FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Germination" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Germination
Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination
Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination
Germination rate testing on the germination table
Germination rate testing on the germination table

Germination is the process whereby growth emerges from a period of dormancy. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. However, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, for example the growth of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination. In a more general sense, germination can imply anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ. Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1828x1600, 271 KB) Sunflower seedlings, just 3 days after being planted. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1828x1600, 271 KB) Sunflower seedlings, just 3 days after being planted. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Kiemtafel) germination table; File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Kiemtafel) germination table; File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Mixed bean sprouts Sprouting is the practice of soaking, draining, then rinsing at regular intervals seeds until they germinate and begin to sprout. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... A sporeling is a young plant or fungus produced by a germinated spore, similar to a seedling derived from a germinated seed. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Germ can mean: Microorganism, especially a pathogenic one; see Germ theory of disease. ...

Contents

Seed germination

Brassica campestris germinating seeds
Brassica campestris germinating seeds
A germinated seedling (Eranthis hyemalis) emerges from the ground
A germinated seedling (Eranthis hyemalis) emerges from the ground

Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed, it results in the formation of the seedling. The seed of a higher plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female sex cells. Most seeds go through a period of quiescences where there is no active growth, during this time the seed can be safely transported to a new location and/or survive adverse climate conditions until it is favorable for growth. The seed contains an embryo and in most plants stored food reserves wrapped in a seed coat. Under favorable conditions, the seed begins to germinate, and the embryonic tissues resume growth, developing towards a seedling. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 595 pixel Image in higher resolution (937 × 697 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Raapstelen kiemende zaden) Brassica campestris germinating seeds; Brassica campestris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 595 pixel Image in higher resolution (937 × 697 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by myself; (nl: Raapstelen kiemende zaden) Brassica campestris germinating seeds; Brassica campestris File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia... Species See text. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Species See text. ... Categories: Biology stubs | Developmental biology ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... In cell biology, quiescence is the state of a cell when it is not dividing. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ...


Requirements for seed germination

The germination of seeds is dependent on both internal and external conditions. The most important external factors include: temperature, water, oxygen and sometimes light or darkness.[1] Often different varieties of seeds require distinctive variables for successful germination; some seeds germinate while the soil is cold, while most germinate while the soil is warm. This depends on the individual seed variety and is closely linked to the ecological conditions of the plants' natural habitat. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ...

  • Water - is required for germination. Mature seeds are often extremely dry and need to take in significant amounts of water, relative to the seeds dry weight, before cellular metabolism and growth can resume. Most seeds respond best when there is enough water to moisten the seeds but not soak them. The uptake of water by seeds is called imbibition which leads to the swelling and the breaking of the seed coat. When seeds are formed, most plants store food, such as starch, proteins, or oils, to provide nourishment to the growing embryo inside the seed. When the seed imbibes water, hydrolytic enzymes are activated that break down these stored food resources in to metabolically useful chemicals, allowing the cells of the embryo to divide and grow, so the seedling can emerge from the seed.[1] Once the seedling starts growing and the food reserves are exhausted, it requires a continuous supply of water, nutrients and light for photosyntheses, which now provides the energy needed for continued growth.
  • Oxygen - is required by the germinating seed for metabolism:[2] If the soil is waterlogged or the seed is buried within the soil, it might be cut off from the necessary oxygen it needs. Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it has leaves, which can photosynthesize its energy requirements.[1] Some seeds have impermeable seed coats that prevent oxygen from entering the seeds, causing seed dormancy. Impermeable seed coats to oxygen or water, are types of physical dormancy which is broken when the seed coat is worn away enough to allow gas exchange or water uptake between the seed and its surrounds.
  • Temperature - affects cellular metabolic and growth rates. Different seeds germinate over a wide range of temperatures, with many preferring temperatures slightly higher than room-temperature while others germinate just above freezing and others responding to alternation in temperature between warm to cool. Often, seeds have a set of temperature ranges were they will germinate and will not do so above or below this range. In addition, some seeds may require exposure to cold temperature (vernalization) to break dormancy before they can germinate. As long as the seed is in its dormant state, it will not germinate even if conditions are favorable. Seeds that are dependent on temperature to end dormancy, have a type of physiological dormancy. For example, seeds requiring the cold of winter are inhibited from germinating until they experience cooler temperatures. For most seeds that require cold for germination 4C is cool enough to end dormancy, but some groups especially with in the family Ranunculaceae and others, need less than -5C. Some seeds will only germinate when temperatures reach hundreds of degrees, as during a forest fire. Without fire, they are unable to crack their seed coats, this is a type of physical dormancy.
  • Light or darkness - can be a type of environmental trigger for germination in seeds and is a type of physiological dormancy. Most seeds are not affected by light or darkness, but many seeds, including species found in forest settings will not germinate until an opening in the canopy allows them to receive sufficient light for the growing seedling.[1]

Stratification mimics natural processes that weaken the seed coat before germination. In nature, some seeds require particular conditions to germinate, such as the heat of a fire (e.g., many Australian native plants), or soaking in a body of water for a long period of time. Others have to be passed through an animal's digestive tract to weaken the seed coat and enable germination.[1] Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... --61. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Hydrolytic enzymes break down protein, carbohydrate, and fat molecules into their simplest units. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... genera see text Ranunculaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...

