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Encyclopedia > Gesture
Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers.
Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers.

A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication made with a part of the body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication. The language of gesture allows individuals to express a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection. Most people use gestures and body language in addition to words when they speak. The use of gesture as language by some ethnic groups is more common than in others, and the amount of such gesturing that is considered culturally acceptable varies from one location to the next. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A spiral mouse gesture in the computer game Black and White. ... US navy helicopter landing signals illustration by Jeremy Kemp, 1/24/2005. ... US navy helicopter landing signals illustration by Jeremy Kemp, 1/24/2005. ... http://members. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types of gestures

Pointing with an extended finger is offensive in many cultures.
Pointing with an extended finger is offensive in many cultures.

Gestures do not have invariable or universal meanings. Even simple gestures like pointing at someone can give offense if it is not done correctly. In the USA and western European countries it is very common for people to point with an extended finger but in Asia this is considered very rude (see Etiquette in Asia for details) and it is safer to use the whole hand. Uncle Sam recruiting poster. ... Uncle Sam recruiting poster. ... In Asia, many points of good etiquette are derived from religious beliefs. ...


Different types of gestures are distinguished. Well-known type of gestures are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures (see the examples below). These are culture specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words. Communities have repertoires of such gestures. A single emblematic gesture can a have very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly offensive [1]


Another type of gestures are the ones we use when we speak. These gestures are closely coordinated with speech. The meaningful part of the gesture is temporally synchronized (that is, occurs at the same time) with the co-expressive parts of speech. For example, a gesture that depicts the act of throwing will be synchronous with the word 'threw' in the utterance "and then he threw the ball right into the window." Other gestures, like the so-called beat gestures, are used in conjunction with speech and keep time with the rhythm of speech to emphasize certain words or phrases. These types of gestures are integrally connected to speech and thought processes. [2] Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Studies of gesture

Gestures have been studied throughout the centuries from different view points. [3] Quintillian in the antiquity studied in his Institution Oratoria how gesture may be used in rhetorical discourse. The another broad study of gesture was published by John Bulwer in 1644.[4] Bulwer analyzed dozens of gestures and provided a guide on how to use gestures to increase eloquence and clarity for public speaking. Today, one of the most prominent researchers in the field of gesture research is Adam Kendon. He has investigated many aspects of gestures, including their role in communication, conventionalization of gesture, integration of gesture and speech, and the evolution of language [5]. Other prominent researchers in this field include Susan Goldin-Meadow and David McNeill. Susan Goldin-Meadow (2003) has investigated intensively the role of gesture in problem solving in children[6]. David McNeill (1992, 2006)[7] has developed a broad theory about how gesture and speech are part of a single thought process. Adam Kendon - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Social significance

Vitarka mudra, Tarim Basin, 9th century.
Vitarka mudra, Tarim Basin, 9th century.

Gestures play a major role in many aspects of human life. Gesturing is probably a universal, there has been no report of a community that does not gesture. Gestures are a crucial part of everyday conversation such as chatting, describing a route, negotiating prices on a market; they are ubiquitous. Gestures have been documented in the arts such as in Greek vase paintings, Indian Miniatures or European paintings. Vitarka Mudra. ... Vitarka Mudra. ... A mudrā (Sanskrit, मुद्रा, literally seal) is a symbolic gesture usually made with the hand or fingers. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


Gestures play a central role in religious or spiritual rituals such as the Christian sign of the cross. In Hinduism and Buddhism, a mudra (Sanskrit, literally "seal") is a symbolic gesture made with the hand or fingers. Each mudra has a specific meaning, playing a central role in Hindu and Buddhist iconography. An example is the Vitarka mudra, the gesture of discussion and transmission of Buddhist teaching. It is done by joining the tips of the thumb and the index together, while keeping the other fingers straight. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... A mudrā (Sanskrit, मुद्रा, literally seal) is a symbolic gesture usually made with the hand or fingers. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hand gestures

Main article: Hand gesture

Hand gestures, i.e., gestures performed by one or two hands, is the most numerous category of gestures due to the ability of the human hand to acquire a huge number of clearly discernible configurations, the fact of importance for the sign languages. The latter ones are not discussed in this article. Hand gestures, are gestures performed by one or two hands. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...


