΜΟΓΛΩΤΤΟΙ chez Strabon et la situation ethno-linguistique sur les territoires thraces" (in French). Études Balkaniques (4): 75-79.  The author concludes Strabo's claim sums an experience following of many centuries of neighbourhood and cultural interferences between the Greeks and the Thracian tribes
  7. ^ (1982) The Cambridge Ancient History vol. 3, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press.  In chapter "20c Linguistic problems of the Balkan area", at page 838, Ronald Arthur Crossland argues "it may be the distinction made by Greeks and Romans between the Getae and Daci, for example, reflected the importance of different sections of a linguistically homogenous people at different times". He furthermore recalls Strabo's testimony and Georgiev's hypothesis for a 'Thraco-Dacian' language.
  8. ^ a b c Boia, Lucian (2004). Romania: Borderland of Europe. Reaktion Books, p.43. ISBN 1-86189-103-2. 
  9. ^ a b c Boia, Lucian (2001). History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness. Central European University Press, p.14. ISBN 9639116971. 
  10. ^ Niculescu, Gheorghe Alexandru (2004-2005). "Archaeology, Nationalism and "The History of the Romanians" (2001)". Dacia - Revue d'archéologie et d'histoire ancienne (48-49): 99-124.  He dedicates a large part of his assessment to the archaeology of "Geto-Dacians" and he concludes that with few exceptions "the archaeological interpretations [...] are following G. Kossinna’s concepts of culture, archaeology and ethnicity".
  11. ^ Delev, P. (2000). "Lysimachus, the Getae, and Archaeology (2000)". The Classical Quarterly, New Series (Vol. 50, No. 2): 384-401. 

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