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Encyclopedia > Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas
Vargas This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this...
Vargas This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Enlarge
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas
Term of office - First term: November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. Events 1755 - The colony of Massachusetts offers a bounty of 20 British pounds for the scalps of Native American boys and girls under the age of 12. 1793 - French... November 3, 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930 October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople. This unifies the two branches of the House of... October 29, 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland. January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of... 1945
Term of office - Second term: January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 334 days remaining, (335 in leap years). Also, this is the final day of January. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes is executed for his plotting against Parliament and... January 31, Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi-party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage... 1951 August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. Events 100 BC-AD 1799 49 BC - Julius Caesars general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Battle of the Bagradas River by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and... August 24, 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954
Predecessor - First term: Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa
Predecessor - Second term: Eurico Gaspar Dutra, (1883-1974), was a Brazilian general, politician and president of Brazil from 1946-1951. Gaspar Dutra was one of the generals in charge of the soldiers on the Brazilian Expeditionary Force that entered World War II, and he succeeded Getulio Vargas in the presidency. He left it... Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Successor - First term: José Linhares
Successor - Second term: João Café Filho
Date of birth: April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). There are 256 days remaining. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of St Alphege in Greenwich, London. 1529 - At the Diet of Speyer a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt... April 19, Events January January 16 - The United States Civil service, is passed January 19 - The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service (Roselle, New Jersey) It was built by Thomas Edison. February February 16 - Ladies Home Journal is published for the first time. February 23 - Alabama becomes the first... 1883
Place of birth: São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil. It is bordered on the north by the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Uruguay, and on the west by Argentina. History Although mainly rural for much of its early... Rio Grande do Sul
Date of death: August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. Events 100 BC-AD 1799 49 BC - Julius Caesars general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Battle of the Bagradas River by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and... August 24, 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954
Place of death: Ipanema beach A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. The city is famous for the hotel-lined tourist beaches Copacabana and Ipanema, for the giant statue of... Rio de Janeiro, Ipanema beach A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. The city is famous for the hotel-lined tourist beaches Copacabana and Ipanema, for the giant statue of... Rio de Janeiro
Party: Brazilian Labour Party - PTB


Getúlio Dornelles Vargas ( April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). There are 256 days remaining. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of St Alphege in Greenwich, London. 1529 - At the Diet of Speyer a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt... April 19, Events January January 16 - The United States Civil service, is passed January 19 - The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service (Roselle, New Jersey) It was built by Thomas Edison. February February 16 - Ladies Home Journal is published for the first time. February 23 - Alabama becomes the first... 1883 - August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. Events 100 BC-AD 1799 49 BC - Julius Caesars general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Battle of the Bagradas River by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and... August 24, 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954) was the president of The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazil from 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930 to 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland. January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of... 1945 and from Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with Britain in response. January 9 - The Israeli government recognizes the... 1950 to his suicide in 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954.

Contents

Background

Born in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil. It is bordered on the north by the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Uruguay, and on the west by Argentina. History Although mainly rural for much of its early... Rio Grande do Sul, on April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). There are 256 days remaining. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of St Alphege in Greenwich, London. 1529 - At the Diet of Speyer a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German: Reichsstadt... April 19, Events January January 16 - The United States Civil service, is passed January 19 - The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service (Roselle, New Jersey) It was built by Thomas Edison. February February 16 - Ladies Home Journal is published for the first time. February 23 - Alabama becomes the first... 1883, descending from a traditional family of "gauchos", he embarked on a military career at first, then turning to the study of law. Entering Republican politics, he was elected for the Rio Grande do Sul legislature and later for the House of Representatives, becoming the floor leader of his State in the Congress. He served briefly as Secretary of the Treasury under President Washington Luis from where he resigned to run for the government of his State. Elected governor of the State of Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil. It is bordered on the north by the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Uruguay, and on the west by Argentina. History Although mainly rural for much of its early... Rio Grande do Sul, he constituted a strong movement of opposition against the central government, urging the end of the voting corruption through the adoption of the universal and secret ballot.


Vargas and the Revolution of 1930

Between the two World Wars, The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazil was a rapidly industrializing nation popularly regarded as "the sleeping giant of the Americas" and a potential world power. However, the oligarchic and decentralized confederation of the Old Republic, dominated by Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. It was a hallmark of feudalism, and freed the owner for other tasks, such as government administration... landed interests, in effect, showed little concern for promoting Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state (c.f.). This social and economic change is closely intertwined with technological innovation, particularly the development... industrialization, Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. It may refer to a geographical area combining urban and rural parts, or to the transformation of an individual locality from less to more urban. The term can describe a condition at a specific time, namely the proportion... urbanization, and other broad interests of the new middle class.


