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Encyclopedia > Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Federal Republic of Germany
Flag of Germany Coat of arms of Germany
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
"Unity and justice and freedom"
Anthem
Das Lied der Deutschen (third stanza)
also called Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit
Location of  Germany  (orange)

– on the European continent  (camel & white)
– in the European Union  (camel)                 [ Legend] Deutschland refers to: Germany Deutschland, a blockade-breaking German cargo submarine used during World War I. Deutschland, first of the 1930s pocket battleships, later renamed Lützow Deutschland, a steamship wrecked in 1875 and commemorated in the poem by Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Wreck of the Deutschland SS Deutschland III... Look up Germany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Berlin
52°31′N, 13°24′E
Official languages German1
Government Parliamentary Federal Republic
 -  President Horst Köhler
 -  Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU)
Formation
 -  Eastern Francia 843 
 -  Holy Roman Empire 962 
 -  German Confederation 8 June 1815 
 -  German Empire 18 January 1871 
 -  Federal Republic 23 May 1949 
 -  Reunification 3 October 1990 
Accession to
the
European Union
25 March 1957
Area
 -  Total 357,050 km² (63rd)
137,858 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.416
Population
 -  2006 estimate 82,401,000 (14th)
 -  2000 census n/a 
 -  Density 230.9 /km² (50th)
598.5 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.585 trillion (5th)
 -  Per capita $31,400 (17th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.89 trillion (3rd)
 -  Per capita $35,072 (19th)
Gini? (2000) 28.3 (low
HDI (2004) 0.932 (high) (21st)
Currency Euro () (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .de and .eu
Calling code +49
1 Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany and Frisian are officially recognized and protected by the ECRML.

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: , IPA: [ˈbʊndəsrepubliːk ˈdɔʏʧlant]), is a country in West-central Europe. It is bordered on the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea, on the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, on the south by Austria and Switzerland, and on the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Germanys population pyramid. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Horst Köhler ( â–¶(?), born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... The federal head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... East Francia was the land of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2004) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code EUR User(s) Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Luxembourg, Monaco, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Vatican City Inflation 1. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .de is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Federal Republic of Germany. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by about half a million members of Frisian ethnic groups living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Image File history File links De-Bundesrepublik_Deutschland-pronunciation. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Germany is a parliamentary federal republic of sixteen states (Bundesländer). The capital city and seat of government is Berlin. As a nation-state, the country was unified amidst the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. After World War II Germany was divided, and it became reunified in 1990. Today, it is the sixth largest country in the world. It is a founding member of the European Union, and with over 82 million people it has the largest population among the EU member states.[1] A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The German Empire of 1871. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG...


The Federal Republic of Germany is a modern great power, and a member state of the United Nations, NATO, the G8 and the G4 nations and ranks fourth worldwide in defence spending.[2][3] Germany is the world's third largest economy by nominal GDP, the world's largest exporter of goods, and the world's second largest importer of goods.[4] In 2007 it holds the rotating presidencies of both the European Council and the G8 summits. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The Group of Eight (G8) is an international forum for the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... G4 countries. ... Military expenditure by country using CIA World Factbook figures Military spending as a percentage of GDP using CIA World Factbook figures This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Map of amount of exports per country This is a list of countries by exports, mostly based on The World Factbook [1] accessed in February 2006. ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Germany

This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ...

Germanic tribes (100 BCE – CE 300)

Main articles: Germanic peoples and Germania

The ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes is assumed to have occurred during the Nordic Bronze Age, or at the latest, during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and northern Germany, the tribes began expanding south, east and west in the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Eastern Europe. Little is known about early Germanic history, except through their interactions with the Roman Empire and archaeological finds.[5] Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... This article is about the European people. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... http://www. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ...

Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)
Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)

Under Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germany, and it was in this period that the German tribes became familiar with Roman tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity. In AD 9, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius (Hermann) in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Germany, as far as the Rhine and the Danube, thus remained outside the Roman Empire. By AD 100, the time of Tacitus' Germania, Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisians, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 700 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/png) von de:Benutzer:Schreiber erstellt (GNU-FDL) es handelt sich um die räumliche Verteilung von germanischen Volksgruppen um 100 n. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixel Image in higher resolution (969 × 700 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/png) von de:Benutzer:Schreiber erstellt (GNU-FDL) es handelt sich um die räumliche Verteilung von germanischen Volksgruppen um 100 n. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe inhabiting the Rhine valley and the plains and forests of northwestern Germany (between near modern Osnabrück and Hanover) during the 1st century BCE and 1st century CE. They were first allies and then enemies of Rome. ... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Hermann, Armin, 16 BC–AD 21) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius (Hermann) Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength Unknown 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle of the Teutoburg... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Map of Upper Germanic Limes The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a remarkable line of frontier (limes) forts that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Raetia, and divided the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes, from the years 83 to 260. ... area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri (var. ... The Thuringii were a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ...

See also: List of meanings of countries' names

Media:Example. ...

Holy Roman Empire (843–1806)

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, from a 1341 parchment.
Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, from a 1341 parchment.

The medieval empire stemmed from a division of the Carolingian Empire in 843, which was founded by Charlemagne on 25 December 800, and existed in varying forms until 1806, its territory stretching from the Eider River in the north to the Mediterranean coast in the south. Often referred to as the Holy Roman Empire (or the Old Empire), it was officially called the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation ("Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanicæ") starting in 1448, to adjust the title to its then reduced territory. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x1037, 718 KB) Beschreibung en: The seven prince electors electing Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1446x1037, 718 KB) Beschreibung en: The seven prince electors electing Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... The Eider (-German; Danish: Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...


Under the reign of the Ottonian emperors (919–1024), the duchies of Lorraine, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Thuringia, and Bavaria were consolidated, and the German king was crowned Holy Roman Emperor of these regions in 962. Under the reign of the Salian emperors (1024–1125), the Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy, although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy. Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), the German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs. Northern German towns grew prosperous as members of the Hanseatic League. Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... During the Early Middle Ages, the stem duchies formed the major divisions of the eastern Carolingian kingdom (roughly the region of modern Germany). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ... Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in modern Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... Germany. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ...

The edict of the Golden Bull in 1356 provided the basic constitution of the empire that lasted until its dissolution. It codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics. Beginning in the 15th century, the emperors were elected nearly exclusively from the Habsburg dynasty of Austria. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (479x700, 71 KB) Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, painted in 1529, scan by Carol Gerten-Jackson. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (479x700, 71 KB) Martin Luther by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, painted in 1529, scan by Carol Gerten-Jackson. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


The monk Martin Luther wrote his 95 Theses questioning the Roman Catholic Church in 1517, thereby sparking the Protestant Reformation. A separate Lutheran church was acknowledged as the newly sanctioned religion in many states of Germany after 1530. Religious conflict led to the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated German lands. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended religious warfare in Germany, but the empire was de facto divided into numerous independent principalities. From 1740 onwards, the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1806, the Imperium was overrun and dissolved as a result of the Napoleonic Wars.[7] Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Karl...


Restoration and revolution (1814–71)

Main article: German Confederation

Following the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. Disagreement with restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, demanding unity and freedom. These, however, were followed by new measures of repression on the part of the Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollverein, a tariff union, profoundly furthered economic unity in the German states. During this era many Germans had been stirred by the ideals of the French Revolution, and nationalism became a more significant force, especially among young intellectuals. For the first time, the colours of black, red and gold were chosen to represent the movement, which later became the national colours.[8] The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, became Napoléon I, Emperor of the French)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The following List of German Confederation member states shows those states that in 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 1866. ... in art, returning something to a better state, see art conservation and restoration In criminal justice, restoration is another term for restorative justice. ... This article aims to give an historical overview of liberalism in Germany. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ...

