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Encyclopedia > Germanic languages
Germanic
Teutonic
Geographic
distribution:
Originally in northern, western and central Europe; today worldwide
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Germanic
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2: gem

Indo-European topics A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ...

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Anatolian · Armenian
Baltic · Celtic · Dacian · Germanic
Greek · Indo-Iranian · Italic · Phrygian
Slavic · Thracian · Tocharian
 
Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Anatolians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans · Indo-Iranians
Iranians · Italic peoples · Slavs
Thracians · Tocharians
 
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. The common ancestor of all languages comprising this branch is Proto-Germanic, spoken in approximately the latter mid-1st millennium BC in Iron Age Northern Europe. Proto-Germanic, along with all of its descendants, is characterized by a number of unique linguistic features, most famously the consonant change known as Grimm's law. Early Germanic varieties enter history with the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire from the 2nd century. The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... http://www. ... This article is about the European people. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age material culture in northern Europe, dated from about 600 BC to 1. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The largest Germanic languages are English and German, with approximately 400 and 100 million native speakers respectively. The group consists of other major languages, such as Dutch with 22 and Afrikaans with over 16 million speakers; and the North Germanic languages including Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, and Faroese with a combined total of about 20 million speakers. The SIL Ethnologue lists 53 different Germanic languages and major dialects. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Germanic languages possess several unique features, such as the following:

  1. The leveling of the IE tense and aspect system into the present tense and past tense (also called preterite).
  2. A large class of verbs that use a dental suffix (/d/ or /t/) instead of vowel alternation (Indo-European ablaut) to indicate past tense. These are called the Germanic weak verbs; the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs.
  3. The use of so-called strong and weak adjectives: different sets of inflectional endings for adjectives depending on the definiteness of the noun phrase. (Modern English adjectives do not inflect at all, except for the comparative and superlative; this was not the case in Old English, where adjectives were inflected differently depending on whether they were preceded by an article or demonstrative.)
  4. The consonant shift known as Grimm's Law. (The consonants in High German have shifted farther yet by the High German consonant shift.)
  5. A number of words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families, but variants of which appear in almost all Germanic languages. See Germanic substrate hypothesis.
  6. The shifting of stress accent onto the root of the stem and later to the first syllable of the word. (Though English has an irregular stress, native words always have a fixed stress regardless of what is added to them.)

Germanic languages differ from each other to a greater degree than do some other language families such as the Romance or Slavic languages. Roughly speaking, Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is with respect to an overall trend towards analyticity. Some, like German, Dutch and Icelandic, have preserved much of the complex inflectional morphology inherited from the Proto-Indo-European language. Others, like English, Swedish and Afrikaans have moved towards a largely analytic type. Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, the term ablaut designates a system of vowel gradation (i. ... In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm, though historically they are not the oldest or most original group. ... In the Germanic languages, strong verbs are those which mark their past tenses by means of ablaut. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... The Germanic substrate hypothesis is a hypothesis that some have ventured that attempts to explain the distinctiveness of the Germanic languages within the Indo-European language family. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... An isolating language is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and are considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... Inflection morphology is a process in natural language processing. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another characteristic of Germanic languages is verb second or V2 word order, which is quite uncommon cross-linguistically. This feature is shared by all modern Germanic languages except English, which appears to have had V2 earlier in its history but has largely replaced the structure with an overall SVO structure. Verb-second (V2) word order, in syntax, is the effect that in some languages the second constituent of declarative main clauses is always a verb, while this is not necessarily the case in other types of clauses. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ...