Bourgeois and military discontent, heightened by the Great Depression's impact on the Brazilian economy, led to bloodless coup d'état on October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. Events 1-1899 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius. 1360 - The... October 24, 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930 that ousted President Washington Luís and his heir-apparent Júlio Prestes. Anticlimactic as it was, this was a watershed in Brazilian history — a liberal, bourgeois revolution that ushered out the political preeminence of the paulista coffee oligarchs. The military, traditionally active in Brazilian politics, installed Vargas as "provisional president." A populist governor of Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil. It is bordered on the north by the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Uruguay, and on the west by Argentina. History Although mainly rural for much of its early... Rio Grande do Sul and the former presidential candidate of the Liberal Alliance, Vargas had been "defeated" by Prestes in a disputed election earlier that year.


Vargas was a wealthy pro-industrial nationalist and anti-communist who favored capitalist development and liberal reforms, but actually posed little serious threat to the elite paulista gentry. Vargas's Liberal Alliance drew support from wide ranges of Brazil's burgeoning urban middle class and a group of On July 5, 1922, a group of young Brazilian army officers known as tenentes (lieutenants), staged several revolts in Brazil against the regime of its time. The men were fed up with the incompetence of the current regime and wanted to take action and initiate change. Major revolts broke out... tenentes, who had grown frustrated to some extent with the politics of Coronelismo was the system of machine politics in Brazil under the Old Republic (1889-1930). Known also as the rule of the coronels, the term referred to the classic boss system under which the control of patronage was centralized in the hands of a locally dominant oligarch known as a... coronelismo and café com leite.


Although Vargas ran strictly from within the partisan elite during this unsuccessful 1930 campaign on a populist and protectionist platform, the coup d'état laid the foundations of a modern Brazil that is highly industrialized, but still considered a part of the For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War and most were members of the Non-Aligned Movement. These countries are also known as the... Third World.


However moderate these aims were, mild opposition arose among the powerful paulista coffee oligarchs who had grown accustomed to their domination of Brazilian politics. His tenuous collation also lacked a coherent program, being committed to a broad vision of modernization, but little else more definitive. Having to balance such conflicting ideological constituencies, regionalism, and economic interests in such a vast, diverse, and socio-economically varied nation would, thus, not only explain the sole constancy that marked Vargas's long career — abrupt shifts in alliances and ideologies, but also his eventual dictatorship, modeled surprisingly along the lines of European Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. The word fascism (uncapitalized) has come to mean any political stance or system of government resembling Mussolinis, as... Fascism, considering the liberal roots of his regime. Vargas, in effect, sought to forge a corporatist, centralized state along Fascist lines to mitigate these disparate class interests and to quell disorder during a chaotic interwar era.


Interim Presidency

Vargas would develop in response a sort of legal hybrid between the regimes of Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) ruled Italy as a dictator from 1922 to 1943. He created a fascist state through the use... Mussolini's The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italy and Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine António de Oliveira Salazar ( April 28, 1889— July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. Salazar was born in Santa Comba Dão... Salazar's Portuguese Estado Novo, copied repressive fascist tactics, and conveyed their same rejection of liberal capitalism, but attained power bearing few indications of his future quasi-fascist polices. As a candidate in 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. Events January-February January 6 - The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City). January 27 - Miguel Primo de Rivera resigns January 30 - General Damaso Berenquer becomes the new prime minister of Spain February 18 - While studying... 1930 Vargas utilised populist rhetoric to promote bourgeois concerns, thus opposing the primacy—but not the legitimacy—of the paulista coffee oligarchy and the landed elites, who had little interest in protecting and promoting industry. Vargas during this period sought to bring Brazil out of the The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. However, most of the remainder of the 1930s was spent recovering from the contraction, and it would be well after World War II when such indicators as industrial production, share prices and global GDP... Great Depression through orthodox policies.


