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Encyclopedia > Germanium
32 galliumgermaniumarsenic
Si

Ge

Sn
General
Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32
Chemical series metalloids
Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p
Appearance grayish white
Standard atomic weight 72.64(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 5.323 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.60 g·cm−3
Melting point 1211.40 K
(938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F)
Boiling point 3106 K
(2833 °C, 5131 °F)
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 334 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
Oxidation states 4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.01 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 125 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 125 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 5400 m/s
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS registry number 7440-56-4
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y β-β- - 76Se
References

Germanium (IPA: /dʒə(r)ˈmeɪniəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. This is a lustrous, hard, silver-white metalloid that is chemically similar to tin. Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds and is an important semiconductor material used in transistors. General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... Germanium table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 25, 2003, 10:53 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Germanium User:Femto/elements e3 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The carbon group is group 14 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x714, 116 KB) elementares Germanium Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 3. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a wave. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Germanium (Ge) Standard atomic mass: 72. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... For other uses, see Transistor (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Germanium is a hard, grayish-white element that has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond. In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. In its pure state, this metalloid is crystalline, brittle and retains its lustre in air at room temperature. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that have an impurity of only one part in 1010. Along with gallium, bismuth, antimony and water, it is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies. The oxide form, Germanium dioxide, also has the unusual property of having a high refractive index for visible light, but transparent to infrared light. This article is about the gemstone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... Zone melting is a method of separation by melting in which a series of molten zones traverses a long ingot of impure metal or chemical. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Standard atomic weight 69. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...


History

In 1871, germanium (Latin Germania for Germany) was one of the elements that Dmitri Mendeleev predicted to exist as a missing analogue of the silicon group (Mendeleev called it "ekasilicon"). The existence of this element was proven by Clemens Winkler in 1886. This discovery was an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Dimitri Mendeleyev by Ilya Repin Dimitri Mendeleev (Russian: , Dimitriy Ivanovich Mendeleyev  ) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... An analog is in chemistry a chemical closely related to another usually sharing the same nucleus. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... Clemens Alexander Winkler (December 26, 1838 - October 8, 1904), a German chemist, discovered the element Germanium in 1886. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Property Ekasilicon Germanium
atomic mass 72 72.59
density (g/cm³) 5.5 5.35
melting point (°C) high 947
color gray gray

The development of the germanium transistor opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors, diodes, and rectifiers. Silicon has superior electrical properties, but requires much higher purity samples—a purity which could not be commercially achieved in the early days. Meanwhile, demand for germanium in fiber optics communication networks, infrared night vision systems, and polymerization catalysts increased dramatically. These end uses represented 85% of worldwide germanium consumption for 2000. In electronics, solid state circuits are those that do not contain vacuum tubes. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... It has been suggested that Peak Inverse Voltage be merged into this article or section. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Night-vision is seeing in the dark. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Applications

Unlike most semiconductors, germanium has a small band gap, allowing it to efficiently respond to infrared light. It is therefore used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment which require extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Its oxide's index of refraction and dispersion properties make germanium useful in wide-angle camera lenses and in microscope objective lenses. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... A spectroscope is a device which measures the spectrum of light. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ...


Germanium transistors are still used in some stompboxes by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. Vintage stompboxes known to contain germanium transistors have shown marked increases in collector value for this reason alone. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Effects unit. ... A 1965 Gibson Maestro Fuzz-Tone FZ-1A, one of the first commercially available fuzzboxes. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Dallas arbiter was a guitar effect and amplification manufacturer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The TS9 Tubescreamer from Ibanez, a popular stomp box adding vacuum tube-like distortion to the output signal from electric instruments. ...


Germanium is a highly important infra-red optical material and can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. It is used particularly as the front optic in thermal imaging cameras working in the 8 to 14 micron wavelength range for passive thermal imaging and for hot-spot detection in military and fire fighting applications. The material has a very high refractive index (4.0) and so needs to be anti-reflection coated. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC) (refractive index 2.0)is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental rough treatment. Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...


The alloy Silicon germanide (commonly referred to as "silicon-germanium", or SiGe) is rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material, for use in high speed integrated circuits. Circuits utilising the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. SiGe stands for Silicon-Germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor and is an integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing technology. ...

Germanium bowl
Germanium bowl

Other uses: Germanium bowl. ... Germanium bowl. ...

  • Alloying agent (see below)
  • Phosphor in fluorescent lamps
  • catalyst
  • High purity germanium single crystal detectors can precisely identify radiation sources (e.g. for airport security)
  • Germanium substrate wafers for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells for space applications

Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. This property makes these compounds useful as chemotherapeutic agents. An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Germanium is useful for single crystal neutron or synchrotron X-ray monochromator for beamlines. The reflectivity has advantages over silicon in neutron and High energy X-ray applications. A single crystal is a crystalline solid in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... Synchrotron radiation emerging from a beam port. ... A crystal monochromator is a device in neutron and X-ray optics to select a defined wavelength of the radiation for further purpose on a dedicated instrument or beamline. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... High Energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with 80 keV - 1000 keV typically one order of magnitude higher in energy than conventional X-rays. ...