Writing

The earliest evidence of Germanic comes from names recorded in the 1st century by Tacitus (especially from his work Germania), but the earliest Germanic writing occurs in a single instance in the 2nd century BC on the Negau helmet[1]. From roughly the 2nd century AD, certain speakers of early Germanic varieties developed the Elder Futhark, an early form of the runic alphabet. Early runic inscriptions are also largely limited to personal names, and difficult to interpret. The Gothic language was written in the Gothic alphabet developed by Bishop Ulfilas for his translation of the Bible in the 4th century. Later, Christian priests and monks who spoke and read Latin in addition to their native Germanic varieties began writing the Germanic languages with slightly modified Latin letters. However, throughout the Viking Age, runic alphabets remained in common use in Scandinavia. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Negau helmet usually refers to one of 28 bronze helmets from the 5th century BS, found in a cache in Negau, present Zenjak, in Slovenia on which is inscribed, in the Etruscan alphabet harigastiz fefakit. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The 24 runes of the Elder Futhark The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes for Proto-Norse and other Migration period Germanic dialects of the 2nd to 8th centuries for inscriptions on artifacts (jewelery... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century _ other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793 when heathen Norsemen destroyed the Abbey church on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning famous across the continent. ... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the standard Latin alphabet, various Germanic languages use a variety of accent marks and extra letters, including umlauts, the ß (Eszett), IJ, Ø, Æ, Å, Ä, Ö, Ð, Ȝ, and Þ and Ƿ, from runes. Historic printed German is frequently set in blackletter typefaces (e.g. fraktur or schwabacher). The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... ß as the combination of Å¿s on a Pirna street sign (Waldstraße) This article is about the letter ß in the German alphabet. ... The words “ijsvrij” and “yoghurt” in various forms of handwriting. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... n. ... The letter Ã… represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... The letter yogh (Èœ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Capital wynn (left), lowercase wynn (right) Wynn () (also spelled Wen or en) is a letter of the Old English alphabet. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... “Font” redirects here. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ...


History

The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until AD 1
The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until AD 1

All Germanic languages are thought to be descended from a hypothetical Proto-Germanic, united by their having been subjected to the sound shifts of Grimm's law and Verner's law. These took place probably during the Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe from ca. 500 BC, but other common innovations separating Germanic from Proto-Indo European suggest a common history of pre-Proto-Germanic speakers throughout the Nordic Bronze Age. Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ... Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... Grimms law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC. It... It has been suggested that Grammatischer Wechsel be merged into this article or section. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far...


From the time of their earliest attestation, the Germanic varieties are divided into three groups, West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ...


The 6th century Lombardic language, for instance, may constitute an originally either North or East Germanic variety that became assimilated to West Germanic as the Lombards settled at the Elbe. The Western group would have formed in the late Jastorf culture, the Eastern group may be derived from the 1st century variety of Gotland (see Old Gutnish), leaving southern Sweden as the original location of the Northern group . The earliest coherent Germanic text preserved is the 4th century Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfilas. Early testimonies of West Germanic are in Old High German (scattered words and sentences 6th century, coherent texts 9th century), Old English (coherent texts 10th century). North Germanic is only attested in scattered runic inscriptions, as Proto-Norse, until it evolves into Old Norse by about 800. Longer runic inscriptions survive from the 8th and 9th centuries (Eggjum stone, Rök stone), longer texts in the Latin alphabet survive from the 12th century (Íslendingabók), and some skaldic poetry held to date back to as early as the 9th century. Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Eggja stone is a grave stone that was ploughed up in 1917 on the farm of that name, in Sogndal, parish of Sogn, Norway. ... A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ... Íslendingabók, Libellus Islandorum or The Book of Icelanders is an historical work dealing with early Icelandic history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with skaldic poetry. ...

The Germanic languages in Europe      Dutch (Low Franconian, West Germanic)      Low German (West Germanic)      Central German (High German, West Germanic)      Upper German (High German, West Germanic)      Anglic (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)      Frisian (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)      East Scandinavian      West Scandinavian      Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages.

By about the 10th century, the varieties had diverged enough to make intercomprehensibility difficult. The linguistic contact of the Viking settlers of the Danelaw with the Anglo-Saxons left traces in the English language, and is suspected to have facilitated the collapse of Old English grammar that resulted in Middle English from the 12th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


The East Germanic languages were marginalized from the end of the Migration period. The Burgundians, Goths and Vandals became linguistically assimilated to their respective neighbors by about the 7th century, with only Crimean Gothic lingering on until the 18th century. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Crimean Gothic language is dialect of the Gothic language that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ...


During the early Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle English on one hand, and by the High German consonant shift on the continent on the other, resulting in Upper German and Low Saxon, with graded intermediate Central German varieties. By Early modern times, the span had extended into considerable differences, ranging from Highest Alemannic in the South to Northern Low Saxon in the North, and although both extremes are considered German, they are hardly mutually intelligible. The southernmost varieties have completed the second sound shift, while the northern varieties remained unaffected by the consonant shift. High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Central German (in German: Mitteldeutsch) is a group of German dialects spread from the Rhineland to Thuringia, south of Low German and north of Upper German. ... Highest Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though mutual intellegibility with Standard German and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited. ... Northern Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nordneddersassisch or Platt) is a Low Saxon dialect. ...