Body gestures

Mooning

Mooning is the act of displaying one's bare buttocks by lowering the back side of one's trousers and underpants, usually without exposing the genitals. Mooning is used in some cultures to express protest, scorn, disrespect, or provocation. It can also be done for shock value or fun. Mooning is the act of displaying ones bare buttocks by removing clothing, e. ... Nude redirects here. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... Germanic trousers of the 4th century found in the Thorsberg moor, Germany Early use of trousers in France: a sans-culotte by Louis-Léopold Boilly. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Anasyrma

Anasyrma or "lifting the skirts" is a gesture traceable to European antiquity. It is used in connection with certain religious rituals, eroticism, and lewd jokes. Anasyrma is a ritual exposing of ones genitals. ...


The "peacock"

Expresses superiority or domination combined with a certain degree of smug arrogance. Performed by pushing the chest up and out at the front as well as tilting the face slightly upward. This may be accompanied by motions of hooking both thumbs under one's lapels or suspenders even if they are not present. The word lapel can mean:- In standard office-type jackets, each of the two triangular pieces of cloth which are folded back below the throat, leaving a triangular opening between. ... A man wearing classic suspenders, which hook directly into the trousers instead of using clips. ...


Head/face gestures

Facial expressions

Main article: Facial expression

Facial expressions are a rich language in their own right and will not be discussed in this article. Some facial expressions are byproducts of emotions, while others, such as winking or eye-rolling are akin to gestures. Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... A man winking his right eye The wink is an intentional facial expression made by closing one eye; it is distinguished from the blink by the fact that the other eye remains open. ...


Eye-rolling

Rotating the eyes upward may have the following meanings.

  • It may indicate condescension, contempt, boredom, or exasperation. The gesture is often for a rescue from boredom or frustration. It can be interpreted as the equivalent of saying, "I don't like this" or "I think this is re-ally stupid" or "I simply can't believe this."[8]
See also: eye roll test

Hypnotic susceptibility is a measurement of how easily a person can be hypnotized. ...

Nodding

A nod is a gesture of confirmation in many cultures and negation in some (e.g., in Bulgaria and Sri Lanka). A nod of the head is a gesture used in many cultures that is most commonly, but not universally, used to indicate agreement, acceptance, or acknowledgement. ...


Head bobble

Head bobble, i.e., repeated alternating bending of the head to the left and to the right in arcs along the coronal plane, means disapproval in some cultures, e.g., in the East Slavic culture. This same head movement in India means OK. The head bobble or head wobble refers to a common gesture found in South Asian cultures, most notably in India and Pakistan. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ...


Head shaking

Repeated turning of the head side to side in arcs along the transverse plane has a meaning opposite to the nod: negation in many cultures and confirmation in some. In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ...


Bent head

A gesture of shame, subduing, or agreement/confirmation. An interpretation depends on the way it being performed and overall body context. Or, can be used as a greeting.


Pointing by chin

A direction may be pointed by chin, e.g., when the arms are doing something else: the head is turned in the corresponding direction and the chin is slightly jerked up and in the pointed direction. This is also used as a greeting in some regions in the U.S., usually among young men.


Greeting by nod

A single nod of the head, (one single cycle in image-pitch) characterizes a greeting gesture.[9]


See also

This is a list of gestures. ... Non-verbal behaviour related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole. ... Rock, Paper, Scissors chart Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-07-13, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... Charades or charade is a word guessing game. ... Chironomia is the art of using gesticulations or hand gestures to good effect in traditional rhetoric or oratory. ... Diving Signals are a form of Sign language used by SCUBA divers to communicate when underwater. ... Anderson Cooper says talk to the hand. Talk to the hand (or tell it to the hand) is an English language slang phrase associated with the 1990s. ... Metacommunicative competence is the ability to steeringly intervene within difficult conversations and to correct communication problems by utilizing the different ways of practical communication: verbal communication: by words or their meaning paraverbal communication: loudness of speaking, manner of speaking, when keeping silent, meaning of interrupting or interfering the conversation nonverbal... A taunt is a sarcastic remark, challenge, or insult intended to provoke a response of some kind from the one it is directed at. ... Movement associated with music, either physical (e. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ... With the development of gesture controllers, haptic systems, motion capture systems, etc, on the one hand, and with the need of allowing virtual reality systems to inter-communicate through control data, the question of gesture and motion takes more and more importance. ...

