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Encyclopedia > Germanic peoples
Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. The hammer is associated with the thunderbolt German: thunder = Donner). Painting by Mårten Eskil Winge, ca. 1872.
Ancient Germanic culture Portal

The Germanic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic languages that are descended from Proto-Germanic. Migrating Germanic peoples spread throughout Europe, mixing with existing local populations (such as Celts, but also Slavs/Vends and Romans), forming the future basis of Europe, to various extents connected by linguistic affinity, as well as a common identity, history, and culture. None of this makes sense! Thors battle against the giants (1872), by Mårten Eskil Winge. ... Thors battle against the giants (1872), by Mårten Eskil Winge. ... Thors battle against the giants, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge, 1872 Thor (Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded god of thunder in Norse Mythology and more generally Germanic mythology (Old English: Þunor, Old Dutch and Old High German: Donar, from Proto-Germanic *Þunraz). ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1825-1896) was a Swedish artist especially known for his Norse mythology paintings. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... A Celtic cross. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Vends were a small tribe who in the 12th-16th century lived in the area around the town of Wenden (now CÄ“sis) in what is now north-central Latvia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

Ethnonym

Further information: Theodiscus

Various etymologies for Latin Germani are possible. As an adjective, germani is simply the plural of the adjective germanus (from germen, "seed" or "offshoot"), which has the sense of "related" or "kindred".[1] As an ethnonym, the word is first attested in 223 BC, in the Fasti Capotolini inscription, DE GALLEIS INSVBRIBVS ET GERM, where it may simply refer to "related" peoples, viz. to the Gauls. If the later proper name Germani derives from this word, it may refer from this use based on Roman experience of the Germanic tribes as allies of the Celts.'''[['None of this makes sense!!!!!!!!!!!!']]''' is a Middle Latin adjective referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle Ages, first attested in 786 as both in Latin and in the vernacular. The Old High German language in Latin sources of the time is referred to as . ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 228 BC 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC - 223 BC - 222 BC 221 BC... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The name is first used in its sense of "peoples of Germania, as distinguished from Gauls" by Julius Caesar. In this sense, , it may be a loan from a Celtic exonym applied to the Germanic tribes, based on a word for "neighbor". A third suggestion derives it directly from the name of the Hermunduri. Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... An ancient tribe of Germanic people who occupied the area around what is now Thuringia, Saxony, and Northern Bavaria, from roughly around 1 AD, to 400 AD. -Alternate spellings: Hermunduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, Hermonduli ...

Odin riding on Sleipnir (Tängvide image stone, 8th century).

The suggestion deriving the name from Gaulish term for "neighbor" invokes Old Irish gair, Welsh ger, "near",[2] Irish gearr, "cut, short" (a short distance), from a Proto-Celtic root *gerso-s, further related to ancient Greek chereion, "inferior" and English gash.[3] The Proto-Indo-European root could be of the form *khar-, *kher-, *ghar-, *gher-, "cut", from which also Hittite kar-, "cut", whence also Greek character. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... The Stora Hammar stone. ... The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the putative ancestor of all the known Celtic languages. ... The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic morphemes carrying a lexical meaning. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who once created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ...


Apparently, the Germanic tribes did not have a self-designation that included all Germanic-speaking people but excluded all non-Germanic people, except for generic þiuda- "people", while non-Germanic peoples (primarily Celtic, Roman, Greek, the citizens of the Roman Empire) were called *walha- (this word lives forth in names such as Wales, Welsh, Cornwall, Walloons, Vlachs etc.). The self-designation is continued in many personal names (such as Thiud-reks, and also in the ethnonym of the Swedes (from a cognate of Old English Sweo-ðēod). The adjective *þiudiskaz, referring to the language, continued in German Deutsch (meaning German), English "Dutch", Dutch Duits and Dietsch (the latter referring to Dutch, the former meaning German). Danish Tysk (meaning German), was not introduced until the 9th century, originally designating the language of the people in contrast to the Latin language. From ca. 875, Latin writers refer to the German language as teutonicus. Hence the English use of "Teutons" in reference to the Germanic peoples in general besides the specific tribe of the Teutons defeated at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC. The plural "Germanics" sees some use in recent decades[4] but is not endorsed by notable dictionaries[5] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh). It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ... This article is about the country. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... The term Walloons (French: Wallons, Walloon: Walons) refers, in daily speech, to French-speaking Belgians from Wallonia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Theodoric was a first name frequently encountered in medieval European history. ... Deutsch is: the German word for german a misspelling of the word Dutch, see Dutch (disambiguation) one of the three cognates of medieval Dietsch // A German family name Diana Deutsch, British-born, American cognitive psychologist Felix Deutsch, Helene Deutsch, Austrian-born American psychologist, Morton Deutsch Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch, Russian astronomer... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Teutones Roman Republic Commanders King Teutobod Gaius Marius Strength over 110,000 about 40,000 (6 legions with cavalry and auxillaries) Casualties 90,000 killed 20,000 captured Insignificant, probably under 1,000 The Battle of Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence) took place in 102 BC. After a string...