The North Germanic languages, on the other hand, remained more unified, with the larger languages largely retaining mutual intelligibility into modern times.


Classification

Note that divisions between subfamilies of Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form continuous clines, with adjacent varieties being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not. A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ...


Diachronic

General Note: The table shows the succession of the significant historical stages of each language (vertically), and their approximate groupings in subfamilies (horizontally). Horizontal sequence within each group does not imply a measure of greater or lesser similarity.

Iron Age
500 BC–AD 200
Proto-Germanic
East Germanic West Germanic North Germanic
South Germanic Anglo-Frisian
Migration period
AD 200–700
Gothic, Lombardic1   Old Frankish Old Saxon Old Frisian Old English Proto-Norse
Vandalic, Burgundian, Old High German
Early Middle Ages
700–1100
Old Low Franconian Runic Old West Norse Runic Old East Norse
Middle Ages
1100–1350
Middle High German Middle Dutch Middle Low German Middle English Old Icelandic Old Norwegian Early Old Danish Early Old Swedish Early Old Gutnish
Late Middle Ages2
1350–1500
Early New High German Middle English Early Scots Late Old Icelandic Old Faroese Old Norn Middle Norwegian Late Old Danish Late Old Swedish Late Old Gutnish
Early Modern Age
1500–1700
Crimean Gothic Low Franconian varieties, including Dutch Middle Frisian Early Modern English Middle Scots Icelandic Faroese Norn Norwegian Danish Swedish Gutnish
Modern Age
1700 to present
all extinct High German varieties Low Saxon varieties Frisian varieties English varieties Scots varieties extinct3 extinct3

Note 1: There are conflicting opinions on the classification of Lombardic. Contrary to its isolated position in the table above, it has also been classified as close to either Upper German or Old Saxon. See the article on the Lombardic language for more information. A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages in the Germanic family. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... South Germanic is a cover term for West Germanic and East Germanic, to the exclusion of North Germanic, and sometimes also to the exclusion of Anglo-Frisian (North-Sea Germanic), thus including: East Germanic West Germanic High Germanic Low Germanic This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ... Old Frankish was the language of the Franks. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... Vandalic was a Germanic language probably closely related to the Gothic language. ... Burgundian is either of the following; An extinct language of the Germanic language group spoken by the Burgundians. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Old Low Franconian is the language ancestral to the Low Franconian languages, including Dutch. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... West Norse is also called Old Icelandic or Old Norwegian. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... Early New High German, or Early Modern German, is the direct ancestor of the modern German language, and was used from 1350 to 1750. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... The Crimean Gothic language is dialect of the Gothic language that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Middle Frisian evolved from Old Frisian from the 16th century and was spoken until ca. ... Shakespeares writings are universally associated with Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 1400s) to 1650. ... Middle Scots describes the language of Anglic-speaking Lowland Scotland in the period 1450 to 1700. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Gutnish is the old language of the island of Gotland (in present day Sweden). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Lombardic or Langobardic is the extinct language of the Lombards (Langobardi), the Germanic speaking settlers in Italy in the 6th century. ...


Note 2: Late Middle Ages refers to the post Black Death period. Especially for the language situation in Norway this event was important. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


Note 3: The speakers of Norn were assimilated to speak the Modern Scots varieties, and the Gutnish language is today practically a dialect of Swedish. Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Gutnish is the old language of the island of Gotland (in present day Sweden). ...


Contemporary

See also: List of Germanic languages

Mentioned here are all the principal and some secondary contemporary varieties; individual articles linked to below may contain larger family trees. For example, many Low Saxon varieties are discussed on Low Saxon besides just Northern Low Saxon and Plautdietsch. The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is a part of the Indo-European language family. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...