Frankfurt Parliament in 1848
Frankfurt Parliament in 1848

In light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe, which successfully established a republic in France, intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. The monarchs initially yielded to the revolutionaries' liberal demands. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement. Conflict between King William I of Prussia and the increasingly liberal parliament erupted over military reforms in 1862, and the king appointed Otto von Bismarck the new Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismark successfully waged war on Denmark in 1864. Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Federation (Norddeutscher Bund) and to exclude Austria, formerly the leading German state, from the affairs of the remaining German states.
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x743, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Revolutions of 1848 in the German states Frankfurt Parliament Großdeutschland Germania (painting) Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/March... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x743, 216 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Revolutions of 1848 in the German states Frankfurt Parliament Großdeutschland Germania (painting) Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/March... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Confederation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following...


German Empire (1871–1918)

Foundation of modern Germany in Versailles-France, 1871. Bismarck is at the center in a white uniform.
Foundation of modern Germany in Versailles-France, 1871. Bismarck is at the center in a white uniform.
Main article: German Empire

The state known as Germany ("Deutschland" in German language; the Romans referred to the region as "Germania"[9]) was unified as a modern nation-state in 1871, when the German Empire was forged, with the Kingdom of Prussia as its largest constituent. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich) was proclaimed in Versailles on 18 January 1871. The Hohenzollern dynasty of Prussia ruled the new empire, whose capital was Berlin. The empire was a unification of all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria (Kleindeutschland, or "Lesser Germany"). Beginning in 1884, Germany began establishing several colonies outside of Europe. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Château de Versailles, or Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... German colonial empire This is a list of former German Empire colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete), the German colonial empire. ...


In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany, Emperor William I's foreign policy secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war. Under William II, however, Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany had been previously involved were not renewed, and new alliances excluded the country. Specifically, France established new relationships by signing the Entente Cordiale with the United Kingdom and securing ties with the Russian Empire. Aside from its contacts with Austria-Hungary, Germany became increasingly isolated. The Gründerzeit (German, literally: the Founding Epoch) denotes the first decades after the foundation in 1871 of the Prussia-led German Empire. ... The German Empire of 1871. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Entente Cordiale (French for friendly understanding) is a series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904, between the United Kingdom and France. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...

Imperial Germany (1871-1918)
Imperial Germany (1871-1918)

Germany's imperialism reached outside of its own country and joined many other powers in Europe to claim their share of Africa. The Berlin Conference divided Africa between the European powers. Germany owned several pieces of land on Africa including German East Africa, South-West Africa, Togo, and Cameroon. The Scramble for Africa caused tension between the great powers that may have contributed to the conditions that led to World War I. Download high resolution version (1200x1015, 27 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1015, 27 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 triggered World War I. Germany, as part of the unsuccessful Central Powers, suffered defeat against the Allied Powers in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. The German Revolution broke out in November 1918, and Emperor William II and all German ruling princes abdicated. An armistice putting an end to the war was signed on 11 November and Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919. Its negotiation, contrary to traditional post-war diplomacy, excluded the defeated Central Powers. The treaty was perceived in Germany as a humiliating continuation of the war by other means and its harshness is often cited as having facilitated the later rise of Nazism in the country.[10] A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria, Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... November Revolution redirects here. ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Weimar Republic (1919–33)

Subdivisions of Germany in 1925. Map showing borders of Germany from 1919 until 1937.
Subdivisions of Germany in 1925. Map showing borders of Germany from 1919 until 1937.
Main article: Weimar Republic

After the success of the German Revolution in November 1918, a republic was proclaimed. The Weimar Constitution came into effect with its signing by President Friedrich Ebert on 11 August 1919. The German Communist Party was established by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in 1918, and the German Workers Party, later known as the National Socialist German Workers Party or Nazi Party, was founded in January 1919. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... November Revolution redirects here. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... â–¶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... The Nazi Party (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ...


Suffering from the Great Depression, the harsh peace conditions dictated by the Treaty of Versailles, and a long succession of more or less unstable governments, the political masses in Germany increasingly lacked identification with their political system of parliamentary democracy. This was exacerbated by a wide-spread right-wing (monarchist, völkisch, and Nazi) Dolchstoßlegende, a political myth which claimed that Germany lost World War I because of the German Revolution, not because of military defeat. On the other hand, radical left-wing communists, such as the Spartacist League, had wanted to abolish what they perceived as "capitalist rule" in favour of a Räterepublik. Paramilitary troops were set up by several parties and there were thousands of politically motivated murders. The paramilitary intimidated voters and seeded violence and anger among the public, which suffered from high unemployment and poverty. After a succession of unsuccessful cabinets, President Paul von Hindenburg, seeing little alternative and pushed by right-wing advisors, appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The federal head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Third Reich (1933–45)

Main articles: Nazi Germany and World War II

On 27 February 1933, the Reichstag was set on fire. Some basic democratic rights were quickly abrogated afterwards under an emergency decree. An Enabling Act gave Hitler's government full legislative power. Only the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted against it; the Communists were not able to present a viable opposition, as many of their deputies had already been murdered or imprisoned.[11][12] A centralised totalitarian state was established by a series of moves and decrees making Germany a single-party state. Industry was closely regulated with quotas and requirements, to shift the economy towards a war production base. In 1936 German troops entered the demilitarized Rhineland, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policies proved inadequate. Emboldened, Hitler followed from 1938 onwards a policy of expansionism to establish Greater Germany. To avoid a two-front war, Hitler concluded the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with the Soviet Union, a pact which was later broken by Germany. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x740, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benito Mussolini The Rome-Berlin Axis ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x740, 99 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Benito Mussolini The Rome-Berlin Axis ... Hitler redirects here. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... The Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz in German) was passed by Germanys parliament (the Reichstag) on March 23, 1933. ... SPD redirects here. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... National assembly meeting in St. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


In 1939, the growing tensions from nationalism, militarism, and territorial issues led to the Germans launching a blitzkrieg on September 1 against Poland, followed two days later by declarations of war by Britain and France, marking the beginning of World War II. Germany quickly gained direct or indirect control of the majority of Europe. The immediate Causes of World War II are generally held to be the German invasion of Poland, and the Japanese attacks on China, the United States, and the British and Dutch colonies. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Occupied Europe was the name given to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...

Berlin in ruins after World War II, Potsdamer Platz 1945
Berlin in ruins after World War II, Potsdamer Platz 1945

On 22 June 1941, Hitler broke the pact with the Soviet Union by opening the Eastern Front and invading the Soviet Union. Shortly after Japan attacked the American base at Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States. Although initially the German army rapidly advanced into the Soviet Union, the Battle of Stalingrad marked a major turning point in the war. Subsequently, the German army commenced retreating on the Eastern Front, followed by the eventual defeat of Germany. On 8 May 1945, Germany surrendered after the Red Army occupied Berlin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


In what later became known as The Holocaust, the Third Reich regime enacted governmental policies directly subjugating many parts of society: Jews, Slavs, Communists, Roma, homosexuals, freemasons, political dissidents, priests, preachers, religious opponents, and the disabled, amongst others. During the Nazi era, about eleven million people were murdered in the Holocaust, including six million Jews and three million Poles. World War II and the Nazi genocide were responsible for about 35 million dead in Europe.
“Shoah” redirects here. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... The Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) was a Christian resistance movement in Nazi Germany. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Division and reunification (1945-90)

Occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in stripes) became a protectorate of France from 1947- 1956.
Occupation zones in 1946 after territorial annexations in the East. The Saarland (in stripes) became a protectorate of France from 1947- 1956.
Main article: History of Germany since 1945

The war resulted in the death of nearly ten million German soldiers and civilians; large territorial losses; the expulsion of about 15 million Germans from its former eastern territories and other countries; and the destruction of multiple major cities. Germany and Berlin were partitioned by the Allies into four military occupation zones. The sectors controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States were merged on 23 May 1949, to form the Federal Republic of Germany; on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone established the German Democratic Republic. In English, the two states were known informally as "West Germany" and "East Germany". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 26 KB) Beschreibung, Quelle und Lizenz Manche Bundesländer sind erst 1946 gebildet worden. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... GDR redirects here. ...