In English, German is first attested in 1520, replacing earlier use of Almain or Dutch. Dutch is now used in the English language to refer to the language used in the Netherlands and Flanders and the inhabitants of the Netherlands. mary elline m. ... area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution...


Classification

Detail of the Uppland Rune Inscription 871 (12th century)
Detail of the Uppland Rune Inscription 871 (12th century)

The concept of "Germanic" as a distinct ethnic identity was hinted at by the early Greek geographer Strabo [1], who distinguished a barbarian group in northern Europe similar to, but not part of, the Celts. Posidonius, to our knowledge, is the first to have used the name, around 80 BC, in his lost 30th book. Our knowledge of this is based on the 4th book of Athenaeus, who in ca. AD 190 quotes Posidonius as saying that "The Germani at noon serve roast meat with milk, and drink their wine undiluted". Image File history File linksMetadata Upplands_Runinskrift_871_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Upplands_Runinskrift_871_2. ... This rune stone is originally from Ölsta, a village in the county of Uppland in Sweden. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Celtic cross. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Athenaeus (ca. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ...


By the 1st century A.D., the writings of Caesar, Tacitus and other Roman era writers indicate a division of Germanic-speaking peoples into tribal groupings centred on: The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ...

The Sons of Mannus Istvaeones, Irminones, and Ingvaeones are collectively called West Germanic tribes. In addition, those Germanic people who remained in Scandinavia are referred to as North Germanic. These groups all developed separate dialects, the basis for the differences among Germanic languages down to the present day. The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. Later they went to the south. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Istvaeones (also called Istaevones, Istriaones, Istriones, Sthraones, Thracones, Rhine Germans or Weser-Rhine Germans (Istwäonen, Weser-Rhein-Germanen in German)) were a West Germanic cultural group or proto-tribe. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Also referred to as Herminones, Hermiones, Elbe Germans (Irminonen, sometimes called Elb-Germanen in German), a Germanic proto-tribe or cultural group. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... Mannus, son of Tuisto was a mythological character from whom a number of Germanic tribes were descended. ... The Istvaeones (also called Istaevones, Istriaones, Istriones, Sthraones, Thracones, Rhine Germans or Weser-Rhine Germans (Istwäonen, Weser-Rhein-Germanen in German)) were a West Germanic cultural group or proto-tribe. ... Also referred to as Herminones, Hermiones, Elbe Germans (Irminonen, sometimes called Elb-Germanen in German), a Germanic proto-tribe or cultural group. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... The Germanic (also, Teutonic) peoples are the nations speaking Germanic languages, idioms descended from Proto-Germanic (spoken during the final centuries BC, the Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe). ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The division of peoples into West Germanic, East Germanic, and North Germanic is a modern linguistic classification. Many Greek scholars only classified Celts and Scyths in the Northwest and Northeast of the Mediterranean and this classification was widely maintained in Greek literature until Late Antiquity. Latin-Greek ethnographers (Tacitus, Pliny the Elder, Ptolemy, and Strabo) mentioned in the first two centuries AD the names of peoples they classified as Germanic along the Elbe, the Rhine, and the Danube, the Vistula and on the Baltic Sea. Tacitus mentioned 40, Ptolemy 69 peoples. Classical ethnography applied the name Suebi to many tribes in the first century. It appeared that this native name had all but replaced the foreign name Germanic. After the Marcomannic wars the Gothic name steadily gained importance. Some of the ethnic names mentioned by the ethnographers of the first two centuries AD on the shores of the Oder and the Vistula (Gutones, Vandali) reappear from the 3rd century on in the area of the lower Danube and north of the Carpathian Mountains. For the end of the 5th century the Gothic name can be used - according to the historical sources - for such different peoples like the Goths in Gaul, Iberia and Italy, the Vandals in Africa, the Gepids along the Tisza and the Danube, the Rugians, Sciri and Burgundians, even the Iranian Alans. These peoples were classified as Scyths and often deducted from the ancient Getae (most important: Cassiodor/Jordanes, Getica approx. 550 AD). This article is about the European people. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... The Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) is an Iraqi political party; its support comes from the countrys Shia Muslim community and from their fellow religionists in neighbouring Iran. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube in what is today northern Bulgaria, especially near modern Dobruja and in the Muntenian plain. ...


Culture

See Norse mythology, Germanic paganism, Migration Period art Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Gravegoods from various North French and Rhineland sites, up to the 6th c. ...

Gravegoods from various North French and Rhineland sites, up to the 6th century (British Museum, London)

The Germanic tribes were each politically independent, under a hereditary king (see Germanic king). The kings appear to have claimed descendancy from mythical founders of the tribes, the name of some of which is preserved: Image File history File links Frankish. ... Image File history File links Frankish. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... The Germanic king originally had three main functions. ...

