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Encyclopedia > German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee

Admiral Graf Spee
Career (Nazi Germany) Kriegsmarine Jack
Name: Admiral Graf Spee
Namesake: Maximilian von Spee
Laid down: October 1, 1932
Launched: June 30, 1934
Commissioned: January 6, 1936[1]
Nickname: Graf Spee
Fate: Scuttled December 17, 1939
General characteristics
Class and type: Deutschland class cruiser
Displacement: 12,100 t standard;
16,200 t full load
Length: 186 m (610 ft)[2]
Beam: 21.65 m (71.0 ft)[2]
Draught: 7.34 metres (24.1 ft)[2]
Propulsion: Eight 9-cylinder double-acting two-stroke MAN diesels
two screws, 52,050 hp (40 MW)
Speed: 28.5 knots (53 km/h)
Range: 8,900 nautical miles at 20 knots (16,500 km at 37 km/h)
Or
19,000 nautical miles at 10 knots (35,000 km at 18.5 km/h)
Complement: 1001-1,150[1]
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
Early version of Seetakt radar[3]
Armament: 6 × 280 mm (11 inch)
8 × 150 mm (5.9 inch)
6 × 105 mm (4.1 inch)
8 × 37 mm
10 × 20 mm
8 × 533 mm (21 inch) torpedo tubes
Armor: turret face: (160 mm)
belt: (80 mm)
deck: 40 mm)
Aircraft carried: Two Arado 196 seaplanes, one catapult

The Admiral Graf Spee is one of the most famous German naval warships of World War II, along with the Bismarck. Her size was limited to that of a cruiser by the Treaty of Versailles, however she was as heavily armed as a battleship due to innovative weight-saving techniques employed in her construction. Source: [1]. Copyright situation unclear. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links War_Ensign_of_Germany_1938-1945. ... Maximilian Graf von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German admiral, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe (armoured ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ... Shipborne Seetakt radar was develped in the 1930s and was used by the German Navy during World War II. In Germany during the late 1920s, Hans Hollmann began working in the field of microwaves, which were to later become the basis of almost all radar systems. ... Corbelled corner turrets at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow. ... The Ar 196 was a shipboard reconnaissance aircraft built by Arado starting in 1936. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...


She was sent to the Atlantic Ocean as a commerce raider in 1939, where she sank nine Allied merchant ships. Numerous British hunting groups were assigned to find her, with three British ships finally tracking her down in December 1939. The Battle of the River Plate ensued, during which the Graf Spee was damaged. She docked for repairs in the neutral port of Montevideo, but was forced by international law to leave within 72 hours. Faced with what he believed to be overwhelming odds, the captain scuttled his ship rather than risk the lives of his crew. For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A merchant ship is one that transports cargo and passengers during peace time. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 heavy cruiser 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 36 dead 60 wounded 1 heavy cruiser heavily damaged 2 light cruisers damaged 72 dead 28 wounded For other uses, see The Battle of... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class cruiser. Launched in 1934, she was named after the World War I Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee who died, along with two of his sons, in the first Battle of the Falkland Islands on 8 December 1914. She was the second vessel to be named after him, the first being the uncompleted World War I German battlecruiser SMS Graf Spee. The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe (armoured ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Maximilian Graf von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German admiral, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. ... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... The Graf Spee was a German Mackensen class battle cruiser that was never finished. ...


Before Admiral Graf Spee was given her official name, she was referred to as Panzerschiff C and Ersatz Braunschweig, as she would be replacing the old battleship Braunschweig in the fleet inventory. She cost 82 million Reichsmark to build. User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ...


After World War I, replacement capital ships for the German Navy were limited by the Treaty of Versailles to 10,000 tons and 11 inch (280 mm) guns.[4] Electric arc welding was used in her construction instead of conventional rivets, thereby saving considerable weight by not requiring overlapping steel plates.[5] Furthermore, Graf Spee’s eight main engines used diesel fuel, an unconventional configuration at the time that also contributed to weight saving. The weight saving allowed her carry a main gun of the same calibre as a battleship, while remaining under the displacement limit of the Treaty of Versailles.[6], hence the classification by the British of her and her two sisters, Deutschland (later renamed Lützow) and Admiral Scheer, as pocket battleships. A year after the Graf Spee's loss, her sisters were reclassified as heavy cruisers. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Manual Metal Arc welding, also known as stick or MMA welding is one of the most common forms of welding. ... Solid rivets Metal wheel with riveted spokes and tyre. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Look up displacement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ... Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... HMS Raleigh a Hawkins class cruiser around which the treaty limits for Heavy cruisers were written. ...