References

  1. ^ Morris, Desmond, Collett, Peter, Marsh, Peter, O'Shaughnessy, Marie. 1979. Gestures, their origins and distribution. London. Cape
  2. ^ McNeill (1992). Hand and Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  3. ^ Kendon, A. (1982). The study of gesture: Some observations on its history. Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry 2 (1)
  4. ^ Bulwer, John (1644). "Chirologia: or the Naturall Language of the Hand" (London,1644)
  5. ^ Kendon (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  6. ^ Goldin-Meadow, Susan (2003). Hearing gesture: How our hands help us think. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
  7. ^ # McNeill, David (1992). Hand and Mind. What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago: Chicago University Press. McNeill, David (2005). Gesture and Thought. Chicago: Chicago University Press
  8. ^ Foot Stomping & Eye Rolling. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  9. ^ Recognition of Head Gestures Using Hidden Markov Models.
  • Bulwer, John (1644). "Chirologia: or the Naturall Language of the Hand" (London,1644)
  • Goldin-Meadow, Susan (2003). The resilience of language: What gesture creation in deaf children can tell us about how all children learn language. In the Essays in Developmental Psychologyseries (J. Werker & H. Wellman, Eds.). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Goldin-Meadow, Susan (2003). Hearing gesture: How our hands help us think. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Johns, C. (1982). Sex or Symbol. Erotic Images of Greece and Rome. London: British Museum Publications.
  • Kendon, Adam (ed.) (1981). Nonverbal Communication, Interaction and Gesture: Selections from Semiotica (Vol.41, Approaches to Semiotics). The Hague: Mouton and Co. [Includes as an Introduction by Kendon an extended critical survey of methodological and theoretical issues in the field].
  • Kendon, Adam (1997). Annual Review of Anthropology. 26: 109-128.
  • Kendon, Adam (2000). Gesture in Naples and Gesture in Classical Antiquity. An English translation, with an Introductory Essay and Notes of La mimica degli antichi investigata nel gestire Napoletano ('Gestural expression of the ancients in the light of neapolitan gesturing') by Andrea de Jorio (1832). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
  • Kendon, Adam (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • McNeill, David (1992). Hand and Mind. What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • McNeill, David (2005). Gesture and Thought. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Kita, S. (ed.) (2003). Pointing: Where Language, Culture and Cognition Meet. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, ISBN 0-8058-4014-1.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up gesture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • International Society for Gesture Studies(ISGS) is an international scholarly association devoted to the study of human gesture. The ISGS organizes conferences and supports the Journal GESTURE.
  • McNeill Lab Center for Gesture and Speech Research David McNeill's Lab homepage: The Center for Gesture and Speech Research at the University of Chicago studies speech and gesture from a psycholinguistic perspective. The page provides lots of useful information about gesture analysis.
  • The Goldin-Meadow Lab Susan Goldin-Meadow's Lab homepage. The lab is composed of graduate students and researchers pursuing independent topics related to cognition, development, education, linguistics, and various other fields, but interrelated by the lab's main focus - the study of non-verbal communication, specifically gestures.
  • The Nijmegen Gesture Center (NGC) at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics studies the role of gestures in psycholinguistic processing, communication and interaction, acquisition, cognition, and neurocognition.
  • Journal GESTURE is a scholarly Journal that publishes articles reporting original research, as well as survey and review articles, on all aspects of gesture.
  • Publications by Adam Kendon (field data, research techniques and theory of gesture and sign languages)
  • A Nice Gesture Many stories and anecdotes on gestures.
  • A Repertoire of South African Quotable Gestures, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology.
  • Handspeak Sign languages, gestures, body languages, Baby Sign, International Sign, and more. Paid site with limited content for free.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gesture.com: dictionary of body language and signs (337 words)
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication made with a part of the body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication.
Most people use gestures and body language in addition to words when they speak; some ethnic groups and languages use them more than others do, and the amount of such gesturing that is considered culturally acceptable varies from one location to the next.
Hand gestures, i.e., gestures performed by one or two hands, is the most numerous category of gestures due to the ability of the human hand to acquire a huge number of clearly discernible configurations, the fact of importance for the sign languages.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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