Angul is a district of Orissa, India. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... A list of the Kings etc. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Great Britain. ... This is the article about the West Germanic deity, for other uses see Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Old Norse Aurvandil, Old English Éarendel, Lombardic Auriwandalo, German Orentil (or Erentil) are cognate Germanic personal names. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Burgundus was the mythical founder of the Burgundian tribe. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Dan is the name of one or more legendary kings of the Danes in medieval Scandinavian texts. ... Nór (Old Norse Nórr) or Nori is firstly a merchantile title and secondly a Norse boy name. ... Gaut, Gauti, Guti, Gothus are name forms based on the same Proto-Germanic root. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Yngvi, Ingui or Ing appears to have been the older name for the god Freyr, which meant lord. In Scandinavian mythology, Yngvi, alternatively Yngve, was the progenitor of the Yngling lineage, a legendary dynasty of Swedish kings from whom the earliest historical Norwegian kings in turn claimed to be descended... For other uses, see Yngling (disambiguation). ... Irmin was the god of war of the Saxons. ... Also referred to as Herminones, Hermiones, Elbe Germans (Irminonen, sometimes called Elb-Germanen in German), a Germanic proto-tribe or cultural group. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Seaxneat or Saxnot is the mythical founder of the Saxons. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Vagoths were a Germanic tribe mentioned by Jordanes. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... The Thuringii were a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ... The Thuringii were a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ...

History

Origin

Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC
Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC

Download high resolution version (657x683, 31 KB)The Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC. The map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... Download high resolution version (657x683, 31 KB)The Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC. The map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after...

Bronze Age predecessors

Regarding the question of ethnic origins, evidence developed by archaeologists and linguists suggests that a people or group of peoples sharing a common material culture dwelt in a region defined by the Northern Bronze Age culture, centred in northern Germany and Scandinavia between 1700 BC and 450 BC. Also more specific Iron Age cultures comprising the same region, like Wessenstedt (800-600 BC) and Jastorf, are in consideration.[6] The change of PIE to proto-germanic has been defined by the first sound shift (or Grimm's law) and must have occurred when mutually intelligible dialects or languages in a Sprachbund where still able to convey such a change to the whole region. So far it has been impossible to date this event conclusively. Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 500 BC, with sites that reached as far east as... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... (Redirected from 1700 BC) (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Wessenstedt is located in the Lüneburg Heath, is a quarter of Natendorf having about 150 inhabitants and belongs to Altes Amt Ebstorf of district Uelzen, Lower Saxony. ... The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age material culture in northern Europe, dated from about 600 BC to 1. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ...


The precise interaction between these peoples is not known, however, they are tied together and influenced by regional features and migrational patterns linked to prehistoric cultures like Hügelgraber, Urnfield and La Tene. A deteriorating climate in Scandinavia c. 850 BC-760 BC and a later and more rapid one c. 650 BC might have triggered migrations to the coast of eastern Germany and further towards the Vistula. A contemporary northern expansion of Hallstatt drew part of this peoples into the Celtic hemisphere, including nordwestblock areas and the region of Elp culture[7] (1800 BC - 800 BC). The Urnfield culture of central European culture is dated roughly between 1300 BC and 750 BC. The name describes the custom of cremating the dead and placing them in cemeteries. ... La Tène is a village near the Neuenburger See, also called Lac du Neuchâtel, a lake in Switzerland. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC Years: 859 BC 858 BC 857 BC 856 BC 855 BC 854 BC 853 BC 852 BC... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC Events and trends June 15 763 BC - A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... The name Nordwestblock is applied by historians to a group of Europeans whose homeland was in the western part of present-day Germany during the 1st century, but who were not originally Germanic tribes. ... The Elp culture (ca. ...


At around this time, this culture became influenced by Hallstatt techniques of how to extract bog iron from the ore in peat bogs, ushering in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Hallstatt (), Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... Bog iron refers to impure iron deposits that develop in bogs or swamps by the chemical or biochemical oxidation of iron carried in the solutions. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Bog Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ...


Early Iron Age

Main article: Pre-Roman Iron Age
The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – 1 AD (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until 1AD
The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – 1 AD (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until 1AD

Archeological evidence suggests a relatively uniform Germanic people were located at about 750 BC from the Netherlands to the Vistula and in Southern Scandinavia. In the west the coastal floodplains were populated for the first time, since in adjacent higher grounds the population had increased and the soil became exhausted.[8] At about 250 BC some expansion to the south had occurred and five general groups can be distinguished: North Germanic in southern Scandinavia, excluding Jutland; North Sea Germanic, along the North Sea and in Jutland; Rhine-Weser Germanic, along the middle Rhine and Weser; Elbe Germanic, along the middle Elbe; and East Germanic, between the middle Oder and the Vistula. This concurs with linguistic evidence pointing at the development of five linguistic groups, mutually linked into sets of two to four groups that shared linguistic innovations.[9] A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ... Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ...