Like . Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd ( 1933– 1945) President of the United States. He was elected to an unprecedented four terms, and died in office — he remains the only U.S. president elected more than twice... Franklin Roosevelt, his first steps focused on economic stimulus. A state interventionist policy utilising tax breaks, lowered duties, and import quotas allowed Vargas to expand the domestic industrial base. Vargas linked his pro-industrial policies to nationalism, advocating heavy tariffs to "perfect our manufacturers to the point where it will become unpatriotic to feed or clothe ourselves with imported goods." In his early years, Vargas also relied on the support of the tenentes, junior military officers, who had long been active against the ruling coffee oligarchy, staging their own failed revolt in 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922. Vargas also quelled a paulista female worker's strike by co-opting much of their platform and requiring their "factory commissions" to use government mediation in the future. Vargas, reflecting the influence of the tenentes, even advocated a program of social welfare and reform similar to the The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. It was widely believed that the depression was caused by the inherent instability of the market and that government intervention was necessary to rationalize and stabilize the economy. The Origins... New Deal.


Constitution of 1934

The parallels between Vargas and the European A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. This implies that the control by the government contradicts the will of the people being controlled. Thus, a... police states began to appear by 1934, when a new constitution was enacted with direct fascist influence.


Brazil's 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934 constitution, passed on July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. Events 622 - Beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1769 - Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first mission in California. The mission later evolves into the city... July 16, contained provisions that resembled Italian The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. Most notably, the historical usage of the term is not the same as its modern usage. This article deals with both types of corporatism. Historical meaning of the term Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which... corporatism, which had the enthusiastic support of the pro-fascist wing of the disparate tenente movement and industrialists, who were attracted to Mussolini's co-optation of unions through state-run, sham syndicates. As in The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italy, and later The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra. To the... Spain and The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, Fascist-style programs would serve two important aims, stimulating industrial growth (under the guise of nationalism) and suppressing the left. Its stated purpose, however, as in The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italy, was uniting all classes in mutual interests. The constitution established a new Chamber of Deputies that placed government authority over the private economy, which established a system of state-guided capitalism aimed at industrialization and reducing foreign dependency.


After 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934, the regime designated corporate representatives according to class and profession, but maintained private ownership of Brazilian-owned business. Based on a façade of increased labor rights and social investment, Brazilian corporatism, in Italy, was actually a strategy to increase industrial output utilizing a strong nationalist appeal. Vargas, and later Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895-July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and President of Argentina from 1946-1955 and 1973-1974. President Juan Perón Born in a town near Lobos, Province of Buenos Aires, he was the son of Mario Tomás Perón, a... Juan Peron in neighboring Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. It is bordered by Paraguay and Bolivia in the north, Brazil and Uruguay in the northeast and Chile in the west. The country is formally named Rep... Argentina, another quasi-fascist, emulated Mussolini's strategy of mediating class disputes and co-opting workers' demands under the banner of nationalism. Under the guise of workers' rights also, he greatly expanded labor regulations with the consent of industry, pacified by strong industrial growth. While simultaneously expanding the mandated rights of workers, Vargas, like Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) ruled Italy as a dictator from 1922 to 1943. He created a fascist state through the use... Mussolini, decimated unions independent of his state syndicates. The new constitution, drafted by Vargas allies, dramatically expanded social programs and set a minimum wage but also denied illiterates (largely the A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. The relative importance and definition of membership in a particular class differs greatly over time and between societies, particularly in societies having a legal differentiation of groups of people by birth or occupation... underclass) the right to vote and placed stringent limits on union organizing and “unauthorized” strikes.


Beyond corporatism, the 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934 constitution also heightened efforts to reduce provincial autonomy in the traditionally devolved, sprawling nation. Centralization allowed Vargas curb the oligarchic power of the landed paulista elites, who obstructed Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. According to the sociologist Peter Wagner, modernization can be seen as processes, and as offencives. While... modernization through the regionalism, machine politics, and façade democracy of the Old Republic.


Vargas, the Integralists, and the Suppression of the Left

Threatened by pro-Communist elements in labor critical of the rural latifundios, Vargas reigned in his shaky alliance with labor and began formally co-opting the less intimidating fascist movement.


