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Encyclopedia > German mark
German mark
Deutsche Mark (German)
Coins
Banknotes Coins
ISO 4217 Code DEM
User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo
ERM
Since 13 March 1979
Fixed rate since 31 December 1998
Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999
Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002
= 1.95583 DM
Pegged by Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark, Bulgarian lev at par
Subunit
1/100 Pfennig
Symbol ℳ, DM
Pfennig Pf.
Plural Mark
Pfennig Pfennig
Coins 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 Pfennig, 1 DM, 2 DM, 5 DM
Banknotes
Freq. used 5 DM, 10 DM, 20 DM, 50 DM, 100 DM, 200 DM, 500 DM
Rarely used 1000 DM
Central bank Deutsche Bundesbank
Website www.bundesbank.de
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.
¤Currency signs

฿¢ • $ • • ₫ • ƒ • ₲ •
£LmPRруб
S/.R$$ • ₮ • ¥ • zł • Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1386, 1317 KB)German banknotes. ... Front side of pre-euro Deutsche Mark coins. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... “EUR” redirects here. ... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ... The Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ... The currency sign (¤) is the character used by any societies when the symbol for their own currency is unavailable. ... A currency sign is a graphic symbol often used as a shorthand for a currencys name. ... ISO 4217 Code THB User(s) Thailand Inflation 4. ... The cedi is the unit of currency of Ghana. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... Cifrão on 2. ... The colón is the currency of two Central American nations: Costa Rica (ISO 4217 three-letter currency code: CRC) see Costa Rican colón El Salvador (ISO 4217: SVC) – since 2001 used in parallel with the United States dollar; see dollarization, El Salvador colón. ... ISO 4217 Code VND User(s) Vietnam Inflation 7. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... Æ’ The florin sign (Æ’) is a symbol that is used for the currencies florin, also called a gulden and guilder. ... The guaraní (plural: guaraníes; ISO 4217 code PYG) is the national currency unit of Paraguay. ... Kip is the currency of Laos. ... The Pound sign (£) is the symbol for Pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, and some other currencies of the same name in other countries. ... The Pound sign (£) is the symbol for Pound sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, and some other currencies of the same name in other countries. ... The Maltese lira, known in the Maltese language as the Lira Maltija, is the currency of Malta. ... The mill or mille(â‚¥) (sometimes mil in the UK) is an abstract unit of currency. ... naira sign The naira is the currency of Nigeria. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code BWP User(s) Botswana Inflation 10. ... ISO 4217 Code ZAR User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland Inflation 5. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... It has been suggested that History of the rupee be merged into this article or section. ... ISO 4217 Code BDT User(s) Bangladesh Inflation 7% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code PEN User(s) Peru Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code BDT User(s) Bangladesh Inflation 7% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cifrão. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... â‚© The won sign (â‚©) is a symbol that is used for the currencies: North Korean won South Korean won Woolong, a fictional currency in Cowboy Bebop Categories: | ... Â¥9 Chinese price sticker Â¥ is a currency sign used for the following currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY) Japanese yen (JPY) The base unit of the two currencies above share the same Chinese character (圓/å…ƒ/円), pronounced yuan in Mandarin Chinese and en in Standard Japanese. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... ₪ ₪ is a currency sign that is used for the Israeli new sheqel currency which replaced the Israeli sheqel in 1985. ...

Former signs
I/.
The austral was the currency of Argentina between 1985 and 1991. ... // First Cruzeiro, 1942-1967 The cruzeiro (Cr$) was the monetary unit of Brazil from 1942 to 1986. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... The European Currency Unit (₠; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... The inti was a currency adopted by Peru in mid-1985 during the García presidency, replacing the over-inflated sol. ...


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The Deutsche Mark (DEM, DM) or German Mark was the official currency of West Germany and, from 1990 onwards, all of unified Germany. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 replacing the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until 1999, when the Mark was replaced by the euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins in early 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro — in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. However, DM coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany up until 28 February 2002. DEM can mean: data encapsulation mechanism Deutsche Mark, the ISO 4217 code for the former currency of Germany diethyl malonate digital elevation model A common extension for USGS DEM files discrete element method diffuse element method, a numerical simulation method Department of Environmental Management, a name of various government entities... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Occupation zones of Germany after 1945 The Bizone was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones during the occupation of Germany after World War II. With the addition of the French occupation zone, the entity became the Trizone. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... This article is about the year. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...


The Deutsche Bundesbank has guaranteed that all DM cash may be changed into euros indefinitely, and one may do so at any branch of the Bundesbank. As of 2006 there are still promotions every now and then where Mark are accepted in shops. The Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ...


One euro is set to be equivalent to DEM 1.95583. “EUR” redirects here. ...