Technologically, Admiral Graf Spee was ahead of her time, being the first ship in the Kriegsmarine to be equipped with Seetakt radar.[3] The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... Shipborne Seetakt radar was develped in the 1930s and was used by the German Navy during World War II. In Germany during the late 1920s, Hans Hollmann began working in the field of microwaves, which were to later become the basis of almost all radar systems. ...


Unlike steam engines, raw low-grade bunker fuel needed treatment before it could be used in her diesel engines. A separating system routinely pre-cleaned the fuel and deposited it in six ready tanks situated close to the engines. The separators used high pressure steam produced in a boiler room lying between decks, aft of the funnel and above the armoured deck.


History

Graf Spee's last captain was Hans Langsdorff, a longstanding naval officer who had seen action at the Battle of Jutland[7], and who assumed command of the ship on 1 November 1938. After commissioning in 1936, Admiral Graf Spee served as fleet flagship until 1938 and performed international maritime control duties off the coast of Spain during the Spanish Civil War.[6] Prior to the invasion of Poland plans were made to deploy the Panzerschiffe as raiders in the Atlantic Ocean. Admiral Graf Spee sailed from Wilhelmshaven on 21 August 1939, to act as a commerce raider in the South Atlantic.[8] Supported by her supply ship, the tanker Altmark, her orders were to sink British merchant ships, but to avoid combat with superior enemy forces, thus threatening vital Allied supply lines and drawing British naval units off their stations in other parts of the world. Kapitän zur See Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff (March 20, 1894 – December 19, 1939) was a German naval officer, most famous for his command of the Panzerschiff (pocket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee during the Battle of the River Plate. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... This article is about the lead ship, store, or product of a group. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... Wilhelmshaven in northwest Germany Wilhelmshaven (IPA: ) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... The Altmark was a German tanker / unarmed supply vessel, best known for her support of the Admiral Graf Spee and later involvement in the Altmark Incident. ...

The cruise of Admiral Graf Spee with ships sunk
The cruise of Admiral Graf Spee with ships sunk

From September through December 1939 Admiral Graf Spee sank nine merchant ships in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean, the first on 30 September 1939. Captain Hans Langsdorff strictly adhered to the rules of mercantile warfare at the time and saved all of the crew members of these ships; not a life was lost in these sinkings. The captured crews were transferred to the tanker Altmark. Later, these 303 crew members were freed by force in neutral Norwegian territorial waters by the British destroyer HMS Cossack (the Altmark Incident). From HMSO report into the sinking of the Graf Spee, 1940 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From HMSO report into the sinking of the Graf Spee, 1940 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kapitän zur See Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff (March 20, 1894 – December 19, 1939) was a German naval officer, most famous for his command of the Panzerschiff (pocket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee during the Battle of the River Plate. ... HMS Cossack (L-03/F-03/G-03) was a Tribal-class destroyer which became famous for the boarding of the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, and the associated rescue of sailors originally captured by the Admiral Graf Spee. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Battle of the River Plate

Britain formed eight hunting groups in the Atlantic and one in the Indian Ocean to look for Admiral Graf Spee, totalling three battleships, two battlecruisers, four aircraft carriers, and 16 cruisers (including several French ships). More groups were assembled later. Combatants Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 heavy cruiser 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 36 dead 60 wounded 1 heavy cruiser heavily damaged 2 light cruisers damaged 72 dead 28 wounded For other uses, see The Battle of... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ...


On 13 December 1939, she was located by the British Hunting Group G, consisting of the 8 inch (203 mm) gunned cruiser HMS Exeter and the 6 inch (152 mm) gunned light cruisers HMS Ajax and HMNZS Achilles (of the Royal New Zealand Navy), and the Battle of the River Plate ensued. During the battle, the Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage upon the Exeter, forcing the latter to break off the engagement. Later in the exchange, one of Graf Spee's shells caused some casualties on the Achilles. In return, the Graf Spee was hit repeatedly by the 6-inch shells of the light cruisers, which could not penetrate her armour but nonetheless inflicted significant topside damage. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... The fourth and best known of the Exeters, HMS Exeter (68), was a York class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that served in World War II. She was laid down on 1 August 1928 at the Devonport Dockyard, Plymouth, Devon. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... HMS Ajax was a Leander-class light cruiser. ... HMS Achilles (from 1941 HMNZS Achilles) was a Leander class cruiser of 7,200 tons built in Birkenhead, England and launched on 1 September 1932. ... The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 heavy cruiser 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 36 dead 60 wounded 1 heavy cruiser heavily damaged 2 light cruisers damaged 72 dead 28 wounded For other uses, see The Battle of...