West Germany, established as a liberal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy", was allied with the United States, the UK and France. The country eventually came to enjoy prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s (Wirtschaftswunder). West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1958. Across the border, East Germany was at first occupied by, and later (May 1955) allied with, the USSR. An authoritarian country with a Soviet-style command economy, East Germany soon became the richest, most advanced country in the Warsaw Pact, but many of its citizens looked to the West for political freedoms and economic prosperity.[13] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping to West Germany, became a symbol of the Cold War. However, tensions between East and West Germany were somewhat reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik, which included the de facto acceptance of Germany's territorial losses in World War II. The Social market economy was the German and Austrian economic model during the Cold War era. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ...

The Berlin Wall that had partitioned Berlin in front of the Brandenburg Gate shortly after the opening of the wall

In the face of a growing migration of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and mass demonstrations during the summer of 1989, East German authorities unexpectedly eased the border restrictions in November, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West. This led to the acceleration of the process of reforms in East Germany that concluded with German reunification on 3 October 1990. Under the terms of the treaty between West and East Germany, Berlin again became the capital of the reunited Germany. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and the symbol of Berlin, Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Since reunification, Germany has taken a leading role in the European Union and NATO. Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[14]
Combatants NATO Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Various militias and paramilitaries, as well as international volunteers [1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR) Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Army of Yugoslavia) Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of Staff) Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff) Casualties 2 confirmed... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the armed forces of Germany. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations: ISAF NATO, including: Canada United Kingdom Netherlands France United States Commanders Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund Mullah Dadullah Bismillah Khan Tommy Franks Dan McNeill David Fraser Strength 12,000 claimed by Taliban Afghan Army: 46,000... Public execution of a woman by Taliban at Ghazi Sports Stadium, 1999. ...


Government

The Reichstag is the old and new site of the German parliament.
The Reichstag is the old and new site of the German parliament.
Main article: Politics of Germany

Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments to the Grundgesetz require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the articles guaranteeing fundamental rights, a democratic state, and the right to resist attempts to overthrow the constitution are valid in perpetuity and cannot be amended.[15] The Grundgesetz remained in effect, with minor amendments, after German reunification in 1990, despite the intention of the Grundgesetz to be replaced by a proper constitution after the reunion. (Which was called Grundgesetz for precisely this reason.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Reichstag building. ... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and krateo, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... A constitution is a system, often codified as a written document, that establishes the rules and principles that govern an organization or political entity. ... The Basic Law (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG...


The Chancellor is the head of government and exercises executive power, similar to the role of a Prime Minister. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form a unique type of legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections; the members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federal states and are members of the state cabinets, which appoint them and can remove them at any time. The federal head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... In political science and greek constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Swiss Federal Council (in German: Bundesrat, in French: Conseil fédéral, in Italian: Consiglio federale, in Romansh: Cussegl Federal) is the seven-member executive council which collectively assumes the office of head of state equivalent to that of a president or of a monarch in the government of... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...

The Bundeskanzleramt has been the seat of the German Chancellor since 2001.
The Bundeskanzleramt has been the seat of the German Chancellor since 2001.

Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany[16] although smaller parties, such as the liberal Free Democratic Party (which has had members in the Bundestag since 1949) and the Alliance '90/The Greens (which has controlled seats in parliament since 1983) have also played important roles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1170x868, 201 KB) Description: de: Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1170x868, 201 KB) Description: de: Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin. ... Kanzleramt, view from the Reichstag Kanzleramt Kanzleramt, view from Spree Kanzleramt Kanzleramt The German Chancellery (in German, Bundeskanzleramt, or more commonly: Kanzleramt) is the administrative body of the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei - FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...


The German head of state is the President of Germany, elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. The second highest official in the German order of precedence is the President of the Bundestag, who is elected by the Bundestag itself. He or she is responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor. He or she is nominated by the President of Germany and elected by the Bundestag. If necessary, he or she can be removed by a constructive motion of no confidence by the Bundestag, where "constructive" implies that the Bundestag needs to elect a successor. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The German order of precedence is a symbolic hierarchy of officials in the Government of Germany used to direct protocol. ... The President of the Bundestag (German: Präsident des Deutschen Bundestages or Bundestagspräsident) presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Foreign relations

Chancellor Angela Merkel meeting French President Jacques Chirac and Russian President Vladimir Putin

Germany has played a leading role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France since the end of World War II. The alliance was especially close in the late 1980s and early 1990s under the leadership of Christian Democrat Helmut Kohl and Socialist François Mitterrand. Germany is at the forefront of European states seeking to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European political, defence and security apparatus.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata ChiracMerkelPutin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChiracMerkelPutin. ...   (IPA: ) (born in Hamburg, Germany, on July 17, 1954, as Angela Dorothea Kasner), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) has served as the Gaullist President of France since he was first elected in 1995. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). ... François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl in Verdun in 1984 The Franco-German Cooperation or Franco-German Partnership are terms to describe the high collaboration between the countries of France and Germany in the post-1945 world. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... The Socialist Party (French: Parti Socialiste or PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...


Since its establishment on 23 May 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany kept a notably low profile in international relations, because of both its recent history and its occupation by foreign powers.[18] During the Cold War, Germany's partition by the Iron Curtain made it a symbol of East-West tensions and a political battleground in Europe. However, Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik was a key factor in the détente of the 1970s.[19] In 1999 Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking a full part in the decisions surrounding the NATO war against Yugoslavia and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since World War II.[20] May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...

President Horst Köhler
President Horst Köhler

Germany and the United States have been close allies since the end of World War II.[21] The Marshall Plan, the continued U.S. support during the rebuilding process after World War II, and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries, although Schröder's very vocal opposition to the Iraq War suggested the end of Atlanticism and a relative cooling of German-American relations.[22] The two countries are also economically interdependent; 8.8% of German exports are U.S.-bound and 6.6% of German imports originate from the U.S.[23] The other way around, 8.8 % of U.S. exports ship to Germany and 9.8 % of U.S. imports come from Germany.[23] Other signs of the close ties include the continuing position of German-Americans as the largest ethnic group in the U.S.[24] and the status of Ramstein Air Base (near Kaiserslautern) as the largest U.S. military community outside the U.S.[25] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 715 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1951 × 1635 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 715 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1951 × 1635 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany Metadata This... Horst Köhler ( â–¶(?), born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... Boeing C-17A Lot XII Globemaster III Serial 00-0172 Spirit of the Cascades at the Ramstein cargo terminal. ... This is the article about the city, for the district see Kaiserslautern (district)   is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland of Rheinland-Pfalz at the edge of the Palatine Forest (Pfälzer Wald). ...