One Deutsche Mark was divided into 100 Pfennig; in colloquial German, the 10 Pfennig coin was called a Groschen. The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ... Groschen (Latin: , German: , Italian: , Czech: , Polish: , Hungarian: , Romanian: ) was the (sometimes colloquial) name for a coin used in various German-speaking states as well as some non-German-speaking countries of Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland), The Romanian Principalities. ...

Contents

History

A Mark had been the currency of Germany since its original unification in 1871. Before that time, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2/3 grams of pure silver. Although the Mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the Mark of 3 Mark = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The following List of German Confederation member states shows those states that in 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 1866. ... The Vereinsthaler (union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the years prior to German unification. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


The first Mark, known as the Goldmark, was introduced in 1873. With the outbreak of the First World War, the Mark was taken off the gold standard. The currency thus became known as the Papiermark, especially as high inflation, then hyperinflation occurred and the currency became exclusively made up of paper money. The Papiermark was replaced by the Rentenmark in late 1923 and the Reichsmark in 1924. German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... A 1926 5 Rentenmark banknote The Rentenmark (literally, Security Mark) (RM) was a currency issued on 15 November 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Germany. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Deutsche Mark was introduced on 21 June 1948 by the Western Allies (the USA, the United Kingdom and France). The old Reichsmark and Rentenmark were exchanged for the new currency at a rate of 1 Deutsche Mark = 1 Reichsmark for the essential currency such as wages, payment of rents etc, and 1 Deutsche Mark = 10 Reichsmark for the remainder in private non banks credit balance, with half frozen. Large amounts were exchanged for 10RM to 65 pfennigs. In addition, each person received a per capita allowance of 60 Deutsche Mark, the first of DM40 and the second DM20.[1] is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States...


The introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade (where American cigarettes acted as currency). The move angered the Soviet authorities, who regarded it as a threat. When the Deutsche Mark was introduced in West Berlin, the Soviets promptly cut off all road, rail and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin. This led to the Berlin Blockade. Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... French 1912 drawing of typical elements of railways Railway tracks running through Stanhope railway station in North East England, UK A railway yard in Portland, Oregon. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Occupation zones after 1945. ...


In the former GDR, the East German Mark (initially also called the Deutsche Mark) was introduced a few days afterwards in the form of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes with adhesive stamps to stop the flooding in of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes from the West. In July 1948, a completely new series of East German Mark notes was issued. Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... ISO 4217 Code DDM User(s) German Democratic Republic Pegged with Deutsche Mark = M11 Subunit 1/100 pfennig Symbol M Plural Mark pfennig Pfennig Coins Freq. ...


The Deutsche Mark was first issued by the Allied Military. Later in 1948, the Bank deutscher Länder took over issuance, followed, from 1960, by the Deutsche Bundesbank. It earned a reputation as a strong store of value at times when other national currencies succumbed to periods of inflation. It became a source of national pride and an anchor for the country's economic prosperity, particularly during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder in the 1950s. In the 1990s, opinion polls showed a majority of Germans opposed to the adoption of the euro; polls today show a significant number would prefer to return to the Mark. The Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank) is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ... To act as a store of value, a commodity, a form of money or financial capital must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved - and be predictably useful when it is so retrieved. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The Deutsche Mark played an important role in re-unification. It was introduced as the official currency of East Germany in July 1990, replacing the East German Mark, in preparation for unification on October 3. Ostmark bank accounts were exchanged at a rate of 1:1 for the first 4000 Mark and 2:1 for larger amounts, rates which many economists have criticized as being too generous and a key cause of the subsequent economic problems in the new German states. German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) refers to the reunification of Germany from its constituent parts of East Germany and West Germany under a single government on October 3, 1990. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Coins

The first DM coins were issued by the Bank deutscher Länder in 1948 and 1949. From 1950, the inscription Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany) appeared on the coins. The Bank deutscher Länder (Bank of the German States), abbreviation BdL, was the forerunner of the Deutsche Bundesbank. ...

Denomination Dates Issued Composition Obverse Reverse
1 Pfennig 1948-2001 1948-1949: Bronze plated steel
1950-2001: Copper plated steel
Oak sprig Denomination
2 Pfennig 1950-2001 1950-1968: Bronze
1968-2001: Bronze plated steel
Oak sprig Denomination
5 Pfennig 1949-2001 Brass plated steel Oak sprig Denomination
10 Pfennig 1949-2001 Brass plated steel Oak sprig Denomination
50 Pfennig 1949-2001 Brass plated steel Woman planting an oak seedling Denomination
1 DM 1950-2001 Cupro-nickel German eagle Denomination
2 DM 1957-2001 Cupro-nickel German eagle 1957-1971: Max Planck
1969-1987: Konrad Adenauer
1970-1987: Theodor Heuss
1979-2001: Kurt Schumacher
1988-2001: Ludwig Erhard
1990-1994: Franz Josef Strauß
1994-2001: Willy Brandt
5 DM 1957-2001 1951-1974: Silver
1975-2001: Cupro-nickel
German eagle Denomination

There were a considerable number of commemorative silver 5 and 10 DM coins, which actually had the status of legal tender but were rarely seen outside of collectors' circles. Categories: Stub | German coats of arms ... Categories: Stub | German coats of arms ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 in Kiel, Germany – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Theodor Heuss (January 31, 1884 - December 12, 1963) was a German politician. ... Dr Kurt Schumacher (13 October 1895 - 20 August 1952), was the leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in the early years of the German Federal Republic. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Dr h. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Categories: Stub | German coats of arms ... This is a description of the coinage of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ...