This period witnessed the advent of Celtic culture of Hallstatt and La Tene signature in previous Northern Bronze Age territory, especially to the western extends. However, some proposals[10] suggest this Celtic superstrate was weak, while the general view in the Netherlands holds that this Celtic influence did not involve intrusions at all and assume fashion and a local development from Bronze Age culture.[11] It is generally accepted such a Celtic superstratum was virtually absent to the East, featuring the Germanic Wessenstedt and Jastorf cultures. The Celtic influence and contacts between Gaulish and early Germanic culture along the Rhine is assumed as the source of a number of Celtic loanwords in Proto-Germanic. Hallstatt (), Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... La Tène is a village near the Neuenburger See, also called Lac du Neuchâtel, a lake in Switzerland. ... Wessenstedt is located in the Lüneburg Heath, is a quarter of Natendorf having about 150 inhabitants and belongs to Altes Amt Ebstorf of district Uelzen, Lower Saxony. ... Bad Bevensen is a municipality in the north of the district Uelzen in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


Frankenstein and Rowlands (1978) and Wells (1980) have suggested late Hallstatt trade contact to be a direct catalyst for the development of a elite class that came into existence around northeastern France, the Middle Rhine region, and adjacent Alpine regions (Collis 1984:41), culminating to new cultural developments and the advent of the classical Gaulish La Tene culture[12] The development of La Tene culture extended to the north around 200-150 BC, including the North German Plain, Denmark and Southern Scandinavia.[13] "In certain cremation graves, situated at some distance from other graves, Celtic metalwork appears: brooches and swords, together with wagons, Roman cauldrons and drinking vessels. The area of these rich graves is the same as the places where later (first century AD) princely graves are found. A ruling class seems to have emerged, distinguished by the possession of large farms and rich gravegifts such as weapons for the men and silver objects for the women, imported earthenware and Celtic items."[14] This article or section should include material from La Tene The La Tène culture is a late Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tene on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts were discovered by Hansli Kopp in...


The first Germani in Roman ethnography cannot be clearly identified as either Germanic or Celtic in the modern ethno-linguistic sense, and it has been generally held the traditional clear cut division along the Rhine between both ethnical groups was primarily motivated by Roman politics. Ceasar described the Eburones as a Germanic tribe on the Gallic side of the Rhine, and held other tribes in the neighbourhood as merely calling themselves of Germanic stock. Even though names like Eburones and Ambiorix were Celtic and archeologically this area shows strong Celtic influences, the problem is difficult. Some 20th century writers consider the possibility of a separate "Nordwestblock" identity of the tribes settled along the Rhine at the time, assuming the arrival of a Germanic superstrate from the 1st century BC and a subsequent "Germanization" or language replacement through the "elite-dominance" model.[15] However, immigration of Germanic Batavians from Hessen in the northern extend of this same tribal region is archeologically spoken hardly noticeable and certainly did not populate an exterminated country, very unlike Tacitus suggested. Here, probably due to the local indigenous pastoral way of life, the acceptance op Roman culture turned out to be particularly slow and, contrary to expected, the indigenous culture of the previous Eburones rather seems to have absorbed the intruding (Batavian) element, thus making it very hard to define the real extends of the pre-Roman Germanic indigenous territories.[16] The Eburones were a Belgic tribe based of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC. Julius Caesar describes them as being of Germanic origin. ... Statue of Ambiorix in Tongeren. ... The name Nordwestblock is applied by historians to a group of Europeans whose homeland was in the western part of present-day Germany during the 1st century, but who were not originally Germanic tribes. ... The Batavii (or Batavi, Batavians) were a Germanic, or possibly Celtic tribe reported by Julius Caesar and Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area which is currently the Netherlands. ...


Roman Times

Main article: Roman Iron Age

Germanic expansions during early Roman times are known only generally, but it is clear that the forebears of the Goths were settled on the southern Baltic shore by 100 AD. Roman Bronze figurine, Öland, Sweden The Roman Iron Age (1-400) is the name that Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... (Redirected from 100 AD) For other uses, see number 100. ...


The early Germanic tribes are assumed to have spoken mutually intelligible dialects, in the sense that Germanic languages derive from a single earlier parent language. No written records of such a parent language exists.[17] From what we know of scanty early written material, by the fifth century AD the Germanic languages were already "sufficiently different to render communication between the various peoples impossible".[18] Some evidence point to a common pantheon made up of several different chronological layers. However, as for mythology only the Scandinavian one (see Germanic mythology) is sufficiently known.[19] Some traces of common traditions between various tribes are indicated by Beowulf and the Volsunga saga. One indication of their shared identity is their common Germanic name for non-Germanic peoples, *walhaz (plural of *walhoz), from which the local names Welsh, Wallis, etc. were derived. An indication of an ethnic unity is the fact that the Romans knew them as one and gave them a common name, Germani (this is the source of our German and Germanic, see Etymology above), although it was well known for the Romans to give geographical rather than cultural names to peoples. The very extensive practice of cremation deprives us of anthropological comparative material for the earliest periods to support claims of a longstanding ethnic isolation of a common (Nordic) strain. A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... brass replica of the Tjurkö Bracteate showing the attestation of the name Walha Walha is an ancient Germanic word, meaning foreigner or stranger (welsh). It is attested in the Roman Iron Age Tjurkö Bracteate inscription as walhakurne, probably welsh crown for Roman coin, i. ... This article is about the country. ... The Valais (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the south-western part of the country, in the Pennine Alps around the valley of the Rhone River from its springs to Lake Geneva. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ...