On the other hand, Exeter’s 8-inch hits ran through the armour easily. About 06:38 an 8-inch shell penetrated two decks and exploded in Graf Spee’s funnel area, causing crippling internal damage.


Exeter’s early 8-inch hit wrecked the boiler room, shutting down the fuel-separating system. Chief Engineer Commander Klepp advised the captain they could not repair the damage at sea. Klepp estimated the ship had about sixteen hours of running time, using pre-cleaned fuel from the day tanks. They could not replace the rapidly depleting fuel, so the ship was denied the possibility of outrunning her pursuers on the open sea.


Final docking

Admiral Graf Spee entered the neutral port of Montevideo, Uruguay for repairs. The damage was surveyed by a British observer on 14 December 1939, who reported that the port midship 6" gun was unserviceable, the starboard anti-aircraft guns appeared out of action, rangefinders were out of action, the aircraft was wrecked, there were shell holes in the control tower and two holes below the waterline. In total, there was evidence of 30-60 hits.[9] Captain Langsdorff and the Chief Engineer carefully kept the fuel problem secret. Although the specific details were signaled to SKL in January 1940 this vital information lay buried from public knowledge for sixty years. A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ... Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ...


One of Langsdorff's first actions when he entered Montevideo was to release the 62 crew of the merchant ships he had sunk during her most recent voyage.[10] Out of nine merchant ships sunk, none of the crews had been killed. All of those released spoke highly of their treatment and of Langsdorff, who spoke perfect English and lent them English books to pass the time. Captain Dove of the Africa Shell had already become friends with Langsdorff.


Under the Hague Convention of 1907, the Graf Spee was not entitled to remain in the port for more than 24 hours, without risking internment.[11] In addition, under the same convention, the Graf Spee had to give British merchant ships 24 hours start if they left port, and the British Consul organised for the merchant ships in port to sail at 24 hour intervals, effectively locking the Spee in the port whilst at the same time spreading propaganda about the vast fleet of British warships converging on the area. On 14 December, British Minister Millington-Drake officially requested that the Uruguayan government intern the ship if she stayed in port longer than 24 hours, on grounds that she was still seaworthy. The Uruguayan government obliged, announcing that if the Graf Spee did not sail within 72 hours of its arrival, it would be interned. The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ...


On 15 December, the ship's 36 dead were buried with full military honours in the German cemetery in Montevideo.[12] At the funeral ceremony, Captain Hans Langsdorff used the naval salute, while all others around him used the Nazi salute.[13] Many officers of the sunk ships attended the burial of those killed in the battle. Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ...


A ruse by the British intelligence encouraged the captain to think that he was out-numbered, with aircraft carriers and battleships on their way and that his escape route was cut off. In fact, only the Cumberland arrived in time to re-enforce the existing ships.[14] It has been suggested that Process of intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... HMS Cumberland, the fifteenth ship of that name was a County class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that saw action during the Second World War. ...

Graf Spee wreck in 1940
Graf Spee wreck in 1940

There were three possible channels that the Graf Spee could use in order to escape to the open sea, and the waiting British warships had to cover all of them.


Captain Langsdorff had been in discussion with the Kriegsmarine over the various options available to him, which included fighting on, internment at Montevideo or scuttling the ship. Adolf Hitler responded personally, writing the following in his own handwriting[15]: The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

Attempt by all means to extend time in neutral waters in order to guarantee freedom of action as long as possible. Fight your way through to Buenos Aires, using remaining ammunition. No internment at Uruguay. Attempt effective destruction of ship if scuttled.

At 6:15pm on 17 December 1939,[1] the German warship left Montevideo harbour, with the British 6-inch (152 mm) gunned cruisers Ajax, Achilles, and the 8-inch (203 mm) gunned Cumberland waiting nearby in international waters. However instead of trying to fight through the blockade, the German warship sailed just outside the harbour, and at 7:52, was scuttled in the estuary at 34°58′18″S 56°18′4″W / -34.97167, -56.30111Coordinates: 34°58′18″S 56°18′4″W / -34.97167, -56.30111 by her crew in order to avoid risking the crew in what Captain Langsdorff expected to be a losing battle. Captain Langsdorff committed suicide three days later by shooting himself, in order to prove he had not acted out of fear for his own life.[citation needed] For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... A scuttle is a small opening, or lid thereof, in a ships deck or hull. ... HMS Ajax was a Leander-class light cruiser. ... HMS Achilles (from 1941 HMNZS Achilles) was a Leander class cruiser of 7,200 tons built in Birkenhead, England and launched on 1 September 1932. ... HMS Cumberland, the fifteenth ship of that name was a County class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that saw action during the Second World War. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Crew internment