Alternate classification of contemporary North Germanic languages This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Central German (in German: Mitteldeutsch) is a group of German dialects spread from the Rhineland to Thuringia, south of Low German and north of Upper German. ... East Central German is a group of Germanic dialects: Upper Saxon German is a dialect spoken in the majority of the modern German Free States of Saxony. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch, French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Low Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though they are only partly intelligible to German speakers. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Basel German or Baseldytsch (also Baseldütsch, Baseldeutsch) is the dialect of the city of Basel, Switzerland. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a... High Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though they are only partly intelligible to German speakers. ... Zürich German is the dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland. ... Bernese German is the dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions. ... Highest Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though mutual intellegibility with Standard German and other non-Alemannic German dialects is very limited. ... View of Thun and Lake Thun from the Niederhorn The Bernese Oberland (Bernese highlands) is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the South of the canton: The area around Lake Thun and Lake Brienz, and the valleys of the Bernese Alps (thus, the inhabitable parts from... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walliser German (Walliserdeutsch in German) is a group of Highest Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland, specifically in the German-speaking part of the Canton of Wallis (in French: Valais), in the uppermost Rhône valley. ... Subdivisions Northern Austro-Bavarian Central Austro-Bavarian Southern Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is an Upper Germanic language. ... Nuremberg (German: ) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Viennese German is an East Central Austro-Bavarian dialect spoken mostly in the Austrian capital of Vienna. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Klagenfurt since July 3, 2007 Klagenfurt am Wörthersee is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia (German Kärnten), in Austria. ... Bolzano (Italian Bolzano; German: Bozen, archaic Botzen; Ladin: Bulsan; Latin: Bauzanum; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Bolzan or Bulsan) is a city in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of Italy. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Wymysorys or Wilamowicean (WymysiöeryÅ›) is a Central German language spoken in the small town of Wilamowice (Wymysoj in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Old Dutch (Also Old West Low Franconian) is a branch of Old Low Franconian spoken and written during the early middle ages (c. ... Linguistically speaking, Middle Dutch is no more than a collective name for closely related languages or dialects which were spoken and written between about 1150 and 1500 in the present-day Dutch-speaking region. ... Dutch ( (help· info)), sometimes referred to as Netherlandic in English, is a Low Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium (2005 [1]). Dutch spoken in Flanders (Vlaanderen), the northern part of Belgium, is sometimes (falsely) referred to as Flemish (Vlaams). ... Brabantian is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in Noord-Brabant and in the Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Vlaams-Brabant. ... Zealandic (Zêeuws in Zeelandic, Zeeuws in Dutch) is a regional language spoken in the Dutch province of Zeeland and on the South Holland island of Goeree-Overflakkee. ... West Flemish (in West Flemish, Vlaemsch) is a group of dialects, spoken in parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. ... East Flemish is a dialect of the Dutch language, which is a Low Franconian language. ... Hollandic (Dutch: Hollands) is, together with Brabantic, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... Position of Zuid-Gelders (Marked dark Blue) within the Dutch speaking area Zuid-Gelders (Kleverlands) is the dialect of the Dutch language that is spoken in the Veluwezoom, around Nijmegen, in the Bommelerwaard, other areas of the Netherlands, and traditionally parts of Germany including Duisburg and partly Wuppertal up to... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... West Low German (also known as Low Saxon, especially in the Netherlands) is a group of Low German dialects spoken in Northwest Germany and East Netherlands. ... Northern Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nordneddersassisch or Platt) is a Low Saxon dialect. ... East Frisian Low Saxon, is a West Low German dialect spoken in the Eastern Friesland peninsula of northwestern Lower Saxony. ... Westphalian is one of the major dialect groups of West Low German. ... Eastphalian, or Eastfalian (in German, Ostfälisch), is a Low Saxon dialect spoken in southern parts of Lower Saxony, in Germany, including Hanover, Braunschweig, Hildesheim and Goettingen. ... East Low German is a group of Low German dialects spoken in Northeast Germany as well as by minorities in northern Poland. ... Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a language (or groups of dialects of Low German) spoken in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Honduras, Belize, and Argentina by over 300,000 Mennonites, members of a religious group that fled from Holland and Belgium in the 1500s to escape... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Mennonites are a group of... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who, from their ancient homes in North Germany and Denmark, had settled in the area between the Rhine and Elbe on the European North Sea coast in the 4th and 5th centuries. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dialect spoken in the eastern part of the dutch part of Friesland, wich is called the wâlden (english: the woods), the dialect is also spoken in parts of Groningen. ... Categories: Language stubs | Frisian language ... Saterland Frisian, also known as Sater Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk), is the last living dialect of the East Frisian language. ... North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia. ... Mooring or Bökingharde Frisian (Böökinghiirder frasch) is a dialect of the North Frisian language spoken in Niebüll and the amt of Bökingharde in the German region of North Frisia. ... Wiedingharde Frisian (Wiringhiirder freesk) is a dialect of the North Frisian language spoken in the amt of Wiedingharde in the German region of North Frisia. ... Halligen Frisian (Freesk) is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the Halligen islands, primarily Langeneß and Hooge, in the German region of North Frisia. ... Sölring is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the island of Sylt in the German region of North Frisia. ... Föhr is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German coast of the North Sea. ... Öömrang is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the island of Amrum in the German region of North Frisia. ... Heligolandic (Halunder) is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the North Sea island of Heligoland. ... The Anglic languages (also called Anglian languages) are one of the two branches of Anglo-Frisian languages, itself a branch of West Germanic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Shakespeares writings are universally associated with Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 1400s) to 1650. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Northern English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... Midlands English is a group of dialects of the English language. ... The Southern English dialects are those dialects of English English spoken in southern England. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Hiberno-English is the form of the English language used in Ireland. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indian English is a catch-all phrase for the dialects or varieties of English spoken widely in India (by about 11% of the population, according to the 1991 census) and the Indian subcontinent in general. ... Indian English refers to the dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ... Singlish is the English-based creole spoken colloquially in Singapore. ... Malaysian English (MyE) or formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE) is a form of English used and can be considered spoken in Malaysia and can be considered the de facto lingua franca in Malaysia (although the national language is Malay). ... Caribbean English is a broad term for the dialects of the English language spoken in the Caribbean, most countries on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and Guyana. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Early Scots describes the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Middle Scots describes the language of Anglic-speaking Lowland Scotland in the period 1450 to 1700. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... For the Doric dialect of ancient Greek, see Doric Greek Doric was formerly used to refer to all dialects of Lowland Scots but is now usually used as a name for the dialect spoken in the north-east of Scotland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Central Scots is a group of dialects of Scots language. ... Northeast is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. ... Greater London is divided into a number of constituencies for London Assembly elections. ... South Scots is one of the names given to the dialect (or group of dialects) of Scots spoken in most of the Scottish Borders region. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Lallans ( a variant of the Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), was also traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole. ... Introduction The Yola language is a branch of Middle English that evolved separately among the English who followed the Norman barons Strongbow and Robert Fitzstephens to eastern Ireland in 1169. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Høgnorsk is a form of written Norwegian that is considered a more pure version of the minority language, Nynorsk. ... Bergensk is a dialect used in Bergen, Norway. ... Helgeland is a landscape in Northern Norway. ... Viken (literally the bay) is a landscape defined by Oslofjord in southeastern Norway which terminates at Terra Scania on the coast of West Sweden. ... Østerdalen is a valley and landscape in the eastern part of Norway, consisting of the municipalities Rendalen, Alvdal, Folldal, Tynset, Tolga and Os in the north, Elverum, Engerdal, Stor-Elvdal, Trysil and Ã…mot in the south. ... Gudbrandsdalen is a valley and traditional district in the Norwegian fylke (county) of Oppland. ... View over Begnadalen from Lærskogen, with the large woodland ranging all over to Randsfjorden on the left and Hedalsfjella in the right background Valdres is a landscape in central, southern Norway, situated between Gudbrandsdal and Hallingdal. ... Hallingdal is a valley and landscape in central, southern Norway, consisting of the municipalities Flå, Nes, Gol, Hemsedal, Ål and Hol. ... Trøndersk is the Norwegian dialect spoken in the region Trøndelag in Norway. ... Location of Jämtland in Sweden Jamtlandic, or yah-ahmsk/yahm-skeh (IPA /) in the form of speech described by the article, (jämtska, jämtmÃ¥l or jämtländska in Swedish — the often seen jamska is a Jamtlandic-Swedish form) and is a well-defined group of dialects... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland. ... Gøtudanskt (Faroese for Gøta Danish or alternatively street Danish) is a name for the Danish language as spoken in the Faroe Islands. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden Scanian ( ) is a closely related group of dialects spoken in the Southern-Swedish region SkÃ¥ne (Scania). ... Jutlandic or Jutish (Danish: jysk or, in old spelling, jydsk ) is a term for the western dialects of Danish, spoken on the peninsula of Jutland. ... South Jutlandic or South Jutish (South Jutlandic: Synnejysk; Danish: ; German: ) is a dialect of the Danish language. ... Slesvig is the Danish language spelling for the city of Schleswig the duchy of Schleswig Hedeby, the pre-Christian trading center This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... The Dalacarlian language is traditionally grouped as a dialect of Swedish language but it could rather be considered as an own language. ... ÄlvdalsmÃ¥l (English: lit. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ... New Swedish (Swedish: nysvenska) is the linguistic term used for the Swedish language from the Bible translation of 1526 to the development of a common national language around 1880. ... Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a North Germanic language spoken predominantly in Sweden, in part of Finland, and on the autonomous Åland islands, by more than nine million people. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Gutnish is the old language of the island of Gotland (in present day Sweden). ...