High purity Germanium crystals are used in detectors for gamma spectroscopy. A semiconductor detector is a device that uses a semiconductor (usually silicon or germanium) to detect traversing charged particles or the absorption of photons. ... Gamma spectroscopy is a radiochemistry measurement method that determines the energy and count rate of gamma rays emitted by radioactive substances. ...


FDA research has concluded that germanium, when used as a nutritional supplement, "presents potential human health hazard".[1] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


In recent years germanium has seen increasing use in precious metal alloys. In sterling silver alloys, for instance, it has been found to reduce firescale, increase tarnish resistance, and increase the alloy's response to precipitation hardening (see Argentium sterling silver). Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... Firescale, also known as firestain, is a red or purple stain that appears on mixtures of silver and copper, such as sterling silver. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Occurrence

This element is found in argyrodite (sulfide of germanium and silver); coal; germanite; zinc ores; and other minerals. See also Category:Germanium minerals Argyrodite, silver germanium sulfide Ag8GeS6 is relatively scarce mineral. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Germanite is a rare copper iron germanium sulfide mineral, Cu13Fe2Ge2S16. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ...


Germanium is obtained commercially from zinc ore processing smelter dust and from the combustion by-products of certain coals. A large reserve of this element is therefore in coal sources. A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...


This metalloid can be extracted from other metals by fractional distillation of its volatile tetrachloride. This technique permits the production of ultra-high purity germanium. יחכיטכיגיגיוגקאטגקעיגקDistillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. ...


Value

In 1998 the cost of germanium was about US$3 per gram. The year end price for zone-refined germanium has (generally) decreased since then[2]: Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... “USD” redirects here. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...

2000.....$1,150 per kilogram (or $1.15 per gram)
2001.....$890 per kilogram (or $0.89 per gram)
2002.....$620 per kilogram (or $0.62 per gram)
2003.....$380 per kilogram (or $0.38 per gram)
2004.....$600 per kilogram (or $0.60 per gram)
2005.....$610 per kilogram (or $0.61 per gram)
2006.....$720 per kilogram (or $0.72 per gram)
2007.....$460 per kilogram (or $0.46 per gram)

“Kg” redirects here. ...

Compounds

Some inorganic germanium compounds include Germane or Germanium tetrahydride (GeH4), Germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4), and Germanium dioxide (germania) (GeO2). Some organic compounds of germanium include tetramethylgermane or tetramethyl germanium, (Ge(CH3)4), and tetraethylgermane or tetraethyl germanium, (Ge(C2H5)4). Recently a new organogermanium compound isobutylgermane ((CH3)2CHCH2GeH3), was reported as the less hazardous liquid substitute for toxic germane gas in semiconductor applications. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Germanium tetrahydride (GeH4) or germane is a gaseous compound of germanium and hydrogen. ... Flash point None R/S statement R: ? S: ? RTECS number LY5220000 Related compounds Other anions  ? Other cations  ? Related ?  ? Related compounds  ? Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Germanium tetrachloride is a colourless liquid primary used... Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound, an oxide of germanium. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Isobutylgermane, (IBGe), (CH3)2CHCH2GeH3, is a germanium-containing liquid MOVPE (Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) precursor - a novel alternative to the toxic germane gas that is useful in deposition of Ge films and germanium containing semiconductor films such as SiGe or strained silicon. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...

See also
  • Category:Germanium compounds
  • Germane
  • Germanide

Properties

Pure germanium is known to spontaneously extrude very long screw dislocations, referred to as germanium whiskers. The growth of these whiskers is one of the primary reasons for the failure of older diodes and transistors made from germanium, as, depending on what they end up touching, they may lead to an electrical short. In materials science, a dislocation is a linear crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. ...


References

  1. ^ Tao, S.H. and Bolger, P.M. (June 1997). "Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 25 (3): 211-219. 
  2. ^ (January 2006) "Germanium". U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries: 72. [1]. 

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Germanium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (647 words)
Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds and is an important semiconductor material used in transistors.
Germanium transistors are still used in some stompboxes by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era.
Germanium is obtained commercially from zinc ore processing smelter dust and from the combustion by-products of certain coals.
Germanium - MSN Encarta (342 words)
Germanium is in the same chemical family as carbon, silicon, tin, and lead, and resembles these elements in forming organic derivatives such as tetraethyl germanium and tetraphenyl germanium.
Germanium was the first metal used in the transistor, the electronic device that requires far less current than the vacuum tube.
Germanium oxide is used in the manufacture of optical glass and as a drug in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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