Malted (germinated) barley grains

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ...

Dormancy

Many live seeds have dormancy, meaning they will not germinate even if they have water and it is warm enough for the seedling to grow. Dormancy factors include conditions affecting many different parts of the seed, from the embryo to the seed coat. Dormancy is broken or ended by a number of different conditions and cues both internal and external to the seed. Environmental factors like light, temperature, fire, ingestion by animals and others are conditions that can end seed dormancy. Internally seeds can be dormant because of plant hormones such as absciscic acid, which affects seed dormancy and prevents germination, while the production and application of the hormone gibberellin can break dormancy and induces seed germination. This effect is used in brewing where barley is treated with gibberellin to ensure uniform seed germination to produce barley malt.[1] Dormancy is a arrested plant growth. ... Abscisic Acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II and dormin, is a plant hormone. ... GA1 GA3 ent-Gibberellane ent-Kauren Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in promotion of stem elongation, mobilization of food reserves in seeds and other processes. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ...


Seedling establishment

In some definitions, the appearance of the radicle marks the end of germination and the beginning of "establishment", a period that ends when the seedling has exhausted the food reserves stored in the seed. Germination and establishment as an independent organism are critical phases in the life of a plant when they are the most vulnerable to injury, disease, and water stress.[1] The germination index can be used as an indicator of phytotoxicity in soils. The mortality between dispersal of seeds and completion of establishment can be so high, that many species survive only by producing huge numbers of seeds. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Germination rate

In agriculture and gardening, germination rate is the number of seeds of a particular plant species, variety or particular seedlot that are likely to germinate. This is usually expressed as a percentage, e.g. an 85% germination rate indicates that about 85 out of 100 seeds will probably germinate under proper conditions. Germination rate is useful in calculating seed requirements for a given area or desired number of plants. A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Dicot germination

The part of the plant that emerges from the seed first is the embryonic root, termed radicle or primary root. This allows the seedling to become anchored in the ground and start absorbing water. After the root absorbs water, the embryonic shoot emerges from the seed. The shoot comprises three main parts: the cotyledons (seed leaves), the section of shoot below the cotyledons (hypocotyl), and the section of shoot above the cotyledons (epicotyl). The way the shoot emerges differs between plant groups.[1] In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during germination. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... Hypocotyl is a botanical term for a part of a germinating seedling of a seed plant. ... In plant physiology, the epicotyl is the embryonic shoot above the cotyledons. ...


Epigeous

In epigeous (or epigeal) germination, the hypocotyl elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the cotyledons and apical meristem through the soil. Once it reaches the surface, it straightens and pulls the cotyledons and shoot tip of the growing seedlings into the air. Beans, tamarind, and papaya are examples of plant that germinate this way.[1] In botany, a seed is described as epigeal when the cotyledons of the germinating seed expand, throw off the seed shell and become photosynthetic above the ground. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Meristem. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ...


Hypogeous

Another way of germination is hypogeous (or hypogeal) where the epicotyl elongates and forms the hook. In this type of germination, the cotyledons stay underground where they eventually decompose. Peas, for example, germinate this way.[1]


Monocot germination

In monocot seeds, the embryo's radicle and cotyledon are covered by a coleorhiza and coleoptile, respectively. The coleorhiza is the first part to grow out of the seed, followed by the radicle. The coleoptile is then pushed up through the ground until it reaches the surface. There, it stops elongating and the first leaves emerge through an opening as it is.[1] Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Schematic image of wheat coleoptile (above) and flag leave (below) Coleoptile is the pointed protective sheath covering the emerging shoot in monocotyledons such as oats and grasses. ...


Precocious germination

While not a class of germination, this refers to germination of the seed occurring inside the fruit before it has begun to decay. The seeds of the green apple commonly germinate in this manner.[citation needed]


Pollen germination

Another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain after pollination. Like seeds, pollen grains are severely dehydrated before being released to facilitate their dispersal from one plant to another. They consist of a protective coat containing several cells (up to 8 in gymnosperms, 2-3 in flowering plants). One of these cells is a tube cell. Once the pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive flower (or a female cone in gymnosperms), it takes up water and germinates. Pollen germination is facilitated by hydration on the stigma, as well as the structure and physiology of the stigma and style.[1] Pollen can also be induced to germinate in vitro (in a petri dish or test tube).[3][4] Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A flame cell is a specialized excretory cell found in the Platyhelminthes (except the tubellarian order Acoela); these are the simplest animals to have a dedicated excretory system. ... Look up stigma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... In chemistry, hydration is the condition of being combined with water. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


During germination, the tube cell elongates into a pollen tube. In the flower, the pollen tube then grows towards the ovule where it discharges the sperm produced in the pollen grain for fertilization. The germinated pollen grain with its two sperm cells is the mature male microgametophyte of these plants.[1] Pollen may refer to the microspores of either angiosperms (flowering plants) or gymnosperms (conifers and cycads). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ...