As he moved to the right after 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934, his ideological character and association with a global ideological orbit, however, remained ambiguous—reminiscent of the early phases of leftist leaders Cuban President Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) has ruled Cuba since 1959, when, leading the 26th of July Movement, he helped overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista and turn Cuba into the first socialist state in the Western Hemisphere. He held the title of premier... Fidel Castro and Ortega addresses the UN General Assembly Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) was President of Nicaragua from 1985 to 1990, during the Sandinista government, and is currently the leader of the Sandinista party. Ortega was one of several leaders of the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional in its... Daniel Ortega. To fill this ideological void and promote his new rightist policies, Vargas began moving against the tenentes while encouraging the growth of fascist paramilitaries. Integralism, founded and led by Plínio Salgado, who adopted Fascist and Nazi symbolism and salutes and wore a square mustache like Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was also Chancellor of Germany, head of government, and head... Hitler, offered Vargas a new political base in his collation. A green-shirted paramilitary organization directly financed by Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) ruled Italy as a dictator from 1922 to 1943. He created a fascist state through the use... Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was also Chancellor of Germany, head of government, and head... Hitler, Integralism's propaganda campaigns were borrowed directly from Nazi materials —excoriations of Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. Marx drew on Georg Hegels philosophy, the political economy of Adam Smith, Ricardian economics, and 19th century French socialism to develop... Marxism, Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. It typically favors the right to dissent from orthodox tenets or established authorities in political or religious matters. In this respect, it is sometimes held in contrast... liberalism, and The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews that espoused fanatical nationalism (out of context in the heterogeneous and tolerant nation) and "Christian virtues."


Vargas tolerated this rise of Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). This happens on an individual level and goes on to the institutionalized prejudice and persecution once prevalent in European societies, of which the highly explicit ideology of Adolf Hitlers National Socialism was... anti-Semitism, and might have acted upon the Integralists' popularization of anti-Semitism. One example of his alleged anti-Semitism was the deportation of the pregnant, Jewish wife of Luís Carlos Prestes to Nazi Germany, where she would die in a concentration camp . Vargas's anti-Communism and increasing conservatism also encouraged an alliance between the government and the Catholic Church, similar to Mussolini's arrangement following the The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. The treaties were negotiated between Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri on behalf of the Holy See, and Benito Mussolini, the Fascist leader, as Prime Minister of Italy... Lateran Pacts.


Vargas forced the Brazilian Congress to respond to the growth of the Aliança Nacional Libertadora (ANL), a leftist collation led by the Communist Party and Luís Carlos Prestes. A revolutionary forerunner of Che Guevara Dr. Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna ( June 14, 1928¹ – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. Guevara was a member of Fidel Castros 26th of July Movement, which seized power in Cuba in... Che Guevara, Prestes led the legendary but futile 'Long March' through the rural Brazilian interior following his participation in the failed 1922 tenente rebellion against the coffee oligarchs. This experience, however, left Prestes and some of his followers skeptical of armed conflict. Still, nonetheless, Congress branded all leftist opposition as “subversive” under a March 1935 National Security Act that allowed the President to ban the ANL, which was forced—reluctantly—to begin another armed insurrection in November. The authoritarian regime responded by imprisoning and torturing Prestes and violently crushing the Communist movement through the state terror like that of the European police states.


Although "the father of the poor" expanded the electorate, granted women's suffrage, enacted social security reforms, legalized labor unions as a populist, Vargas whittled down the autonomy of labor and crushed a series of peasant revolts known as the cangaço.


The Estado Novo

Like the European Fascists, Vargas utilized fears over Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to implement that system. As a theoretical social and economic system, communism would be a type of egalitarian society with no... Communism to justify personal dictatorship. The fascist “Estado Novo” Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. A dictatorship is a government headed by a dictator or more generally any authoritarian or totalitarian government. It is considered to be the polar opposite of a democracy. A dictatorship is often seen as equivalent... dictatorship, modeled after Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine António de Oliveira Salazar ( April 28, 1889— July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. Salazar was born in Santa Comba Dão... Salazar fascist “Estado Novo” in Brazil's mother country, finally materialized in 1937, when Vargas was forced to step down as president by January 1938 because his own 1934 constitution prohibited the president from succeeding himself. On 29 September 1937, Gen. Dutra, his rightist collaborator, presented “the Cohen Plan” (note the Jewish surname) that established a detailed plan for a Communist revolution. The Cohen Plan was a mere forgery concocted by the Integralists, but Vargas exploited it to have Dutra publicly demand “a state of siege” in a chain of events redolent of the Reichstag fire The Reichstag fire, a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany, began at 9.14 p.m. on the night of February 27, 1933, when a Berlin fire station received an alarm that the Reichstag building, assembly location of the German Parliament, was ablaze. The fire seemed... Reichstag fire, which Hitler presented as a Communist conspiracy to justify a Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. A dictatorship is a government headed by a dictator or more generally any authoritarian or totalitarian government. It is considered to be the polar opposite of a democracy. A dictatorship is often seen as equivalent... dictatorship. On November 10, Vargas, ruling by decree, then made a broadcast in which he stated his plans to assume dictatorial powers under a new constitution derived from European fascist models, thereby curtailing presidential elections (his ultimate objections) and dissolving congress.