Gold 1 DM coin
Gold 1 DM coin

In addition, on 27 December 2000, the German government enacted a law authorizing the Bundesbank to issue, in 2001, a special .999 pure gold 1 DM coin commemorating the end of the DM. The coin had the exact design and dimensions of the circulating cupro-nickel 1 DM coin, with the exception of the inscription on the reverse, which read "Deutsche Bundesbank" (instead of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland"), as the Bundesbank was the issuing authority in this case. A total of one million gold DM coins were minted (200,000 at each of the five mints) and were sold beginning in the summer of 2001 through German coin dealers on behalf of the Bundesbank. The issue price varied by dealer but averaged approximately $165 in U.S. dollars. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 615 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1-DM-Goldmünze von 2001 Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 10. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 615 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1-DM-Goldmünze von 2001 Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 10. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


German coins bear a mint mark, indicating where the coin was minted. D indicates Munich, F Stuttgart, G Karlsruhe and J Hamburg. Coins minted during WW2 include the mint marks A (Berlin) and B (Vienna). The mint mark A was also used for DM coins minted in Berlin beginning in 1990 following the reunification of Germany. These mint marks have been continued on the German Euro coins. “EUR” redirects here. ...


Banknotes

There were four series of DM banknotes:

  • The first was issued in 1948 by the Allied military. There were denominations of ½, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 DM, with two designs of 20 and 50 DM notes.
  • The second series was introduced in 1948 by the Bank deutscher Länder, an institution of the western occupation government. The designs were similar to the US Dollar and French franc, as the job of designing and printing the different denominations was shared between the Bank of France and the American Bank Note Company. There were denominations of 5 and 10 Pfennig, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 DM.
  • The third series was introduced in 1960 by the Bundesbank, depicting neutral symbols and famous paintings and buildings. There were 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 DM denominations.
  • The fourth was introduced in 1990 by the Bundesbank to counter advances in forgery technology. The notes depicted German artists and scientists together with symbols and tools of their trade. This series added a 200 DM denomination, to decrease the use of 100 DM banknotes, which made up 54% of all circulating banknotes, and to fill the "gap" between the 100 DM and 500 DM denomination. Nevertheless the 200 DM denomination was rather rare.

In the latter two series, the 5 DM denomination was rarely seen, as were the ones with a value greater than 100 DM. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ...


Banknotes of the fourth series (1990–2002)

A 10 Deutsche Mark banknote from Germany 1993 showing Carl Friedrich Gauß (http://www.germannotes.com)

The design of German banknotes remained unchanged during the 1960s, 70's and 80's. During this period, forgery technology made significant advances so, in the late 1980s, the Bundesbank decided to issue a new series of Deutsche Mark banknotes. The colours for each denomination remained unchanged from the previous series but the designs underwent significant changes and a 200 DM denomiation was introduced. Famous national artists and scientists were chosen to be portrayed on the new banknotes. Male and female artists were chosen in equal numbers. The buildings in the background of the notes' obverses had a close relationship to the person displayed (e.g., place of birth, place of death, place of work), as well as the second background picture (Lyra and the musician Schumann). The reverses of the notes refer to the work of the person on the obverse. 10 Deutsche Mark Germany 1993 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß) (April 30, 1777 – February 23, 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics. ...


The new security features were: a windowed security-thread (with the notes denomination in microprinting), watermark, micro-printing, intaglio-printing (viewing-angle dependent visibility as well as a braille representation of the notes denomination), colour-shifting ink (on the 500 and 1000 DEM denominations), a see-through register and UV-visible security features. Intaglio printing. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ...