In the absence of large-scale political unification, such as that imposed forcibly by the Romans upon the peoples of Italy, the various tribes remained free, led by their own hereditary or chosen leaders. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Collision with Rome

Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and AD 117 is also shown.
Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and AD 117 is also shown.

By the late 2nd century, B.C., Roman authors recount, Gaul, Italy and Hispania were invaded by migrating Germanic tribes, culminating in military conflict with the armies of the Roman Empire. Six decades later, Julius Caesar invoked the threat of such attacks as one justification for his annexation of Gaul to Rome. Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ... Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ...


As Rome expanded to the Rhine and Danube rivers, it incorporated many Celtic societies into the Empire. The tribal homelands to the north and east emerged collectively in the records as Germania. The peoples of this area were sometimes at war with Rome, but also engaged in complex and long-term trade relations, military alliances, and cultural exchanges with Rome as well. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... This article is about the European people. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century. ...


The Cimbri and Teutoni incursions into Roman Italy were thrust back in 101 BC. These invasions were written up by Caesar and others as presaging of a Northern danger for the Empire, a danger that should be controlled. In the Augustean period there was — as a result of Roman activity as far as the Elbe River — a first definition of the "Germania magna": from Rhine and Danube in the West and South to the Vistula and the Baltic Sea in the East and North. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cimbrian War. ... This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ...


Caesar's wars helped establish the term Germania. The initial purpose of the Roman campaigns was to protect Transalpine Gaul by controlling the area between the Rhine and the Elbe. In 9 AD a revolt of their Germanic subjects headed by the supposed Roman ally, Arminius, (along with his decisive defeat of Publius Quinctilius Varus in the surprise attack on unprepared Romans at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest) ended in the withdrawal of the Roman frontier to the Rhine. At the end of the 1st century two provinces west of the Rhine called Germania inferior and Germania superior were established. Important medieval cities like Aachen, Cologne, Trier, Mainz, Worms and Speyer were part of these Roman provinces. The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Hermann, Armin, 16 BC–AD 21) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius (Hermann) Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength Unknown 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle of the Teutoburg... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ...


The Germania by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, an ethnographic work on the diverse group of Germanic tribes outside of the Roman Empire, is our most important source on the Germanic peoples of the 1st century. Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ...


Migration Period

Main article: Migration Period
2nd to 5th century simplified migrations.
2nd to 5th century simplified migrations.

During the 5th century, as the Western Roman Empire lost military strength and political cohesion, numerous Germanic peoples, under pressure from population growth and invading Asian groups, began migrating en masse in far and diverse directions, taking them to England and as far south through present day Continental Europe to the Mediterranean and northern Africa. Over time, this wandering meant intrusions into other tribal territories, and the ensuing wars for land escalated with the dwindling amount of unoccupied territory. Wandering tribes then began staking out permanent homes as a means of protection. Much of this resulted in fixed settlements from which many, under a powerful leader, expanded outwards. A defeat meant either scattering or merging with the dominant tribe, and this continual process of assimilation was how nations were formed. In Denmark the Jutes merged with the Danes, in Sweden the Geats merged with the Swedes. In England, the Angles merged with the Saxons and other groups as well as a large number of natives to form the Anglo-Saxons. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x663, 115 KB) English Translations: Peoples: Westgoten = Visigoth Wandalen = Vandals Langobarden = Lombards Goten = Goths Ostgoten = Ostrogoths Angeln = Angles Hunnen = Huns Sachsen = Saxons Places: Brittanien = Britain Germanien = Germania Gallien = Gaul (today France) Hispanien = Spain Italien = Italy Illyrien = Illyria (used here to refer... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x663, 115 KB) English Translations: Peoples: Westgoten = Visigoth Wandalen = Vandals Langobarden = Lombards Goten = Goths Ostgoten = Ostrogoths Angeln = Angles Hunnen = Huns Sachsen = Saxons Places: Brittanien = Britain Germanien = Germania Gallien = Gaul (today France) Hispanien = Spain Italien = Italy Illyrien = Illyria (used here to refer... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Jutland peninsula The Jutes were a Germanic people who are believed to have originated from Jutland in modern Denmark and part of the Frisian coast. ... Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