Part of the crew of the Graf Spee were interned in Argentina where many stayed, even after the war ended in 1945. Since Argentina was friendlier than Uruguay, the Captain expected the crew would be released, but in the end this was not the case. Some of the crew were transferred to Montevideo, however these crew members, together with those of the German ship Tacoma, were subsequently transferred to the Cuartel Paso del Rey (English: "Barracks Quarter of the Passage of the King") in Sarandí del Yí, Durazno where the Military District II infantry guarded them. They remained here until transferred back to Montevideo and repatriated to Germany in 1946. Numerous objects pertaining to the Graf Spee remain at the Cuartel Paso del Rey museum in Sarandí del Yí.[16]. Department Durazno Department Altitude Coordinates 33º 22S 56º 31W Founded 1821 Population 30,529 (2004) Phone Code +036 Postal Code 97000 San Pedro del Durazno is the capital of the department of Durazno in Uruguay, founded on October 12, 1821. ...


The Germans' behaviour during their stay in Montevideo, especially Langsdorff's action when faced with possible defeat at British hands, was held in high regard in Uruguay. Many locals feared that their city could become directly endangered during any hostilities, and Langsdorff's decision to leave port was seen as partly motivated by a desire not to cause such harm.


Salvage

Immediately after the scuttling in shallow water much of the ship's superstructure remained above water level, but then over the years the wreck subsided into the muddy bottom and today only the tip of the mast remains above the surface.


The first salvage from the ship was most likely carried out by Royal Navy intelligence teams which recovered the highly advanced Seetakt radar not destroyed in the scuttling. In late January 1940, the wreck was boarded by US Navy sailors from the light cruiser USS Helena.[17] This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Shipborne Seetakt radar was develped in the 1930s and was used by the German Navy during World War II. In Germany during the late 1920s, Hans Hollmann began working in the field of microwaves, which were to later become the basis of almost all radar systems. ... USS Helena (CL-50) was a -class light cruiser of the United States Navy, damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor, and subsequently active in the Pacific War until she was sunk at the battle of Kula Gulf in 1943. ...


In 1997, one of Admiral Graf Spee's 15 cm secondary gun mounts was raised and restored; it can now be seen outside Montevideo's National Maritime Museum.

Graf Spee's salvaged telemeter
Graf Spee's salvaged telemeter

In February 2004 a salvage team began work raising the wreck of the Admiral Graf Spee. The operation is in part being funded by the government of Uruguay, in part by the private sector, as the wreck is now a hazard to navigation. The first major section, a 27-ton gunnery range-finding telemeter, was raised on 25 February 2004[18]. It is expected to take several years to raise the entire wreck. Film director James Cameron is filming the salvage operation. After it has been raised, it is planned that the ship will be restored and put on display at the National Marine Museum in Montevideo. is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ...


On 10 February 2006, the 2 metres (6.6 ft) eagle figurehead of the Admiral Graf Spee was removed from the stern of the ship and recovered.[19] To protect the feelings of those sensitive to Nazi Germany, the swastika at the base of the figurehead was covered as it was pulled from the water. is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the symbol. ...


Commanding officers

  • Construction Indoctrination - KzS Conrad Patzig - 7 October 1935 - 6 January 1936
  • KzS Conrad Patzig - 6 January 1936 - 2 October 1937[20]
  • KzS Walter Warzecha - 2 October 1937 - 1 November 1938[20]
  • KzS Hans Langsdorff - 1 November 1938 - 17 December 1939[20]

