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Encyclopedia > Germania
Map of the Roman Empire and "the free Germania", Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century
Map of the Roman Empire and "the free Germania", Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century

Germania was the Latin exonym[1][2] for a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine (inner Germania), which extended regions of Sarmatia (modern Poland, Ukraine, Russia), where Slavic tribes dominated.[citation needed] The name was conceived by Romans around 2000 years ago.[3] Image File history File links Imperium_Romanum_Germania. ... Image File history File links Imperium_Romanum_Germania. ... A number of things have been named Germania: Germania was, in the Roman era, a geographical area of Europe, beyond the Rhine and Danube, which was inhabited by different tribes, most of which probably spoke Proto-Germanic languages. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...

Contents

History

The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until AD 1
The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):       Settlements before 750BC       New settlements until 500BC       New settlements until 250BC       New settlements until AD 1

Germania was inhabited by different tribes, the vast majority Germanic but also including some Celtic, Baltic, Scythian and proto-Slavic. The tribal and ethnic makeup changed over the centuries as a result of assimilation and, most importantly, migrations. The Germanic people spoke several different dialects. Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ... Image File history File links Germanic_tribes_(750BC-1AD). ... This article is about the European people. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue) and negative (orange) Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another (migration), often over long distances or in large groups. ...


The classical world knew little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century BC the Greeks were aware of a group they called Celts (Keltoi). Herodotus also mentioned the Scythians, but no other barbarian tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe, and what he found on his journeys was so unbelievable that later writers refused to believe him. He may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans and the Gauls. He said that the Gauls, although warlike, could be civilized, but the Germanic tribesmen were far more savage, and were a threat to Roman Gaul, and so had to be conquered. His accounts of barbaric northern tribes could be described as an expression of the superiority of Rome, including Roman Gaul. Caesar's accounts protray the Roman fear of the Germanic tribes and the threat they posed. The perceived menace of the Germanic tribesmen proved accurate. The Romans tried crossing the Rhine into greater Germania to conquer it only once. This invasion occurred in 9 A.D. resulting in the Battle of the Teutoburg forest which led to the annihilation of tens of thousands of Roman Legionnaires, and one of the Rome's greatest defeats. Several hundred years later, it was the mainly Germanic tribes that conquered Rome itself. The most complete account of Germania that has been preserved from Roman times is Tacitus' Germania. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... This article is about the European people. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pytheas (Πυθέας(Pitheas), ca. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men of World history. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gaul in the Roman Empire Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in what would become modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius (Hermann) Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength Unknown 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle of the Teutoburg... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ...

Map showing the distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, 100 AD and 300 AD. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and 117 AD is also shown.
Map showing the distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, 100 AD and 300 AD. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and 117 AD is also shown.

Tacitus wrote in 98 AD: Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ... Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ...

"For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word, lately bestowed. For those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, and are now named Tungrians, were then called Germani. And thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation; so that by an appellation at first occasioned by fear and conquest, they afterwards chose to be distinguished, and assuming a name lately invented were universally called Germani."[4]

Regions

Germania was defined by Rome as having two regions: 'the inner Germania', west and south of the Rhine, occupied by the Romans, and 'the big Germania' (Magna Germania) east of the Rhine. The occupied Germania was divided into two provinces: Germania Inferior (approximately corresponding to the southern part of the present-day Low Countries) and Germania Superior (approximately corresponding to present-day Switzerland and Alsace). The Romans under Augustus began to conquer and defeat the Germania Magna in 12 BCE, having the Legati (generals) Germanicus and Tiberius leading the Legions. By 6 CE all of Germania up to the Elbe river was temporarily pacified by the Romans as well as being occupied by them. The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


See also

Look up Germania in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Roman Bronze figurine, Öland, Sweden The Roman Iron Age (1-400) is the name that Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Germanic Europe Green: Countries where a Germanic language is the national language Blue: Countries where a Germanic language is an official language Germanic Europe is the part of Europe in which Germanic languages are predominant. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Map of Upper Germanic Limes The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a remarkable line of frontier (limes) forts that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Raetia, and divided the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes, from the years 83 to 260. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Stümpel, Gustav [1932]. Name und Nationalität der Germanen. Eine neue Untersuchung zu Poseidonios, Caesar und Tacitus (in German). Leipzig: Dieterich, 60. 
  2. ^ Feist, Sigmund [1927]. Germanen und Kelten in der antiken Überlieferung (in German). 
  3. ^ Tacitus, Germania (book).
  4. ^ Tacitus, Germania 2

Sigmund Feist (1865-1943) was a German author. ... Sigmund Feist (1865-1943) was a German author. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ...

Bibliography

  • Malcolm Todd (1995). The Early Germans. Blackwell Publishing. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Germania Inferior (1822 words)
The army of Germania Inferior marched from the mouth of the Rhine through the inland to the sources of the Lippe, where a camp was built at Anreppen.
The army of Germania Superior consisted of II Augusta, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina, and XVI Gallica; I Germanica, V Alaudae, XX Valeria Victrix, and XXI Rapax were stationed in Germania Inferior.
From this moment on, Germania Inferior was only a small province: a small stretch of land to the southwest of the Lower Rhine, with the country of the Frisians and Chauci as an appendix.
Germania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Map of the Roman Empire and "the free Germania", Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century.
Dating back to the Roman era, Germania was the Latin name for a geographical area that stretched from the west bank of the Rhine to a vaguely-defined eastern frontier with the forest and steppe regions of modern Russia and Ukraine (Sarmatia), where Slavic tribes dominated.
Germania was defined by Rome as having two regions: 'the inner Germania', west and south of the Rhine, occupied by the Romans, and 'the big Germania' (Magna Germania) east of the Rhine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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