A direct result of the Roman retreat was the disappearance of imported products like ceramics and coins, and a return to virtually unchanged local Iron Age production methods. According to recent views this has caused confusion for decades, and theories assuming the total abandonment of the coastal regions to account for an archeological time gap that never existed have been renounced. Instead it has been confirmed the Frisian graves has been used without interruption between the 4th and 9th century and that inhabited areas show continuity with the Roman period in revealing coins, jewelry and ceramics of the 5th century. Also, people continued to live in the same three-aisled farmhouse, while to the east completely new types of buildings arose. More to the south, in Belgium, archeological results of this period point to immigration from the north.[20]


Role in the Fall of Rome

Some of the Germanic tribes are frequently blamed in popular depictions of the decline of the Roman Empire in the late 5th century. Professional historians and archaeologists have since the 1950s shifted their interpretations in such a way that the Germanic peoples are no longer seen as invading a decaying empire but as being co-opted into helping defend territory the central government could no longer adequately administer. Individuals and small groups from Germanic tribes had long been recruited from the territories beyond the limes (i.e., the regions just outside the Roman Empire), and some of them had risen high in the command structure of the army. Then the Empire recruited entire tribal groups under their native leaders as officers. Assisting with defense eventually shifted into administration and then outright rule, as Roman government passed into the hands of Germanic leaders. Odoacer, who deposed Romulus Augustulus, is the ultimate example. Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... [<br /> ---- Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archae, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Romulus Augustus (460s/470s - after 511) was the last of the Western Roman Emperors. ...


The presence of successor states controlled by a nobility from one of the Germanic tribes is evident in the 6th century - even in Italy, the former heart of the Empire, where Odoacer was followed by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, who was regarded by Roman citizens and Gothic settlers alike as legitimate successor to the rule of Rome and Italy. A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Conversion to Christianity

Main article: Germanic Christianity

While the Germanic peoples were slowly converted to Christianity by varying means, many elements of the pre-Christian culture and indigenous beliefs remained firmly in place after the conversion process, particularly in the more rural and distant regions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x1286, 188 KB) Summary From Greek Wikipedia, see http://upload. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x1286, 188 KB) Summary From Greek Wikipedia, see http://upload. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ...


The Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Vandals were Christianized while they were still outside the bounds of the Empire; however, they converted to Arianism rather than to orthodox Catholicism, and were soon regarded as heretics. The one great written remnant of the Gothic language is a translation of portions of the Bible made by Ulfilas, the missionary who converted them. The Lombards were not converted until after their entrance into the Empire, but received Christianity from Arian Germanic groups. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Arian may refer to: Arian, being well endowed. ...


The Franks were converted directly from paganism to Catholicism without an intervening time as Arians. Several centuries later, Anglo-Saxon and Frankish missionaries and warriors undertook the conversion of their Saxon neighbours. A key event was the felling of Thor's Oak near Fritzlar by Boniface, apostle of the Germans, in 723. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Thors Oak was an ancient tree sacred to the Germanic tribe of the Chatti, ancestors of todays Hessians, and one of the most important sacred sites of the Germans. ... The Cathedral (Dom), with statue of St. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Events Saint Boniface fells Thors Oak near Fritzlar, marking the decisive event in the Christianization of the northern Germanic tribes The worlds first mechanical clock is allegedly built in China. ...


Eventually, the conversion was forced by armed force, successfully completed by Karl der Große (Charlemagne), in a series of campaigns (the Saxon Wars), that also brought Saxon lands into the Frankish empire. Massacres, such as the Bloody Verdict of Verden were a direct result of this policy. Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... The Bloody Verdict of Verden (from German Blutgericht) was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782, ordered by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars. ...


In Scandinavia, the Germanic religion continued to dominate until the 11th century, when it was gradually replaced by Christianity. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Assimilation

"Germanic" as understood today is a linguistic term. Modern ethnicities speaking Germanic languages are not referred to as Germanic peoples, a term of historic scope. All present-day countries speaking a Germanic language including Germany have mixed ethnic roots not restricted to the Germanic peoples.


Germanic peoples were often quick to assimilate (although the term absorption could also accurately be used to describe several of the following historical situations) into foreign cultures. Established examples include the Gallo-Roman Norsemen in Normandy, and the societal elite in medieval Russia among whom many were the descendants of Slavified Norsemen (a theory, however, contested by some Slavic scholars in the former Soviet Union, who name it the Normanist theory). In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... The origins of the Rus (or Rus , &#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1100;) are controversial. ...