Vargas, like Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was also Chancellor of Germany, head of government, and head... Hitler in the The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (Pronounced Vye-Mar, and in German it is known as the Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy... Weimar Republic and Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 - April 28, 1945) ruled Italy as a dictator from 1922 to 1943. He created a fascist state through the use... Mussolini in the postwar Kingdom of The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italy, consolidated dictatorial powers by acting within the established political system, not in a single A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term... coup d'état or A revolution is a relatively sudden and absolutely drastic change. This may be a change in the social or political institutions over a relatively short period of time, or a major change in its culture or economy. Some revolutions are led by the majority of the populace of a nation... revolution.


Under the Estado Novo, Vargas abolished opposition political parties, imposed rigid In ancient Rome, censorship was the office or function of a censor. This article is about controls over publication and discussion. The utensil for incense is a censer; a device or organ that senses its environment is a sensor. Censorship is the use of state or group power to control... censorship, established a centralized police force, and filled prisons with political dissidents, while evoking a sense of nationalism that transcended class and bound the masses to the state.


Vargas and the Axis Powers

The resemblance between the Estado Novo and the European police states suggested to some interwar observers that Vargas' regime was simply a variant of the European Fascist model. Brazil appeared to be entering the Axis orbit—even before the 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 3 - The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. January 11 - Frances Moulton is the first woman to become president of a US national bank. January 20 - Wedding of King... 1938 declaration of the overtly fascist Estado Nôvo. Between 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 3 - Japanese troops occupy Shanghai January 5 - Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay. January 15 - Political violence has caused almost 100 deaths in Spain January 17 - US Congress... 1933 and 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 3 - The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. January 11 - Frances Moulton is the first woman to become president of a US national bank. January 20 - Wedding of King... 1938 Germany became the principal market for Brazilian cotton, and its second largest importer of Brazilian Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. Coffee bean types Coffea arabica - Brazil There are two main species of the coffee plant; Coffea arabica is the traditional coffee, and considered superior in... coffee and Binomial name Theobroma cacao L. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a small (4-8 m tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae, native to tropical South America, but now cultivated throughout the tropics. Its seeds are used to make cocoa and chocolate. The tree grows naturally in the low foothills of... cacao. The German Bank for South America even established three hundred branches in Vargas's The Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil in Portuguese) is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela... Brazil. In May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. May begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Taurus and ends in the sign of Gemini. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... May 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 6 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address. January 10 - Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress. January 19 - British troops attack Italian... 1941, after the invasions of Poland and the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union, and the beginnings of the Final Solution, Vargas sent a birthday telegram to Hitler, using it as opportunity to convey Brazilian ambiguity, playing both sides against each other. Vargas dispatched a telegram to Hitler saying, “best wishes for your personal happiness and the prosperity of the German nation”. Such periodic overtures to the Axis Powers, along with rapid increase in civilian and military trade between Brazil and Nazi Germany caused The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... US officials to constantly ask, "What is Vargas like and where does he stand?"


Vargas eventually sided with the Allies and liberalized his regime. The shrewd, low-key, and reasoned pragmatist sided with the antifascist Allies after a period of ambiguity for economic reasons, since the Allies were more viable trading partners, and liberalized his regime because of complications arising from this alliance. Siding with the antifascist Allies created a paradox at home not unnoticed by Brazil's middle class (of a fascist-like regime joining the antifascist Allies) that Antonio Salazar on July 22, 1946 issue of Time Magazine António de Oliveira Salazar ( April 28, 1889— July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. Salazar was born in Santa Comba Dão... Salazar and The name Franco may refer to: Francisco Franco, Dictator of Spain from 1936 to 1975 Francois Luambo Makiadi, a Congolese musician and founder of the band OK Jazz active from the 1950s to 1980s ... Franco avoided by maintaining nominal neutrality, allowing them to avoid both antifascist sentiment at home arising from siding with the Allies or annihilation by the Allies.


Vargas thus astutely responded to the newly liberal sentiments of a middle class that was no longer fearful of disorder and proletariat discontent by moving away from fascist repression—promising “a new postwar era of liberty” that included amnesty for political prisoners, presidential elections, and the legalization of opposition parties—including the moderated and irreparably weakened Communist Party. Historian Benjamin Keen believes that such political liberalization contributed to the downfall of the Estado Novo, being substantial enough to provoke a 1945 military coup d'état led by Dutra and Monteiro, who were alarmed with Vargas' growing ties with labor and the working classes.


