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Encyclopedia > German reunification
The division of Germany in 1949. The future West Germany (blue) consists of the American, British and French Zones (without the Saarland [purple], which later joined West Germany after a referendum), while East Germany (red) is formed from the Soviet Zone (without the western sections of Berlin [yellow]).
The division of Germany in 1949. The future West Germany (blue) consists of the American, British and French Zones (without the Saarland [purple], which later joined West Germany after a referendum), while East Germany (red) is formed from the Soviet Zone (without the western sections of Berlin [yellow]).

German reunification (German: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on 3 October 1990 when the five established states of the German Democratic Republic (GDR / East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG / West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to as die Wende (The Turning Point.). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Die Wende marks the beginning of the Reunification process between East Germany and West Germany. ...


After the GDR's first free elections on 18 March 1990, negotiations between the GDR and FRG culminated in a Unification Treaty, whilst negotiations between the GDR and FRG and the four occupying powers produced the so-called "Two Plus Four Treaty" granting full sovereignty to a unified German state, whose two halves had previously still been bound by a number of limitations stemming from its post-WWII-status as an occupied nation. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


The reunified Germany remained a member of the European Community (later the European Union) and of NATO. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...

Contents

Naming

There is debate as to whether the events of 1990 should be properly referred to as a "reunification" or a "unification". Proponents of the former use the term in contrast with the initial unification of Germany in 1871. Popular parlance, which uses "reunification", is deeply affected by the 1989 opening of the Berlin Wall (and the rest of the inner German border) and the physical reunification of the city of Berlin (itself divided only since 1945). Others, however, argue that 1990 represented a "unification" of two German states into a larger entity which, in its resulting form, had never before existed (see History of Germany). For political and diplomatic reasons, West German politicians carefully avoided the term "reunification" during the run-up to what Germans frequently refer to as die Wende. The most common term in German is "Deutsche Einheit" or "German unity"; German unity is the term that Hans-Dietrich Genscher used in front of international journalists to correct them when they asked him about "reunification" in 1990. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The sectors of occupation in 1949. ... The History of Germany begins with the establishment of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ... George H. W. Bush and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, November 21st, 1989. ...


After 1990, the term "die Wende" became more common. The term generally refers to the events (mostly in Eastern Europe) that led up to the actual reunification; in its usual context, this term loosely translates to "the turning point", without any further meaning. When referring to the events surrounding unification, however, it carries the cultural connotation of the time and the events in the GDR that brought about this "turnaround" in German history.


Reunification

History

Police officers of the East German Volkspolizei wait for the official opening of the Brandenburg Gate on 22 December 1989.
Police officers of the East German Volkspolizei wait for the official opening of the Brandenburg Gate on 22 December 1989.

Germany was officially reunified at 00:00 CET on 3 October 1990, when the five reestablished federal states (Bundesländer) of East Germany — Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Berlin (formed by uniting the two halves of the formerly divided city) — formally joined the Federal Republic of Germany, choosing one of two options implemented in the West German constitution (Grundgesetz). As these five newly-founded German states formally joined the Federal Republic in accordance with (the then-existing) Article 23, the area in which the constitution served as the constitution was simply extended to include them. The alternative would have been for East Germany to join as a whole along the lines of a formal union between two German states that then would have had to, amongst other things, create a new constitution for the newly established country. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2790 × 1860 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 03:45, 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2790 × 1860 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 03:45, 6. ... The Volkspolizei (German for Peoples Police) was the national police of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), whose officers were commonly nicknamed VoPos. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...


To facilitate this process and to reassure other countries, some changes were made to the "Basic Law" (constitution). Article 146 was amended so that Article 23 of the current constitution could be used for reunification. After the five "New Länder" of East Germany had joined, the constitution was amended again to indicate that all parts of Germany are now unified. Article 23 was rewritten as keeping it could be understood as an invitation to e.g. Austria to join. However, the constitution can be amended again at some future date and it still permits the adoption of another constitution by the German people at some time in the future. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ...


On 14 November 1990, the German government signed a treaty with Poland, finalising Germany's boundaries as permanent along the Oder-Neisse line, and thus, renouncing any claims to Silesia, Farther Pomerania, Gdańsk (Danzig), and territories of the former province of East Prussia. The following month, the first all-German free elections since 1932 were held, resulting in an increased majority for the coalition government of Chancellor Helmut Kohl. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany on the Confirmation of the Existing Border between Them was signed on November 14, 1990. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...


To commemorate the day that marks the official unification of the former East and West Germany in 1990, October 3rd has since then been the official German national holiday, the Day of German Unity (Tag der deutschen Einheit). It replaced the previous national holiday held in West Germany on June 17th commemorating the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. The Day of German Unity (German: Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is a national holiday in Germany, celebrated on October 3, which commemorates the anniversary of German reunification in 1990. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...


References

See also

Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... Reunification is the political unification of separate political entities which had previously been united. ... The four occupation zones in post-war Germany The 1952 Stalin Note, a. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... In political science, transitology is the name for the area that studies the process of change from a political regime to another, mainly from authoritarian regimes to democracies. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
German reunification
  • Germany's Eastern Burden: The Price of a Failed Reunification
  • The End of East Germany
  • German Embassy Publication, Infocus: German Unity Day
  • Across an Imagined Border A 2002 cross-section trip across former intra-German boundaries.
  • The Unification Treaty (Berlin, 31 August 1990) website of [www.ena.lu european navigator]

  Results from FactBites:
 
German reunification information - Search.com (2161 words)
German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called "East Germany") were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called "West Germany").
There is debate as to whether the events of 1990 should be properly referred to as a "reunification" or a "unification." Proponents of the former use the term in contrast with the initial unification of Germany in 1871.
By the mid-1980s, the prospect of German reunification was widely regarded within both East and West Germany as a distant hope, unattainable as long as Communist governments ruled Eastern Europe.
German reunification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2179 words)
German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called "East Germany") were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called "West Germany").
There is debate as to whether the events of 1990 should be properly referred to as a "reunification" or a "unification." Proponents of the former use the term in contrast with the initial unification of Germany in 1871.
By the mid-1980s, the prospect of German reunification was widely regarded within both East and West Germany as a distant hope, unattainable as long as Communist governments ruled Eastern Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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