Vocabulary comparison

Several of the terms in the table below have had semantic drift. For example, the form 'Sterben' and other terms for 'die' are cognates with the English word 'starve'. There is also at least one example of a common borrowing from a Non-Germanic source (ounce and its cognates from Latin). Semantic drift, in historical linguistics, is a phenomenon whereby words change in meaning over a period of time, resulting in semantic differences between cognates. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

English Scots Frisian Afrikaans Dutch Low Saxon German Gothic Icelandic Faroese Swedish Danish Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk)
Apple Aiple Appel Appel Appel Appel Apfel Aplus Epli Epl(i) [3] Äpple Æble Eple Eple
Board Buird Board Bord Bord Boord Brett / Bord [4] Baúrd Borð Borð Bord Bord Bord Bord
Beech Beech Boeke/ Boekebeam Beuk Beuk Böke Buche Bōka [5]/ -bagms Bók Bók Bok Bøg Bøk Bøk, Bok
Book Beuk Boek Boek Boek Book Buch Bōka Bók Bók Bok Bog Bok Bok
Breast Breest Boarst Bors Borst Bost Brust Brusts Brjóst Bróst Bröst Bryst Bryst Bryst
Brown Broun Brún Bruin Bruin Bruun Braun Bruns Brúnn Brúnur Brun Brun Brun Brun
Day Day Dei Dag Dag Dag Tag Dags Dagur Dagur Dag Dag Dag Dag
Dead Deid Dea Dood Dood Dood Tot Dauþs Dauður Deyður Död Død Død Daud
Die (Starve) Dee Stjerre Sterf Sterven Döen/ Starven Sterben Diwan Deyja Doyggja Døy
Enough Eneuch Genôg Genoeg Genoeg Noog Genug Ganōhs Nóg Nóg/ Nógmikið Nog Nok Nok Nok
Finger Finger Finger Vinger Vinger Finger Finger Figgrs Fingur Fingur Finger Finger Finger Finger
Give Gie Jan Gee Geven Geven Geben Giban Gefa Geva Giva / Ge Give Gi Gje(va)
Glass Gless Glês Glas Glas Glas Glas Gler Glas Glas Glas Glass Glas
Gold Gowd Goud Goud Goud Gold Gold Gulþ Gull Gull Guld/ Gull Guld Gull Gull
Hand Haund Hân Hand Hand Hand Hand Handus Hönd Hond Hand Hånd Hånd Hand
Head Heid Holle Hoof [6]/ Kop[7] Hoofd/ Kop[7] Kopp[7] Haupt/ Kopf[7] Háubiþ Höfuð Høvd/ Høvur Huvud Hoved Hode Hovud
High Heich Heech Hoog Hoog Hoog Hoch Háuh Hár Høg/ur Hög Høj Høy/høg Høg
Home Hame Hiem Heim [8]/ Tuis[9] Heim [8]/Thuis[9] Heim Heim Háimōþ Heim Heim Hem Hjem Hjem/heim Heim
Hook Heuk Hoek Haak Haak Haak Haken Krappa/ Krampa Krókur Krókur/ Ongul Hake/ Krok Hage/ Krog Hake/ Krok Hake/ Krok[10]
House Hoose Hûs Huis Huis Huus Haus Hūs Hús Hús Hus Hus Hus Hus
Many Mony Menich Menige Menig Mennig Manch Manags Margir Mangir/ Nógvir Många Mange Mange Mange
Moon Muin Moanne Maan Maan Maan Mond Mēna Tungl/ Máni Máni/ Tungl Måne Måne Måne Måne
Night Nicht Nacht Nag Nacht Natt/ Nacht Nacht Nótt Nótt Natt Natt Nat Natt Natt
No Nae Nee Nee Nee(n) Nee Nein (Nö, Nee) Nei Nei Nej Nej Nei Nei
Old Auld Âld Oud Oud, Gammel [11] Oll Alt Sineigs Gamall (but: eldri, elstur) Gamal (but: eldri, elstur) Gammal (but: äldre, äldst) Gammel (but: ældre, ældst) Gammel (but: eldre, eldst) Gam(m)al (but: eldre, eldst)
One Ane Ien Een Een Een Eins Áins Einn Ein En En En Ein
Ounce Unce Ons Ons Ons Ons Unze Unkja Únsa Únsa Uns Unse Unse Unse
Snow Snaw Snie Sneeu Sneeuw Snee Schnee Snáiws Snjór Kavi/ Snjógvur Snö Sne Snø Snø
Stone Stane Stien Steen Steen Steen Stein Stáins Steinn Steinur Sten Sten Stein Stein
That That Dat Dit, Daardie Dat, Die Dat (Dit) Das Þata Það Tað Det Det Det Det
Two/Twain Twa Twa Twee Twee Twee Zwei (Zwo) Twái Tveir/ Tvær/ Tvö Tveir (/Tvá) Två To To To [12]
Who Wha Wie Wie Wie Wokeen Wer Ƕas (Hwas) Hver Hvør Vem Hvem Hvem Kven
Worm Wirm Wjirm Wurm Wurm/ Worm Worm Wurm Maþa Maðkur, Ormur Maðkur/ Ormur Mask/ Orm [13] Orm Mark/ Makk/ Orm Mark/ Makk/ Orm [13]
English Scots Frisian Afrikaans Dutch Low Saxon Standard German Gothic Icelandic Faroese Swedish Danish Norwegian (Bokmål) Norwegian (Nynorsk)