Self-incompatibility

Main article: Self-incompatibility in plants

Since most plants carry both male and female reproductive organs in their flowers, there is a high risk for self-pollination and thus inbreeding. Some plants use the control of pollen germination as a way to prevent this selfing. Germination and growth of the pollen tube involve molecular signaling between stigma and pollen. In self-incompatibility in plants, the stigma of certain plants can molecularly recognize pollen from the same plant and prevents it from germinating.[5] Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ...


Spore germination

Germination can also refer to the emergence of cells from resting spores and the growth of sporeling hyphae or thalli from spores in fungi, algae, and some plants. A spore created by fungi which is thickly encysted (has a thick cell wall) in order to survive through stressful times, such as drought. ... A sporeling is a young plant or fungus produced by a germinated spore, similar to a seedling derived from a germinated seed. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Thallus may mean: Thallus (tissue), an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ...


Resting spores

In resting spores, germination involves cracking the thick cell wall of the dormant spore. For example, in zygomycetes the thick-walled zygosporangium cracks open and the zygospore inside gives rise to the emerging sporangiophore. In slime molds, germination refers to the emergence of amoeboid cells from the hardened spore. After cracking the spore coat, further development involves cell division, but not necessarily the development of a multicellular organism (for example in the free-living amoebas of slime molds).[1] A spore created by fungi which is thickly encysted (has a thick cell wall) in order to survive through stressful times, such as drought. ... Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ... A zygospore is a sexual part of a fungus, a chlamydospore that is created by the nuclear fusion of haploid hyphae of different mating types. ... Typical orders Protostelia Protosteliida Myxogastria Liceida Echinosteliida Trichiida Stemonitida Physarida Dictyostelia Dictyosteliida Slime (or slime mold) is a broad term often referring to roughly six groups of Eukaryotes. ... Amoeba (Chaos diffluens) Foraminiferan (Ammonia tepida) Heliozoan (Actinophrys sol) Amoeboids are cells that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods (false feet). ...


Zoospores

In motile zoospores, germination frequently means a lack of motility and changes in cell shape, which allow the organism to become sessile.[1] A motile asexual spore utilizing a flagellum for locomotion. ...


Ferns and mosses

In plants such as bryophytes, ferns, and a few others, spores germinate into independent gametophytes. In the bryophytes (e.g. mosses and liverworts), spores germinate into protonemata, similar to fungal hyphae, from which the gametophyte grows. In ferns, the gametophytes are small, heart-shaped prothalli that can often be found underneath a spore-shedding adult plant.[1] For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... A protonema (plural: protonemata) is a thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of a bryophyte life cycle. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Liverwort Prothallus A prothallium, or prothallus; from Latin pro = forwards and Greek θαλλος (thallos) = twig; is usually a pteridophyte, i. ...


See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... Mixed bean sprouts Sprouting is the practice of soaking, draining, then rinsing at regular intervals seeds until they germinate and begin to sprout. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants, 7th Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, 504-508. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. 
  2. ^ S. M. Siegel, L. A. Rosen (1962) Effects of Reduced Oxygen Tension on Germination and Seedling Growth Physiologia Plantarum 15 (3) , 437–444 doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08047.x
  3. ^ Martin FW (1972). "In Vitro Measurement of Pollen Tube Growth Inhibition". Plant Physiol 49 (6): 924–925. PMID 16658085. 
  4. ^ Pfahler PL (1981). "In vitro germination characteristics of maize pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants". Environ. Health Perspect. 37: 125–32. PMID 7460877. 
  5. ^ Takayama S, Isogai A (2005). "Self-incompatibility in plants". Annu Rev Plant Biol 56: 467–89. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144249. PMID 15862104. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more on the topic of
Germination
  • Sowing Seeds A survey of seed sowing techniques.
  • Seed Germination: Theory and Practice, Norman C. Deno, 139 Lenor Dr., State College PA 16801, USA. An extensive study of the germination rates of a huge variety of seeds under different experimental conditions, including temperature variation and chemical environment.
  • Two methods of germinating tree seeds Learn two methods to germinate tree seeds. Either naturally or artificially.
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Germination Summary (2344 words)
Germination, by definition, starts when the seed takes up water, a process known as imbibition, and is completed when the embryonic root, the radicle, penetrates the outer structures of the seed (usually the seed coat and, in some species, the surrounding storage tissues of the endosperm).
Germination refers to the beginning of growth of a mature seed, to produce a small plant, or seedling.
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of a flowering plant or gymnosperm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m