Military

The F218 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is participating in a UNIFIL II operation off the coast of Lebanon
The F218 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is participating in a UNIFIL II operation off the coast of Lebanon
Main article: Bundeswehr

Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is a defence force with Heer (Army), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (Central Medical Services) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Service Support Command) branches. Military Service is compulsory for men at the age of 18, and conscripts serve nine-month tours of duty (conscientious objectors may instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (roughly translated as civilian service), or a longer commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department, the Red Cross or the THW). In 2003, military spending constituted 1.5% of the country's GDP.[26] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence, currently Franz Josef Jung. If Germany went to war, which according to the constitution is allowed only for defensive purposes, the Chancellor would become commander in chief of the Bundeswehr.[27] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 55 KB) Summary Image taken from German wikipedia, de:Bild:Fregatte_Mecklenburg-Vorpommern_F218. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 55 KB) Summary Image taken from German wikipedia, de:Bild:Fregatte_Mecklenburg-Vorpommern_F218. ... A Sisu XA-180 used by Swedish UNIFIL forces in Lebanon The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on March 19, 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the armed forces of Germany. ... The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the armed forces of Germany. ... The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern Air... This or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Medical Services is the English translation of the German Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (in short: Sanitätsdienst) which is the term for the medical services of the German armed forces. ... Logo of the Streitkräftebasis Feldjäger(MP) patrol vehicle Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service, SKB) is a branch of the German Bundeswehr established in October 2000. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A volunteer fire department (VFD) is an organization of firefighters who have joined forces to perform fire suppression and other related emergency services for a local jurisdiction. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... THW-Logo The Bundesanstalt Technisches Hilfswerk THW (German for: Federal Technical Relief Agency) is an organisation of the German government. ... Franz Josef Jung (born 5 March 1949) is a German politician (CDU). ...


As of October 2006, the German military had almost 9,000 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 1,180 troops stationed in Bosnia-Herzegovina; 2,844 Bundeswehr soldiers in Kosovo; 750 soldiers stationed as a part of EUFOR in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and 2,800 German troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan. As of February 2007, Germany had about 3000 ISAF troops in Afghanistan, the third largest contingent after the United States (14000) and the United Kingdom (5200).[28] Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... EUFOR former Commander General David Leakey Soldier of the EUFOR participating in operation Spring Lift, as part of Althea The EUFOR or European Union Force is an international military force under the supervision of the European Council. ... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is an international military force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ...


Law

Main article: Judiciary of Germany

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2133x1506, 972 KB) Bundesverfassungsgericht, Karlsruhe Photograph Tobias Helfrich, January 14th, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2133x1506, 972 KB) Bundesverfassungsgericht, Karlsruhe Photograph Tobias Helfrich, January 14th, 2005. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... // Overview The judiciarys independence and extensive responsibilities reflect the importance of the rule of law in the German system of government. ...

Federal level

The Judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. Germany has a civil or statute law system that is based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), located in Karlsruhe, is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[29] It acts as the highest legal authority and ensures that legislative and judicial practice conforms to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Basic Law). It acts independently of the other state bodies, but cannot act on its own behalf. // Overview The judiciarys independence and extensive responsibilities reflect the importance of the rule of law in the German system of government. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Customary law codes of the Germans before their contact with the Romans. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or (in some jurisdictions) for the violation of basic principles of justice. ... The Basic Law (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ...


Germany's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialized. For civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the Federal Court of Justice, located in Karlsruhe and Leipzig. The courtroom style is inquisitorial. Other Federal Courts are the Federal Labor Court in Erfurt, the Federal Social Court in Kassel, the Federal Finance Court in Munich and the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig. The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest appeals court in Germany for cases of civil and criminal law. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ... An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties. ... Schriftzug The Federal Labor Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for cases of labour law, both individual labour law (mostly concerning contracts of employment) and collective labour law (e. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... The Federal Finance Court (Bundesfinanzhof) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... The Federal Administrative Court (Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. ...


Criminal law and private law are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system is aimed towards rehabilitation of the criminal; its secondary goal is the protection of the general public.[30] To achieve the latter, a convicted criminal can be put in preventive detention (Sicherheitsverwahrung) in addition to the regular sentence if he is considered to be a threat to the general public. The Völkerstrafgesetzbuch regulates the consequences of crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes. It gives German courts universal jurisdiction if prosecution by a court of the country where the crime was committed, or by an international court, is not possible. Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Strafgesetzbuch is the German, Swiss, Liechtenstein and Austrian criminal law. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... The Völkerstrafgesetzbuch (VStGB) German law that regulates the consequences of crimes against public international law. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ...


State level

Legislative power is divided between the federation and the state level. The Basic Law presumes that all legislative power remains at the state level unless otherwise designated by the Basic Law itself. In some areas, federal and state level have concurrent legislative power. In such cases, the federate level has power to legislation "if and to the extent that the establishment of equal living conditions throughout the federal territory or the maintenance of legal or economic unity renders federal regulation necessary in the national interest" (Art. 72 Basic Law).

Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany - Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1949
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany - Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1949

Any federal law overrides state law if the legislative power lies at the federal level. A famous example is the Hessian permission of the death penalty that goes against the ban of capital punishment by the Basic Law. The Bundesrat is the federal organ through which the states participate in national legislation. State participation in federal legislation is necessary if the law falls within the area of concurrent legislative power, requires states to administer federal regulations, or if designated so by the Basic Law. Every state with the exception of Schleswig-Holstein (whose constitutional jurisdiction is exercised by the Bundesverfassungsgericht in procuration) has its own constitutional courts. The Amtsgerichte, Landesgerichte and Oberlandesgerichte are state courts of general jurisdiction. They are competent whether the action is based on federal or state law. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Basic Law (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Bundesländer) of Germany at the federal level. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Procuration (Lat. ... German for Local District Court, situated in Germany in almost every larger capital of a rural district. ... A court of general jurisdiction is one that has the authority to hear cases of all kinds - criminal, civil, family, probate, and so forth. ...


Many of the fundamental matters in administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states, though most states base their own laws in that area on the 1976 Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz (Administrative Proceedings Act) in important points of administrative law. The Oberverwaltungsgerichte are the highest levels in administrative jurisdiction concerning the state administrations, unless the question of law concerns federal law or state law identical to federal law. In such cases, final appeal to the Federal Administrative Court is possible. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies of government. ...


Administrative divisions

Germany is divided into sixteen states (Länder, singular Land; commonly Bundesländer, singular Bundesland). It is further subdivided into 439 districts (Kreise) and cities (kreisfreie Städte) (2004). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ...

State Capital Area Population
Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,752 km² 10,717,000
Bayern München 70,549 km² 12,444,000
Berlin Berlin 892 km² 3,400,000
Brandenburg Potsdam 29,477 km² 2,568,000
Bremen Bremen 404 km² 663,000
Hamburg Hamburg 755 km² 1,735,000
Hessen Wiesbaden 21,115 km² 6,098,000
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,174 km² 1,720,000
Niedersachsen Hannover 47,618 km² 8,001,000
Nordrhein-Westfalen Düsseldorf 34,043 km² 18,075,000
Rheinland-Pfalz Mainz 19,847 km² 4,061,000
Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 km² 1,056,000
Sachsen Dresden 18,416 km² 4,296,000
Sachsen-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,445 km² 2,494,000
Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,763 km² 2,829,000
Thüringen Erfurt 16,172 km² 2,355,000
States and cities in Germany.

Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Baden-Württemberg is a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine. ... City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Stuttgart Palace Square - New Palace Solitude Palace The 1956 TV Tower U.S. Army Kelley Barracks Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 591,528 (as of April 2006) in the city... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (official name in German: Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest of Germanys 16 Federal States (Bundesländer). ... Bremen, see Bremen (disambiguation). ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km² and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states. ... Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and (together with Cologne and the Ruhr Area) the economic center of Western Germany. ... Rhineland-Palatinate (German Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... With an area of 18,400 sq. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... This article is about the German city. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Geography and climate

Altitude levels
Altitude levels
Main article: Geography of Germany

Germany has the second largest population in Europe (after European Russia) and is seventh largest in area. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 square kilometres (137,850 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 square kilometres (134,835 sq mi) of land and 7,798 square kilometres (3,010 sq mi) of water. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres (9,718 ft)) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the north-west and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the north-east. Between lie the forested uplands of central Germany and the low-lying lands of northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres (11.6 ft) below sea level), traversed by some of Europe's major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.[26] Because of its central location, Germany shares borders with more European countries than any other country on the continent. Its neighbours are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south, France and Luxembourg in the south-west and Belgium and the Netherlands in the north-west. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1205, 2230 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1205, 2230 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... This article describes the geography of Germany. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The Zugspitze (Zug=draught, Spitze=peak) is NOT the highest mountain in Germany. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Wilstermarsch is an Amt (collective municipality) in the district of Steinburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...

