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Encyclopedia > Gertrude Bell

Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. During her life she was an unrecognised force behind the Arab revolt in World War I - for which Lawrence of Arabia received most of the credit - and at the conclusion of the war she drew up the borders of the former Mesopotamia to include the three vilayets which became Iraq. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Bell was born in Washington Hall, County Durham, England to a family of great affluence. She was a granddaughter of industrialist Isaac Lowthian Bell. At the age of 16, she went up to Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, where she gained a first class honours degree in history in only two years. County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Sir (Isaac) Lowthian Bell (18 February 1816 - 20 December 1904), Fellow of the Royal Society, was a Victorian Iron Master of Washington, Co. ... College name Lady Margaret Hall Named after Lady Margaret Beaufort Established 1878 Sister College Newnham College Principal Dr Frances Lannon JCR President Joe Collenette Undergraduates 424 Graduates 148 Homepage Lady Margaret Hall is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...


Bell travelled to Iran in May 1892. She then spent much of her time traveling around the world, mountaineering in Switzerland, and learning archaeology and languages - Arabic, French, German, Italian, Persian and Turkish. In 1900 she traveled to Jerusalem and dressed up as a male Bedouin to look for the Druzes. She reached Jebel Druze and befriended the Druze king Yahya Beg. 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Jerusalem and the Old City. ... This article appears to contradict itself. ...


In 1905, Bell was again in the Middle East and traveled widely, studying local ruins and staying with both the Druzes and Beni Sakhr and meeting many Arab chieftains, emirs and sheiks. She published her observations in the book The Desert and the Sown. Bell opened up the Arabian deserts to the western world with the vivid descriptions found in her prose. 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ...


In March 1907, Bell journeyed to Turkey and began to work with the archaeologist Sir William Ramsey. Their excavations were chronicled in A Thousand and One Churches. She also became honorary secretary of the Women's Anti-Suffrage League. Her reason for being against giving women the vote was her view that while women felt that the kitchen and the bedroom were their domain and that they were not worthy of being included in political debate, they were unfit to take part in deciding how the nation should be ruled. 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In January 1909, she left for Mesopotamia. She visited the Hittite city of Carchemish, found yet undiscovered ruin of Ukhaidir and finally went to Babylon and Najac. Back in Carchemish she advised two archaeologists working on the site, one of them being T. E. Lawrence. 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire “Hittites” is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Boğazköy in north-central Turkey), through most of the... Carchemish (pr. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32° 32′ 11″ N, 44° 25′ 15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), professionally known as T.E. Lawrence and, later, T.E. Shaw, but most famously known as Lawrence of Arabia, gained international renown for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918. ...


At the outbreak of World War I, Bell requested to be posted in the Middle East but her request was denied. She proceeded to go to France to volunteer with the Red Cross. In November 1915, she was summoned to Cairo to the Arab Bureau under General Gilbert Clayton. She also met Lawrence again. At first she did not receive an official position but set out to write down his knowledge about the location and disposition of Arabic forces that could be encouraged to join the British against the Turks. Lawrence and the British used the information in their dealings with the Arabs. World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...


In March 3, 1916 Bell arrived in Basra, which British forces had captured in November 1914, to advise Chief Political Officer Percy Cox. She drew maps to help the British army to reach Baghdad safely. She became the only female political officer in the British forces and received the title Liaison Officer, Correspondent to Cairo. She was Jack Philby's field controller at this time and taught him the finer arts of espionage. When British troops took Baghdad on March 10, 1917, Cox summoned Bell to Baghdad and presented her with the title of Oriental Secretary. She later departed for Persia. March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled BaÅŸrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... Sir Percy Zachariah Cox (1864 - 1937) was a British administrator and diplomat in Iraq. ... Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... Harry St. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In the autumn of 1918 Bell contracted malaria. Nevertheless, her work was specially mentioned for credit in Parliament. She was awarded the CBE. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria (Italian: bad air; formerly called ague or marsh fever in English) is an infectious disease which in humans causes about 350-500 million infections and approximately 1. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand...


When the war ended and the Ottoman Empire collapsed, in late January 1919, Bell was assigned to write a report on who should lead Iraq. She spent the next ten months writing it. Because she was favourable to Arabic leadership, her superior, A. T. Wilson, turned against her. On October 11, 1920, Percy Cox returned to Baghdad and asked her to continue as Oriental Secretary, liaison with the new forthcoming Arab government. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in Leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Bell persuaded Winston Churchill to endorse Faisal, the recently deposed King of Syria, as the first King of Iraq. When Faisal arrived in Iraq in June 1921, Bell began to advise him in local matters, including such matters as tribal geography and local business. Faisal was crowned king of Iraq on August 23, 1921. Bell supervised the appointments of the other posts in the new government. Due to her influence with the new king, she earned a nickname "The Uncrowned Queen of Iraq". The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Faisal ibn Husayn (Arabic:فيصل بن حسين May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... The title King of Syria was only briefly used with the only king being Faisal who was proclaimed monarch after the Arab Revolt on March 11, 1920. ... After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the province of Iraq came under the control of the United Kingdom. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


After the situation had stabilized, Bell begun to form what would later become the Baghdad Archaeological Museum, first inside the confines of the royal palace. She supervised excavations and examined finds herself. She returned to Britain briefly in 1925. Her family fortune had begun to decrease. She returned to Iraq but soon after developed pleurisy. When she recovered she heard that her brother had died of typhoid. Baghdad Museum was officially opened June 1926. An American Tank guards the Museum following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Bell died on July 12, 1926 in Baghdad due to an overdose of sleeping pills, probably a suicide. She had no husband or children. July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life; it is sometimes a noun for one who has committed or attempted the act. ...


Books of Gertrude Bell

  • The Desert and the Sown (1907, republished 1987)
  • The Thousand and One Churches (1909, with Sir Wiliam Ramsey)
  • Amurath to Amurath (1911)

Books about Gertrude Bell

  • Susan Goodman - Gertrude Bell (1985)
  • Janet Wallach - Desert Queen (1999)
  • H.V.F. Winstone - Gertrude Bell (2004)

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gertrude Bell - definition of Gertrude Bell in Encyclopedia (785 words)
Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868 - July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the country Iraq.
Bell was born in Washington Hall, County Durham, England to a family of great affluence.
In 1905, Bell was again in the Middle East and traveled widely studying local ruins and staying with both the Druzes and Beni Sakhr and meeting many Arab chieftains, emirs and sheiks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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