In popular culture

The Battle of the River Plate is a 1956 film by the British-based director-writer team of Powell & Pressburger. ... Powell and Pressburger were a British film-making partnership of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, also known as The Archers. ... The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Admiral Graf Spee Operational History. Kriegsmarine. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  2. ^ a b c Admiral Graf Spee Technical Data. Kriegsmarine. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  3. ^ a b R. W. Burns, K. Warwick, D. Rees (1988). Radar Development to 1945. Institution of Electrical Engineers. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  4. ^ Admiral Graf Spee History. Kriegsmarine. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  5. ^ Arthur Durham Divine (1940). In the Wake of the Raiders and The Merchant Navy Fights. E.P. Dutton & co.. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  6. ^ a b Gordon Williamson (2003). German Pocket Battleships 1939-45. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841765015. 
  7. ^ Eric Grove (2002). German Capital Ships and Raiders in World War II. Routledge. ISBN 0714652083. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  8. ^ Leonard Charles Frederick Turner (1961). War in the Southern Oceans, 1939-45. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  9. ^ Grove, Eric (2002). German Capital Ships and Raiders in World War II. Routledge. ISBN 0714652083. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  10. ^ Harold Hobson (1942). The First Three Years of the War: A Day-by-day Record. Hutchinson. 
  11. ^ Boleslaw Adam Boczek (2005). International Law: A Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810850788. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  12. ^ Joseph Montague Kenworthy Strabolgi (1940). The Battle of the River Plate. Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. 
  13. ^ Eugen Millington-Drake (1965). The Drama of Graf Spee and the Battle of the Plate: A Documentary Anthology. P. Davies. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  14. ^ Christopher Ailsby. The Third Reich Day by Day. Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0760311676. 
  15. ^ Lester J Bartson (2004). In the Shadow of the Hawk: An Intimate Chronicle of World War II and One Woman's Search for Meaning. University Press of Ohio. ISBN 0761828699. 
  16. ^ Cuartel Paso del Rey: Batalla del Río de la Plata. Military of Uruguay. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  17. ^ Kermit Bonner (1996). Final Voyages. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1563112892. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  18. ^ "Divers recover piece of Graf Spee", BBC News, February 26, 2004. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  19. ^ "Graf Spee's eagle rises from deep", BBC News, February 10, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  20. ^ a b c Admiral Graf Spee. Kriegsmarine. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.

The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, I-triple-E). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The armed forces of Uruguay are comprised of an army, navy, and air force. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Captain Patrick Dove, I Was Graf Spee's Prisoner (Cherry Tree Books, London & Manchester, 1940)
  • Siegfried Breyer, Battleships and Battlecruisers 1905-1970 (Doubleday and Company; Garden City, New York, 1973) (originally published in German as Schlachtschiffe und Schlachtkreuzer 1905-1970, J.F. Lehmanns, Verlag, Munchen, 1970). Contains various line drawings of the ship as designed and as built.
  • Jak P. Malmann Showell, The German Navy in World War Two (Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1979), ISBN 0-87021-933-2
  • Dudley Pope, The Battle of the River Plate (William Kimber & Co, 1956; Republished Pan Books 1974), ISBN 0-330-24020-X
  • Eric J Grove, The price of disobedience, UK 2000 , ISBN 1-55750-429-6
  • Joseph Gilbey, Langsdorff of the Graf Spee: Prince of Honor, Canada 1999, ISBN 0-9685994-0-0
  • Joseph Gilbey, Kriegsmarine: Admiral Raeder's Navy - A Broken Dream., Canada 2005, ISBN 0-9685994-1-9
  • Enrique R. Dick, Tras La Estela del Graf Spee, Buenos Aires 1996, ISBN 950-43-8113-8 (published in Spanish, author is son of a Graf Spee crew member)

See also

The List of ships of World War II is an alphabetical list of major military ships of World War II. Only warships with a displacement of 1,000 tons or greater are listed. ... The list of Kriegsmarine ships includes all ships commissioned into the Kriegsmarine, the German navy of the Third Reich period, during its existance from 1935 to the conclusion of World War II in 1945. ... The list of naval ships of Germany includes all naval ships which have been in service of the German Navy or its predecessors. ... The list of ship launches in 1934 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1934. ... The list of ship commissionings in 1936 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 1936. ... The list of shipwrecks in 1939 includes all ships sunk, floundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during 1939. ... The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe (armoured ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe (armoured ships), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ... The list of naval ships of Germany includes all naval ships which have been in service of the German Navy or its predecessors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1174 words)
Admiral Graf Spee was launched by Germany in 1934 and named after the World War I Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee who died, along with two of his sons, in the first Battle of the Falkland Islands on 8 December 1914.
Admiral Graf Spee sailed from Wilhelmshaven, Germany, on 21 August 1939, her mission to act as a raider in the South Atlantic.
On 10 February 2006, the eagle figurehead of the Graf Spee was recovered.
USS Salem CA-139 Movie Star (186 words)
The USS Salem starred as the German Pocket Battleship "Admiral Graf Spee" in the 1956 English film, "The Battle of the River Plate".
John Gregson heads the cast as Captain Bell, skipper of the Exeter, one of several vessels engaged in pursuit of the "indestructable" Geman battleship Graf Spee.
Eventually, however, German captain Langsdorff (Peter Finch) is faced with a difficult decision: either stand his ground and fight a losing battle against the Exeter and its sister ships, or scuttle the Graf Spee and save the lives of his crew.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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