Alpine scenery in southern Bavaria.
Alpine scenery in southern Bavaria.

Most of Germany has a cool, temperate climate in which humid westerly winds predominate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, which is the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea including the peninsula of Jutland and the area along the Rhine, which flows into the North Sea. Consequently in the north-west and the north, the climate is oceanic; rainfall occurs year round with a maximum during summer. Winters there are mild and summers tend to be cool, though temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) for prolonged periods. In the east, the climate is more continental; winters can be very cold, summers can be very warm, and long dry periods are often recorded. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. Again, the maximum temperature can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in summer.[31][32] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2296 × 1531 pixel, file size: 575 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hintersee, Lake in Bavaria, Germany Source: own work Uploader: User:Nikater Date: October 4, 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2296 × 1531 pixel, file size: 575 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hintersee, Lake in Bavaria, Germany Source: own work Uploader: User:Nikater Date: October 4, 2006 Other Versions: none License status: File links... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The North Atlantic Current (North Atlantic Drift and the North Atlantic Sea Movement) is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at coastal tropical highlands and tropical coasts on leeward sides... Late-summer rainstorm in Denmark In meteorology, precipitation (also known as hydrometeor) is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Summer is a season of the year that is defined as beginning on June 21st, and ending in September in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts and southwest coasts of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of...


Economy

Frankfurt am Main is Germany's financial centre.
Main article: Economy of Germany

Germany has the largest economy in Europe and the third largest economy in the world, behind the United States and Japan.[33] It is ranked fifth in the world in terms of purchasing power parity.[34] The export of goods is an essential part of the German economy and one of the main factors of its wealth. According to the World Trade Organization, Germany is the world's top exporter with $912 billion exported in 2005 (Germany's exports to other Eurozone countries are included in this total).[35] It has a large trade surplus (160.6 billion euros in 2005).[35][36] In the service sector, Germany ranks second behind the United States.[35] Most of the country's exports are in engineering, especially in automobiles, machinery, and chemical goods.[26] In terms of total capacity to generate electricity from wind power, Germany is first in the world and it is also the main exporter of wind turbines.[37] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) is the subset of European Union member states which have adopted the euro, creating a currency union. ... Balance of trade figures are the sum of the money gained by a given economy by selling exports, minus the cost of buying imports. ... This box:      The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ...

A Mercedes-Benz S-Class. Germany is the world's leading exporter of goods in 2003- 2006.
A Mercedes-Benz S-Class. Germany is the world's leading exporter of goods in 2003- 2006.

Although problems created by reunification in 1990 have begun to diminish,[38] the standard of living remains higher in the western half of the country. Germans continue to be concerned about a relatively high level of unemployment, especially in the former East German states where unemployment tops 18%.[38] In spite of its extremely good performance in international trade, domestic demand has stalled for many years because of stagnating wages and consumer insecurity. Germany's government runs a restrictive fiscal policy and has cut numerous regular jobs in the public sector.[39] But while regular employment in the public sector shrank, "irregular" government employment such as "one euro" jobs (temporary low-wage positions), government supported self-employment, and job training increased.[40] The national economy has nonetheless shown signs of improvement in recent years, the economics magazine Handelsblatt declaring it one of the most competitive in the Eurozone. Economists for the Institute for Economic Research in Berlin expect Germany's economic growth to increase consistently over the next two years.[41] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 454 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 726 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original from German Wikipedia by Fadi. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 454 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 726 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original from German Wikipedia by Fadi. ... The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is the common description for a series of large luxury flagship sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of DaimlerChrysler. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Fiscal policy is the economic term that defines the set of principles and decisions of a government in setting the level of public expenditure and how that expenditure is funded. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... 1 Euro Jobs in Germany are working opportunities with additional cost compensation in terms of § 16 Abs. ... // [edit] German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) The German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) is one of the leading research institutes in Germany. ...


Infrastructure

In 2002 Germany was the world’s fifth largest consumer of energy, and two-thirds of its primary energy was imported. In the same year, Germany was Europe’s largest consumer of electricity; electricity consumption that year totaled 512.9 billion kilowatt-hours. Government policy emphasizes conservation and the development of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, biomass, hydro, and geothermal. As a result of energy-saving measures, energy efficiency (the amount of energy required to produce a unit of gross domestic product) has been improving since the beginning of the 1970s. The government has set the goal of meeting half the country’s energy demands from renewable sources by 2050. In 2000 the government and the German nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[42] However, renewables currently play a more modest role in energy consumption. In 2002 energy consumption was met by the following sources: oil (40%), coal (23%), natural gas (22%), nuclear (11%), hydro (2%), and other (2%). World renewable energy in 2005 (except 2004 data for items marked* or **). Enlarge image to read exclusions. ... Switchgrass, a hardy plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... In physics and engineering, including mechanical and electrical engineering, energy efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or with times 100 given in percent. ... A nuclear power plant at Grafenrheinfeld, Germany. ... A nuclear power station. ...


Demography

Berlin is Germany's capital and largest city.

With over 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous country in the European Union. However, its fertility rate of 1.39 children per mother is one of the lowest in the world,[26] and the federal statistics office estimates the population will shrink to approximately 75 million by 2050.[43] Chemnitz is thought to be the city with the lowest birth rate in the world.[44] Germany has a number of larger cities, the most populous being Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt and Stuttgart. By far the largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region, including Düsseldorf (the capital of NRW) and the cities of Cologne, Essen, Dortmund, Duisburg and Bochum. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2000, 1441 KB) Summary Photographed by the author using Fuji Proplus 100 with Yashica Electro 35 GSN in daylight without flash. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2000, 1441 KB) Summary Photographed by the author using Fuji Proplus 100 with Yashica Electro 35 GSN in daylight without flash. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Germanys population pyramid. ... The German social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft) helped bring about the economic miracle that rebuilt Germany from ashes after World War II to one of the most impressive economies in Europe. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate The total fertility rate (TFR, also called fertility rate or total period fertility rate) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the current age-specific... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Stuttgart Palace Square - New Palace Solitude Palace The 1956 TV Tower U.S. Army Kelley Barracks Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 591,528 (as of April 2006) in the city... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... The Rhein-Ruhr Area in Germany, ranks among the large metropolitan areas in the world, estimated at about 12 million people[citation needed] - 1,699/km². It spreads from the Ruhr area megalopolis in the north to the urban areas of the cities of Düsseldorf, Wuppertal, and Cologne in... Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and (together with Cologne and the Ruhr Area) the economic center of Western Germany. ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...

Population from 1961-2003. In years before 1990, the figures of the FRG and the GDR are combined.
Population from 1961-2003. In years before 1990, the figures of the FRG and the GDR are combined.