England is similarly considered an example of assimilation, where elements of the culture of the migrating Angles, Saxons and Jutes merged with that of the indigenous Celtic speaking Britons, resulting in an English identity for the inhabitants of that land. The later (mid-11th century) arriving French-speaking Norsemen similarly altered what was known as Anglo-Saxon England and set the English language on the path from Old English to Middle English. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Jutland peninsula The Jutes were a Germanic people who are believed to have originated from Jutland in modern Denmark and part of the Frisian coast. ... A Celtic cross. ... The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


It should be noted that the Normans had spent 155 years or approximately 7 generations in a predominantly Celtic France before proceeding to invade Britain. During this time they replaced their Nordic language with a middle French/Gallo-Romance language. Since the Normans are known in particular for their ability to merge with existing populations of people it can be assumed that they would take wives from local populations and become absorbed by the lands they settled within a few short generations.


As in England, Scotland's indigenous Brythonic Celtic culture in the southeast succumbed to Germanic influence due to invasion; while the Scottish Highlands and Galloway retained a Gaelic heritage due to recent and sustained immigration from Ireland which planted the Gaelic culture there while the southwest remained predominantly Briton until adopting Gaelic under Alba. Later almost the entire Scottish Lowlands became Scots speaking as a result of the reforms of the 11th and 12th centuries. The Scots language is the resulting Germanic language now spoken in Scotland and similar to the regional variation of English in the north of England, Geordie (or Northumbrian). The Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands, though a part of Scotland, became Norse Gaels or “Dubh Gaels” reflecting the Nordic influence in their preexisting Celtic culture, again within a few short generations the influence of the Shetlands Nordic language Norn was replaced as an influx of Gaelic speaking Scots resulted in its displacement. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... A Celtic cross. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which spread from Ireland to Scotland and the Isle of Man. ... The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Look up Geordie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group which spread from Ireland to Scotland and the Isle of Man. ...


France saw a great deal of Germanic settlement. Its namesake, the Franks, were a fusion of several Germanic tribes whose homelands lay along the Roman Rhine frontier, and who had been strongly influenced by Roman culture. Entire regions of France (such as Alsace, Burgundy and Normandy) were settled heavily by Franks, contributing to their unique regional cultures and dialects, and Frankish kings ruled the country from the 6th century to the 10th century. However, most of the languages spoken in France today are Romance languages, while the people have a heavy Gallic substratum that predates Latin and Germanic settlement. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ...


Portugal and Spain also had a great measure of Germanic settlement, due to the Visigoths, the Suevi (Quadi and Marcomanni) and the Buri, who settled permanently. The Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) were also present, before moving on to North Africa. Many words of Germanic origin entered into the Spanish and Portuguese languages at this time and many more entered through other avenues (often French) in the ensuing centuries (see: List of Spanish words of Germanic origin and List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin). Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ... The Buri first appear in history as a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they close the back of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Greek Σιλίγγαι - Silingai) were an East Germanic tribe probably part of the larger Vandal group. ... The Hasdingii were the southern tribes of the Vandals. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This is a initial list of Spanish words that come from Germanic languages. ... This is a list of Portuguese words that come from Germanic languages. ...


Italy, especially the area north of the city of Rome, has also had a history of heavy Germanic settlement. Germanic tribes such as the Visigoths, Vandals, and Ostrogoths had successfully invaded and sparsely settled Italy in the 5th century AD. Most notably, in the 6th century AD, the Germanic tribe known as the Lombards entered and settled primarily in the area known today as Lombardy. The Normans also conquered and ruled Sicily and parts of southern Italy for a time. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a...


Germany itself, during the last centuries BC, was mostly occupied by Celtic and Nordwestblock tribes who were linguistically assimilated into the Germanic peoples expanding from the western Baltic littoral area, as well as speakers of Romance languages in the south and west of the country and in Austria and Switzerland. In medieval times, under the identity of the Holy Roman Empire, Germany assimilated Slavic and Baltic peoples to the east (Ostsiedlung); after World War II their descendants spread to other parts of Germany as Vertriebene. The name Nordwestblock is applied by historians to a group of Europeans whose homeland was in the western part of present-day Germany during the 1st century, but who were not originally Germanic tribes. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... http://www. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is in need of attention. ...


See also

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Anatolian · Armenian
Baltic · Celtic · Dacian · Germanic
Greek · Indo-Iranian · Italic · Phrygian
Slavic · Thracian · Tocharian
 
Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Anatolians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans · Indo-Iranians
Iranians · Italic peoples · Slavs
Thracians · Tocharians
 