Second Presidency

Vargas returned to politics in Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with Britain in response. January 9 - The Israeli government recognizes the... 1950, and through the free and secret ballot he was re-elected President of the Republic.


His administration was hampered by the economic crisis that affected the country at that time. Vargas would pursue in the end of his term a nationalist policy turned to the country's natural resources, to a lesser foreigner dependency and, within this scope he founded the Petrobras (Petróleo Brasileiro Sociedade Anônima) is a Brazilian oil company. Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. was incorporated in 1953 and started operating with the handover of the assets from the former National Petroleum Council (Conselho Nacional do Petróleo-CNP): Oil fields with a production capacity of 2... Petrobras (Brazilian oil).


The positions assumed by his political adversaries led to a crisis which culminated in the crime of "Rua Tonelero" where in an attempt to kill Vargas' main adversary: Carlos Frederico Werneck Lacerda was a Brazilian journalist and politician, born in 1914 at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He started his journalist career at Diário de Notícias (english: News Daily) in 1929. In 1949 he founded the newspaper Tribuna da Imprensa (english: Press Tribune). In the 1950s he... Carlos Lacerda, Major Rubens Vaz was murdered. Tenente Gregório Fortunato, chief of Vargas' personal guard, was accused of masterminding the assassination attempt. This fact aroused a reaction against Vargas and the Army generals demanded his resignation. Vargas had a last try, calling the ministry special meeting on the eve of August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. Events 100 BC-AD 1799 49 BC - Julius Caesars general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Battle of the Bagradas River by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and... August 24, but rumors spread the news that the armed forces officers were inflexible. Feeling himself incapable of maintaining the situation under control, Vargas shot himself in the chest on August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. Events 100 BC-AD 1799 49 BC - Julius Caesars general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Battle of the Bagradas River by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and... August 24, 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954, in the The Catete Palace is an urban mansion in Rio de Janeiros Flamengo neighborhood. The property (several buildings and a large garden) stretches from Avenida Catete to Praia do Flamengo. It was once Brazils presidential residence and the site of Getulio Vargass suicide. It now houses a museum... Catete Palace, in order to avoid a coup d'etat.


Getúlio Dornelles Vargas is interred in the Cemitério São João Batista is a municipal cemetery in the neighborhood in Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro. Famous People Buried Chacrinha - Brazilian entertainer Santos Dumont - Brazilian aviator Nelson Gonçalves - Brazilian rock singer Tom Jobim - compser of Girl From Ipanema Carmen Miranda - Portuguese singer... Cemitério São João Batista in Rio de Janeiro.


Preceded by:
Augusto Tasso Fragoso (August 28, 1869 _ September 20, 1945) was the head of the government of Brazil in 1930, between the overthrow of President Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa and the oath of Getúlio Dornelles Vargas. Categories: Brazil-related stubs | 1869 births | 1945 deaths | People stubs ... Augusto Tasso Fragoso
Provisional Government
The New State
Succeeded by:
José Linhares
Preceded by:
Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa
Succeeded by:
Eurico Gaspar Dutra, (1883-1974), was a Brazilian general, politician and president of Brazil from 1946-1951. Gaspar Dutra was one of the generals in charge of the soldiers on the Brazilian Expeditionary Force that entered World War II, and he succeeded Getulio Vargas in the presidency. He left it... Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Preceded by:
Eurico Gaspar Dutra, (1883-1974), was a Brazilian general, politician and president of Brazil from 1946-1951. Gaspar Dutra was one of the generals in charge of the soldiers on the Brazilian Expeditionary Force that entered World War II, and he succeeded Getulio Vargas in the presidency. He left it... Eurico Gaspar Dutra
See also List of Presidents of Brazil The President of the Federal Republic of Brazil is the head of state and head of government of Brazil. He is also the supreme commander of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The first president of Brazil was Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, who proclamated the... President of Brazil Succeeded by:
João Café Filho

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  • cangaço
  • café com leite
  • Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism was a fascist-like movement in the 1930s. Founded and led by Plínio Salgado, a literary figure who was relatively famous during the 1922 Modern Art Week, the movement had all the outlandish superficial trappings of European fascism, with the sole difference that Salgado did... Brazilian Integralism
  • Rua Tonelero

 
 

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