As of December 2004, about seven million foreign citizens were registered in Germany and 19% of the country's residents were of foreign or partially foreign descent. The largest group (2.3 million)[45] is from Turkey, and a majority of the rest are from European states such as Italy, Serbia, Greece, Poland, and Croatia.[46] In its State of World Population 2006 report, the United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as hosting the third-highest percentage of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants.[47] As a consequence of restrictions of Germany's formerly rather unrestricted laws on asylum and immigration, the number of immigrants seeking asylum or claiming German ethnicity (mostly from the former Soviet Union) has been declining steadily since 2000.[48] Immigrants to Germany often face integration issues among other difficulties.[49] There has also been a recent surge in right-wing nationalist crimes. According to former Interior Minister Otto Schily, this trend does not necessarily indicate a rise in membership in right-wing groups.[50] Image File history File links Germany_demography. ... Image File history File links Germany_demography. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, either the Church as in medieval sanctuaries or a foreign country. ... Otto Georg Schily (SPD; born July 20, 1932) was Federal Minister of the Interior of Germany from 1998-2005, in the cabinet of former Bundeskanzler Gerhard Schröder. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Germany
The Cologne Cathedral at the Rhine river is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Cologne Cathedral at the Rhine river is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Protestants (concentrated in the north and east) and Roman Catholics (concentrated in the south and west) each comprise about 31% of the population. The current Pope, Benedict XVI, was born in Bavaria. In total, more than 55 million people officially belong to a Christian denomination. Non-religious people, including atheists and agnostics amount to 28.5% of the population, and are especially numerous in the former East Germany.[51] About three million Muslims[52] live in Germany. Most are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shiites.[53] Germany has Western Europe's third-largest Jewish population.[54] In 2004, twice as many Jews from former Soviet republics settled in Germany as in Israel, bringing the total Jewish population to more than 200,000, compared to 30,000 prior to German reunification. Large cities with significant Jewish populations include Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich.[55] According to the Deutsche Buddhistische Union (German Buddhist Union), an umbrella organisation of the Buddhist groups in Germany, there are about 250,000 active Buddhists in Germany, 50% of them are immigrated Asians.[56] Today, the number of believers in all religions in Germany is smaller than it was in the past. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Germany is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Today, the number of believers in all religions in Germany is smaller than it was in the past. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church and the absolute monarch of Vatican City. ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and Gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) means unknowable, and is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities—is unknown or, depending on the form of... “East Germany” redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Alevis are a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks and Kurds. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of anti-Semitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ...


Education

Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany lies primarily with the federal states individually whilst the government only has a minor role. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least ten years. Primary education usually lasts for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage.[57] In contrast, secondary education includes four types of schools based on a pupil's ability as determined by teacher recommendations: the Gymnasium includes the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies and attendance lasts eight or nine years depending on the state; the Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediary students and lasts six years; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education, and the Gesamtschule or comprehensive school combines the three approaches.[57] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 844 KB) Description: Wuerzburg University, Main Building, built in 1896 Source: photo taken by Robert Emmerich Date: September 2005 Author: Robert Emmerich Permission: Robert Emmerich put it under GNU-FDL Other versions of this file: - Von http://commons. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 844 KB) Description: Wuerzburg University, Main Building, built in 1896 Source: photo taken by Robert Emmerich Date: September 2005 Author: Robert Emmerich Permission: Robert Emmerich put it under GNU-FDL Other versions of this file: - Von http://commons. ... [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... A kindergarten classroom in Afghanistan. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... A large elementary school in Magome, Japan. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln A Hauptschule (German: general school) is a German secondary school, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling. ... A Comprehensive school is a type of school providing secondary level education in England or Wales. ...

The Transrapid in Shanghai is developed jointly by Siemens AG and ThyssenKrupp AG.
The Transrapid in Shanghai is developed jointly by Siemens AG and ThyssenKrupp AG.

To enter a university, high school students are required to take the Abitur examination, similar to A-levels; however, students possessing a diploma from a vocational school may also apply to enter. A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run school.[57] Although Germany has had a history of a strong educational system, recent PISA student assessments demonstrated a weakness in certain subjects. In the PISA Study, a test of thirty-one countries, in 2000 Germany ranked twenty-first in reading and twentieth in both mathematics and the natural sciences, prompting calls for reform.[58] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Transrapid is a German monorail system using magnetic levitation. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest technology companies. ... German industrial company ThyssenKrupp AG, with about 200,000 employees, mainly operates in the steel industry, but also in the automotive, industrial construction, and shipbuilding areas, as well as manufacturing elevators and providing other technologies and services. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... An A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education usually taken during Further Education and after GCSEs. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school was operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1997. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ...


Most German universities are state-owned and charge for tuition fees ranging from €50-500 per semester from each student.[59]


Important research institutions in Germany are the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft and the Fraunhofer Society. They are independently or externally connected to the university system and contribute to a considerable extent to the scientific output. The prestigious award Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.[60] The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... The Helmholtz Association (German: Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize (complete German title Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft) is a research prize awarded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft every year since 1985 to scientists working in Germany. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Germany

Germany is often called Das Land der Dichter und Denker (the land of poets and thinkers).[61] German culture began long before the rise of Germany as a nation-state and spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. As a result, it is difficult to identify a specific German tradition separated from the larger context of European high culture.[62] German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Various German authors and poets have won great renown, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularized German folklore on the international level. Influential authors of the 20th century include Thomas Mann, Berthold Brecht, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, and Günter Grass.[63] Image File history File links Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait). ... Image File history File links Immanuel_Kant_(painted_portrait). ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a significant German poet This article deals with the Culture of Germany as a political state within Europe; for a review of the culture of the German-speaking world, see German Culture. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portrait of Walther von der Vogelweide. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832), commonly known as Goethe, was a German poet, novelist, theorist, and scientist who is considered one of the giants of the literary world. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann The Brothers Grimm were Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German professors who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales,[1] and for their work in linguistics, relating to how the sounds in... German folklore shares many characteristics with Scandinavian folklore due to origins in a common Germanic mythology. ... Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Bertolt Brecht (born Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht February 10, 1898 – August 14, 1956) was an influential German socialist dramatist, stage director, and poet of the 20th century. ... Hermann Hesse (pronounced ) (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter. ... A monument of Heinrich Böll in Berlin Heinrich Theodor Böll (December 21, 1917 – July 16, 1985) was one of Germanys foremost post-World War II writers. ... Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author, He was born in the Free City of Danzig (now GdaÅ„sk, Poland). ...

Germany's influence on philosophy is historically significant and many notable German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy since the Middle Ages. Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism, Immanuel Kant's, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling's and Johann Gottlieb Fichte's establishment of the classical German idealism, Karl Marx's and Friedrich Engels' formulation of Communist theory, Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism, Friedrich Nietzsche's development of Perspectivism, Martin Heidegger's works on Being, and the social theories of Jürgen Habermas were especially influential. Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... German philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in German language, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant and Hegel to contemporary philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [] (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. ... German Idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philosopher. ... Perspectivism is the philosophical view that all perception takes place from a specific perspective. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Germany claims some of the world's most renowned classical music composers, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Johann Sebastian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Richard Wagner. As of 2006, Germany is the fifth largest music market in the world[64] and has influenced pop and rock music through artists such as Kraftwerk, Einstürzende Neubauten, and Rammstein. Classical music is a term with three distinct meanings: The European tradition of music which is associated with high culture, as distinct from popular or folk forms (including works in this tradition in non-European countries). ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group which has made significant contributions to the development of experimental and electronic music. ... Einstürzende Neubauten is an experimental music band, originally from West Berlin, formed in 1980. ... For the airshow accident, see Ramstein airshow disaster. ...