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... http://www. ... This article is about the European people. ... The Indo-Aryans make up 74% of the population of India and are the creators of the concept of the Aryan race. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Thracian peltast, 5th to 4th century BC Thracian Horseman Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... This are some historical Germanic Confederations 230 BC - Bastarnae, a mixture of Germanic tribes, at the Black Sea; they participated in the siege of Olbia (modern Odessa) in 220 BC. 109 BC - Huge confederation composed of the Germanic of Cimbri and Teutoni and the Celtic-Germanic Helvetii formed near Miltenberg... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century. ... Germanic Europe Green: Countries where a Germanic language is the national language Blue: Countries where a Germanic language is an official language Germanic Europe is the part of Europe in which Germanic languages are predominant. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... German Clan The German clan Sippe or (Sibba) in Old Germanic, was a social group based on common descent. ... The Scandinavian clan or ætt in Old Norse, was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a þing. ... A Sippe (or Geschlecht) was a German cognatic, extended family unit, similar to the Irish sept. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ and whence derives Catalan germà, Spanish hermano and Portuguese irmão, "brother"
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology 1966)
  3. ^ McBain's An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language
  4. ^ Rome's Enemies (1): Germanics and Dacians, Osprey Publishing (1982)
  5. ^ OED recognizes Germanic as a noun for "The language of the Germanic people, Teutonic" only. "Germanics" is the term for German studies at the University of Washington.
  6. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 20:67
  7. ^ 1979: Nederland in de bronstijd, J.J. Butler
  8. ^ Leo Verhart - Op zoek naar de Kelten, 2006,ISBN 90 5345 303 2, p81-82
  9. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 22:641-642
  10. ^ by writers including Joke Delrue, University Gent[citation needed]
  11. ^ Op Zoek naar de Kelten, Nieuwe archeologische ontdekkingen tussen Noordzee en Rijn - Leo Verhart, ISBN 90 5345 303 2, 2006, p67
  12. ^ Complexity, Trade, and Death: Analysis of the shift in Burial Practices during the Late La Tène Period - Dr. Charles Orser http://www.soa.ilstu.edu/anthropology/theses/smithburt/THESIS2.doc]
  13. ^ Parker Pearson 1989:202
  14. ^ Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700 - Looijenga, Jantina Helena - II.2, From the pre-Roman Iron Age to the late-Germanic Iron Age, University of Groningen, 1997
  15. ^ "Völker zwischen Germanen und Kelten", von Rolf Hachmann, Georg Kossack und Hans Kuhn, 1986, p183-212
  16. ^ Op Zoek naar de Kelten, Nieuwe archeologische ontdekkingen tussen Noordzee en Rijn - Leo Verhart, ISBN 90 5345 303 2, 2006, p175-176
  17. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 20:640-642
  18. ^ Lucien Musset - The Germanic Invasions, the making of Europe 400-600 AD, ISBN 1-56619-326-5, 1993 Barnes & Noble Books, p12
  19. ^ Lucien Musset - The Germanic Invasions, the making of Europe 400-600 AD, ISBN 1-56619-326-5, 1993 Barnes & Noble Books, p12-13
  20. ^ J.H.F. Bloemers & T. van Dorp. Pre- en Protohistorie van de Lage Landen. De Haan/Open Universiteit, 1991, ISBN 90 269 4448 9, NUGI 644, pp 329-338

Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is a notable etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. ... German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ...

Further reading

  • Beck, Heinrich and Heiko Steuer and Dieter Timpe, eds. Die Germanen. Studienausgabe. Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter 1998. Xi + 258 pp. ISBN 3-11-016383-7.
  • Collins, Roger. Early medieval Europe. 300-1000. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan 1999. XXV + 533 pp. ISBN 0-333-65807-8.
  • Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany. The creation and transformation of the Merovingian world. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1988. Xii + 259 pp. ISBN 0-19-504458-4.
  • Geary, Patrick J. The Myth of Nations. The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press 2002. X + 199 pp. ISBN 0-691-11481-1.
  • Herrmann, Joachim. Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jahrtausends unserer Zeitrechnung. I. Von Homer bis Plutarch. 8. Jh. v. u. Z. bis 1. Jh. v. u. Z. II. Tacitus-Germania. III. Von Tacitus bis Ausonius. 2. bis 4. Jh. u. Z. IV. Von Ammianus Marcellinus bis Zosimos. 4. und 5. Jh. u. Z. Berlin: Akademie Verlag 1988 -1992. I: 657 pp. ISBN 3-05-000348-0. II: 291 pp. ISBN 3-05-000349-9. III: 723 pp. ISBN 3-05-000571-8. IV: 656 pp. ISBN 3-05-000591-2.
  • Pohl, Walter. Die Germanen. Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte 57. München: Oldenbourg 2004. X + 156 pp. ISBN 3-486-56755-1.
  • Pohl, Walter. Die Völkerwanderung. Eroberung und Integration. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2002. 266 pp. ISBN 3-17-015566-0. Monograph, German.
  • Todd, Malcolm. The Early Germans. Oxford: Blackwell 2004. Xii + 266 pp. ISBN 0-631-16397-2.
  • Jürgen Udolph. Namenkundliche Studien zum Germanenproblem. DeGruyter, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-11-014138-8
  • Wolfram, Herwig. History of the Goths. Berkeley: University of California Press 1988. Xii + 613 pp. ISBN 0520052595
  • Wolfram, Herwig. The Roman Empire and its Germanic peoples. Berkeley: University of California Press 1997. XX + 361 pp. ISBN 0-520-08511-6.

External links

  • On the origins of Anglo-Saxons
  • Anglo-Saxons and Britons

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