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ... Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Malcolm Todd (1992). The Early Germans. Blackwell Publishing. 
  2. ^ Purely modern term; it contradicts contemporary usage, which designated Scottish English as Inglis (i.e. English), whereas Scottis (i.e Scots) meant Gaelic. But such chronological terminology is widely used, for example, by Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. (Formally SNDA), Dr. Anne King of The University of Edinburgh and by The University of Glasgow. It is also used in The Oxford Companion to the English Language and The Cambridge History of English and American Literature
  3. ^ The cognate means 'potato'. The correct word is 'Súrepli'.
  4. ^ Brett used in Southern, Bord also used in Northern Germany
  5. ^ Attested meaning 'letter', but also means beech in other Germanic languages, cf. Russian buk 'beech', bukva 'letter', maybe from Gothic.
  6. ^ Now only used in compound words such as hoofpyn (headache) and metaphorically such as hoofstad (capital city).
  7. ^ a b c d From an old Latin borrowing, akin to "cup".
  8. ^ a b Archaic: now only used in compound words such as 'heimwee' (homesickness).
  9. ^ a b From a compound phrase akin to "to house"
  10. ^ Ongel is also used for fishing hook.
  11. ^ Old and decayed.
  12. ^ Dialectally tvo/ två/ tvei (m), tvæ (f), tvau (n).
  13. ^ a b The cognate means 'snake'.

See also

The Germanic language family is one of the language groups which resulted from the breakup of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... There are many words in Germanic languages whose roots are difficult to identify. ... This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. ... Anglicisation is a process of making something English. ... Wal/Gal Many region names (and some place names) in Europe derive from the original Germanic word for stranger or foreigner, rendered as wal or gal (and variations). ...

External links

Modern Germanic languages
Afrikaans | Alemannic | Danish | Dutch | English | Faroese | Frisian | German | Icelandic |
Limburgish | Low German | Luxembourgish | Norwegian | Scots | Swedish | Yiddish

  Results from FactBites:
 
Verbix -- Germanic. Conjugate verbs in 50+ languages (113 words)
Germanic languages are spoken by more than 480 million people in northern and western Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia.
North Germanic or Scandinavian: western group - the Icelandic language, the Norwegian language, and Faroese; eastern group - the Danish language and the Swedish language.
West Germanic: Anglo-Frisian group - the English language and the Frisian language; Netherlandic-German group - Netherlandic, or Dutch-Flemish and the Low German dialects, Afrikaans, the German language or High German, and the Yiddish language.
Teutonic (Germanic) Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 (4502 words)
languages seem originally to have had three numbers and eight cases, though it is by no means clear that each of the latter had a distinct form in every class of stems.
They are doubtless to be regarded as the representatives of the old language of the maritime districts, and it is probable that languages of this type were at one time spoken along the whole of the coast between the present frontiers of Belgium and Denmark.
The early divergence of the eastern languages in general from those of the north and west is perhaps to be ascribed in part to the great extension southwards of the territories of the eastern tribes in the 3rd and 4th centuries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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