Inside the Berlinale Palast during the Berlin Film Festival in February
Inside the Berlinale Palast during the Berlin Film Festival in February

Numerous German painters have enjoyed international prestige through their work in diverse artistic currents. Matthias Grünewald and Albrecht Dürer were important artists of the Renaissance, Caspar David Friedrich of Romanticism, and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were important precursors of Romanesque. The region later became the site for significant works in styles such as Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. Germany was particularly important in the early modern movement, especially through the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius.[65] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 800 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 800 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Berlin ... The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale, is one of the most important film festivals in Europe and the world. ... The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (1470-1528) is a highly regarded figure from the German Renaissance. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romantics redirects here, for the band, see The Romantics Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Max Ernst Max Ernst (April 2, 1891 – April 1, 1976) was a German Dadaist and surrealist artist. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Lorsch monastery gatehouse The Palatine Chapel in Aachen Carolingian architecture is the style of North European architecture promoted by Charlemagne, King of the Franks, who was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III. The period of architecture spans the late 8th and 9th centuries... Ottonian Architecture evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, a well known example of modern architecture Modern architecture,not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... Typography by Herbert Bayer above the entrance to the workshop block of the Bauhaus, Dessau, 2005. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ...


German cinema dates back to the very early years of the medium with the work of Max Skladanowsky. It was particularly influential during the years of the Weimar Republic with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. The Nazi era produced mostly propaganda films although the work of Leni Riefenstahl still introduced new aesthetics in film.[66] From the 1960s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, Rainer Werner Fassbinder placed West-German cinema back onto the international stage with their often provocative films.[67] More recently, films such as Das Boot (1981), Run Lola Run (1998), Das Experiment (2001), Good Bye Lenin! (2003), Gegen die Wand (Head-on) (2004) and Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004) have enjoyed international success. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film went to the German production The Tin Drum in 1979, to Nowhere in Africa in 2002, and to The Lives of Others in 2007.[68] The Berlin Film Festival, held yearly since 1951, is one of the world's foremost film festivals.[69] Max Skladanowsky (born April 30, 1863, died November 30, 1939) was a German inventor and early filmmaker. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert Wiene (born April 27, 1873 in Breslau; died 17 July 1938 in Paris) was a German film director. ... F. W. Murnau. ... Riefenstahl, 1931 Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... New German cinema is a period in German cinema which lasted from the late 1960s into the 1980s. ... Volker Schlondorff Volker Schlöndorff (born in Wiesbaden, Germany on March 31, 1939) is a Berlin-based German filmmaker. ... Werner Herzog passionately singing a traditional Croatian ode of love to beautiful Serbian girls who he wants to take to Germany to have German babies with. ... Ernst Wilhelm (Wim) Wenders (born August 14, 1945) is a German film director, photographer, and producer. ... Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 – June 10, 1982) was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor, one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema. ... Das Boot (IPA pronunciation: /das boːt/, German for The Boat) is a feature film directed by Wolfgang Petersen, adapted from a novel of the same name by Lothar-Günther Buchheim. ... Run Lola Run (original German title Lola rennt, which translates to Lola Runs) is a 1998 film by German screenwriter and director Tom Tykwer, starring Franka Potente as Lola. ... DVD cover to Das Experiment; same image as movie poster. ... Good bye, Lenin! is a German tragicomedy film, released internationally in 2003. ... Head On is also a 1998 film; see Head On (film). ... Der Untergang (2004; international English title Downfall) is a German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... The Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Language Film is a yearly US award for the best film in a language other than English, released in the period October - September in the country of origin. ... The Tin Drum is a 1978 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Gunter Grass. ... Nowhere in Africa (German title: Nirgendwo in Afrika) is a 2001 German-language film directed by Caroline Link. ... The Lives of Others (original title in German: Das Leben der Anderen) is an Academy Award-winning German movie, marking the feature film debut of director/screenwriter Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck. ... The Berlin International Film Festival, also called the Berlinale, is one of the most important film festivals in Europe and the world. ...


Science

Max Planck presenting Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal in 1929
Max Planck presenting Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal in 1929

Germany has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific fields.[70] The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was crucial to the foundation of modern physics, which Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger developed further.[71] They were preceded by physicists such as Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer, and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays, an accomplishment that made him the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.[72] Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.[73] Through his construction of the first laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879, Wilhelm Wundt is credited with the establishment of psychology as an independent empirical science.[74] Alexander von Humboldt's work as a natural scientist and explorer was foundational to biogeography.[75] Germanys achievements in science and technology have been significant and research and development efforts form an integral part of the countrys economy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961) was an Austrian physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Joseph von Fraunhofer Joseph von Fraunhofer (March 6, 1787 – June 7, 1826) was a German physicist. ... Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, also called Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (May 24, 1686 - September 16, 1736), was a physicist and an engineer, who most of his life worked in Netherlands and for whom the Fahrenheit scale of temperature is named. ... Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (in English: William Conrad Roentgen) (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays, an achievement... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with light. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832 – August 31, 1920) was a German physiologist and psychologist. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic/ applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ...


Numerous significant mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass and Hermann Weyl. Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg, who is credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital computer.[76] German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology.[77][78] Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss or Gauß ( ; Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist of profound genius who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy, and optics. ... David Hilbert (January 23, 1862, Königsberg, East Prussia – February 14, 1943, Göttingen, Germany) was a German mathematician, recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Bernhard Riemann. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß) (October 31, 1815 – February 19, 1897) was a German mathematician who is often cited as the father of modern analysis. // Karl Weierstrass was born in Ostenfelde, Westphalia (today Germany). ... Hermann Weyl Hermann Weyl (November 9, 1885 – December 8, 1955) was a German mathematician. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For the Technical Symposium of NITK Surathkal Engineer , see Engineer (Technical Fest). ... Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenbergs invention Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (c. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... For other articles which might have the same name, see Print (disambiguation). ... Johannes ( Hans ) Wilhelm Geiger (September 30, 1882 – September 24, 1945) was a German physicist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Konrad Zuse (1992) Statue in Bad Hersfeld Konrad Zuse (June 22, 1910 – December 18, 1995) was a German engineer and computer pioneer. ... Zeppelin Ferdinand von Zeppelin Ferdinand Adolf August Heinrich Graf von Zeppelin (July 8, 1838 – March 8, 1917) was the founder of the Zeppelin airship company. ... Otto Lilienthal Otto Lilienthal (23 May 1848 – 10 August 1896), the German Glider King, was a pioneer of human aviation. ... Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg) what is now Germany. ... This article is about Rudolf Diesel, the German inventor. ... Hugo Junkers Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 - 3 February 1935) was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas (gas engines, aeroplanes) show. ... Karl Benz Karl Friedrich Benz (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile. ...


Sports

The Allianz Arena in Munich is a major football stadium and was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony.
Main article: Sport in Germany

Sport forms an integral part of German life, as demonstrated by the fact that twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue such an activity individually.[79] Football is by far the most popular sport; the German Football Association (Deutscher Fussballbund), with more than 6.3 million members, is the largest sports organisation of this kind worldwide.[79] It also attracts the greatest audience, with hundreds of thousands of spectators attending Bundesliga matches and millions more watching on television. Germany's national marksmanship and tennis organisations boast more than a million members each. Other popular sports include handball, volleyball, basketball, and ice hockey.[79] Historically, Germany has been one of the strongest contenders in the Olympic Games. In the 2004 Summer Olympics, Germany finished sixth in the medal count,[80] while in the 2006 Winter Olympics they finished first.[81] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Allianz Arena The Allianz Arena is a football stadium located in the north-Munich district of Fröttmaning. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Qualifying countries The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th staging of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international association football world championship tournament. ... Germany is a leading sporting nation which has had success in a wide range of sports. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The German Football Association (DFB) (German: Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the governing body of football in Germany. ... The official Bundesliga logo. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Volleyball is an Olympic sport in which two teams separated by a high net use their hands, arms or (rarely) other parts of their bodies to hit a ball back and forth over the net. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, were held in Athens, Greece, from August 13 to August 29, 2004. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin Italian €2 commemorative coin of 2006 celebrating the Turin games The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ...


See also

This is a list of Germany-related articles: A Adolf Hitler, Alb-Donau B Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Basic Law, Bavaria, Berlin, Berlin Airlift, Berlin wall, Biberach (district), Bodenseekreis, Böblingen (district), Bonn, Brandenburg, Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Bremen, Bundesrat, Bundestag, Bundeswehr C Calw, Chancellor of Germany, Christian Democratic Union of... Germanys population pyramid. ... Here is a list of famous Germans: Actors Mario Adorf, (born 1930), actor Hans Albers, actor Moritz Bleibtreu, (born 1971), actor Eric Braeden, (born Hans Gudegast, 1941), actor Horst Buchholz, (1933-2003), actor Marlene Dietrich, (1901-1992), actress Heinz Erhardt, (1909-1979), actor and comedian Gert Fröbe, (1913-1988... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann (first)  - 1933 Adolf Hitler (last) Legislature Reichstag... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... When in 1933 Hitler gained power, the world was little, if at all, aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. ... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... 50 BC (approximately) Ingvaeones become Frisians, Saxons, Jutes and Angles by about now 8 BC Marcomanni and Quadi drive the Boii out of Bohemia 10 BC (approximately) differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes (Alamanni, Hermunduri, Marcomanni, Quadi, Suebi) in area formerly occupied by Irminones 8 BC Confederation of Marcomanni, Lugier, Semnones... Politics of Germany takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Federal Chancellor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Federal Convention (Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convoked only for the purpose of selecting the Bundespräsident every five years. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... The federal head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Elections in Germany gives information on election and election results in Germany, including elections to the Federal Diet (the lower house of the federal parliament), the Landtage of the various states, and local elections. ... This is a list of political parties in Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, Group of 8 and NATO (among others). ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest Germany for civil and criminal lawsuits. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... Complete list of 2,073 cities in Germany (as of September 1, 2005) Only municipalities with independent administration and that have the Stadtrecht (city rights) are included. ... // Middle Ages Medieval Germany, lying on the open Central European Plain, was divided into hundreds of contending kingdoms, principalities, dukedoms, bishoprics, and free cities. ... Taxation is one of the most criticized matters in Germany. ... The Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ... In 2005 in Germany were manufactured 5 757 710 motor vehicles. ... The Federal Ministry for Economics and Labour (Germany: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit) was a Ministry of German Federal Government between 2002 and 2005. ... The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (German: Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung) is a ministry in Germany. ... The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (outside) The DAX chart (inside) The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (German: FWB® Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) is a stock exchange located in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Because of Germanys central situation in Europe, the volume of traffic, especially the transit of goods, is very high. ... Transport associations in Germany // bodo Bodensee-Oberschwaben Verkehrsverbund DING Donau-Iller-Nahverkehrsverbund (reaches into Bavaria) HNV Heilbronner Hohenloher Haller Nahverkehr HTV Heidenheimer Tarifverbund KVS KreisVerkehr Schwäbisch Hall KVV Karlsruher Verkehrsverbund (reaches into Rhineland-Palatinate) naldo Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau RVF Regio-Verkehrsverbund Freiburg RVL Regio Verkehrsverbund Lörrach TGO... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Germanys population pyramid. ... The German social market economy (soziale Marktwirtschaft) helped bring about the economic miracle that rebuilt Germany from ashes after World War II to one of the most impressive economies in Europe. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... This article is about the human rights situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. ... // Turks in Germany are people of Turkish descent with varying identity as part of a wider German society and who maintain a connection to the Turkish sociology, through cultural and historical affiliation. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a significant German poet This article deals with the Culture of Germany as a political state within Europe; for a review of the culture of the German-speaking world, see German Culture. ... German culture (German: Deutsche Kultur) is a term that refers to the heritage and weltanschauung of the people from the German-speaking world, or Deutschsprechende Welt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 1920s Berlin. ... Akademie der Künste at Pariser Platz, Berlin The Akademie der Künste (Academy of the Arts) in Berlin was founded in 1696 by Kurfürst (Elector) Friedrich III. of Brandenburg as an educational establishment. ... Deutsche Presse Agentur (German Press Agency) is a news agency founded in 1949 in Germany. ... .de is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany has a prospering tourism industry. ... Tourism in the German Democratic Republic was tightly controlled by the communist government, though it was nonetheless possible to enjoy a holiday in East Germany. ... Lubmin is a seaside resort in Vorpommern in the proximity of the city grab forest. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Romantic Road (Romantische Strasse in German) is a term, coined by travel agents in the 1950s, describing the stretch of southern Germany in Bavaria between Pforzheim and Fussen. ... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ...

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For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... This article is about the German international broadcaster. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... DIE ZEIT (pronounced , in English, literally The Time, more idiomatically The Times) is a German nationwide weekly newspaper that is highly respected for its quality journalism. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ...

External links

Germany Portal
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Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Germany

General Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

  • Deutschland.de — Official German portal
  • Germany Tourism
  • DW-WORLD.DE Deutsche Welle — Germany's international broadcaster
  • News Portal of the German Embassy to the USA
  • History of Germany since 1945PDF (1.28 MiB)
  • Germany

Facts and figures Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ...

  • CIA statistics
  • Facts about Germany — by the German Federal Foreign Office
  • A manual for Germany — Representative for Migration, Refugees and Integration
  • (English) Destatis.de — Federal Statistical Office Germany

Travel

  • Germany travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Germany Travel Info — by the German National Tourist Office
 Geographic locale
International organizations
Other associations

Coordinates: 51°00′N, 9°00′E This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Motto: none Anthem: Ã…länningens sÃ¥ng Capital Mariehamn Official languages Swedish Government Autonomous province  - Governor Peter Lindbäck1  - Premier Roger Nordlund Autonomy    - Declared 1920   - Recognized 19212  Accession to EU January 1, 19953 Area  - Total 13,517 km² (n/a) 5,267 sq mi   - Water (%) 89 Population  - 2005 estimate 26... Image File history File links Europe_germanic-languages. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... The Alsace-Moselle is the current legal name of the France that was part of Germany from 1871 to 1919 (and then from 1940 to 1944_1945), consisting of the départements of Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin (both of which make up Alsace), and the département of Moselle (itself... South Tyrol (Italian: Alto Adige, also Sudtirolo or Sud Tirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Adesc Aut[1][2] or Sudtirol; Latin: Tirolo Meridionale; Official in English: Autonomous Province of Bozen - South Tyrol[ — see talk page]; Official in Italian: Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige; Official in German: Autonome Provinz Bozen... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... The Lower Rhine region in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany The Lower Rhine region The Lower Rhine region or Niederhein is a region around the river Rhine in Germany between approximately Neuss and Düsseldorf and the Dutch border around Emmerich. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... This article is about the country. ... Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official languages English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, BSL, NISL, ISL Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Ian Paisley  - Deputy First Minister... Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by about half a million members of Frisian ethnic groups living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Germany Tourism - Travel, Holiday, Vacation (287 words)
Zoomable interactive Map of Germany with a selection of several topics.
Answer one simple question, and you could win a holiday for the whole family in Germany's biggest and best theme park.
Enter into Germany's special festive mood and be enthralled by the scents of pine needles, spicy glühwein, chestnuts and gingerbread.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Germany (14021 words)
Germany was not begun by a tribe living in the interior but by one on the outskirts of the country.
Germany itself the heroic age of the medieval emperors was a period of progress in learning.
Germany he desired to liberate the papacy from its connexion with France and to persuade the pope to return from Avignon to Rome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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