First to be issued were the 100 and 200 DM denominations on 1 October 1990 (although the banknote shows "Frankfurt am Main, 2. Januar 1989"). The next denomination was 10 DM on 16 April 1991, followed by 50 DM in autumn the same year. Next was the 20 DEM note on 20 March 1992 (printed on 2 August 1991). The reason for this gradual introduction was, that public should become familiar with one single denomination, before introducing a new one. The change was finished with the introduction of the 5, 500, and 1000 DM denominations on 27 October 1992. The latter three denominations were rarely seen in circulation and were introduced in one step. With the advance of forgery technology, the Bundesbank decided to introduce additional security features on the most important denominations (50, 100, and 200 DM) as of 1996. These were a hologram foil in the center of the note's obverse, a matted printing on the note's right obverse, showing its denomination (like on the reverse of the new €5, €10, and €20 banknotes), and the EURion constellation on the note's reverse. Furthermore, the colors were changed a bit to pastel to hamper counterfeing. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The euro sign in its official logo form. ... The small circles or dots constituting the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes. ...

1989 Series [1]
Image Value € equiv. Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark first printing issue withdrawal lapse
5 DM 2.56 122 × 62 mm Yellowish-green Bettina von Arnim, Wiepersdorf estate and buildings of historic Berlin Brandenburg Gate As portrait 1 August 1991 27 October 1992 31 December 2001 Indefinite
10 DM 5.11 130 × 65 mm Blue-violet Carl Friedrich Gauss, Gaussian distribution, historic buildings of Göttingen Sextant, a small map showing the triangulation of the Kingdom of Hannover performed by Gauss 2 January 1989 16 April 1991
20 DM 10.23 138 × 68 mm Blueish-green Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, buildings of the city of Meersburg A quill pen and a beech-tree, referring to her work Die Judenbuche 1 August 1991 20 March 1992
[2] [3] 50 DM 25.56 146 × 71 mm Yellowish-brown Balthasar Neumann, buildings of Old-Würzburg Partial view of the stairway in the Würzburg Residence, the ground plan of a famous chapel, Kreuzkapelle, in Kitzingen 2 January 1989 30 September 1991 [citation needed]
[4] [5] 100 DM 51.13 154 × 74 mm Dark blue Clara Schumann, buildings of historic Leipzig and a lyre Grand piano, the Hoch Conservatory 1 October 1990 [citation needed]
[6] [7] 200 DM 102.26 162 × 77 mm Orange Paul Ehrlich, buildings of historic Frankfurt, the formula of Arsphenamine Microscope, the Rod of Asclepius surrounded by simplified cell structures
500 DM 255.65 170 × 80 mm Red-violet Anna Maria Sibylla Merian, an insect, buildings of ancient Nuremberg Dandelion, inchworm, butterfly 1 August 1991 27 October 1992
1000 DM 511.29 178 × 83 mm Dark-brown Wilhelm and Jakob Grimm, buildings of historic Kassel The 'German dictionary' (Deutsches Wörterbuch), the Royal library in Berlin
Hologram variant
50 DM 25.56 As previous 2 January 1996 2 February 1998 31 December 2001 Indefinite
100 DM 102.26 1 August 1997
200 DM 102.26
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre, a standard for world banknotes. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bettina von Arnim (the Countess of Arnim) (4 April 1785, Frankfurt am Main – 20 January 1859, Berlin), born as Elisabeth Catharina Ludovica Magdalena Brentano, was a German writer and novelist. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss or Gauß ( ; Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Probability density function of Gaussian distribution (bell curve). ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Annette von Droste-Hülshoff on the Twenty Deutsche Mark banknote House of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff in Meersburg (Germany). ... Meersburg is a town of Baden-Württemberg in the southwest of Germany on Lake Constance. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... Die Judenbuche is a novella written by Annette von Droste-Hülshoff in 1842. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Johann Balthasar Neumann (January 27, 1687 _ August 19, 1753) was a German Baroque architect who designed the Vierzehnheiligen and several churches in Würzburg. ... Würzburg Residenz. ... The Würzburg Residenz (Residence) is a palace in Würzburg, Germany. ... Kitzingen is a town in Bavaria, capital of the district Kitzingen. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Clara Schumann Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819 – May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... Dr. Hoch’s Konservatorium - Musikakademie in Frankfurt am Main was founded September 22, 1878. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A self portrait of Maria Merian at old age. ... Nuremberg (German: ) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Author: Leach, 1815 Type species: Geometra papilionaria (large emerald moth) Diversity: 2,000? genera 26,000 species Subfamilies Alsophilinae Archiearinae Desmobathrinae Ennominae Geometrinae Larentiinae Oenochrominae Orthostixinae Sterrhinae Genera Geometra (etc) Inchworm redirects here. ... For other uses, see Butterfly (disambiguation). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Brothers Grimm on a 1000DM banknote. ... Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863), German philologist and mythologist, was born at Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. ... For information about the other uses of the name, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... 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Spelling & Pronunciation

The German name of the currency is Deutsche Mark (fem.) IPA: [ˈdɔytʃə maʁk]; its plural form in standard German was the same as the singular. In German, the adjective "deutsche" (adjective for "German" in feminine singular nominative form) is capitalized due to its part in a proper name, while the noun "Mark", like all German nouns, is always capitalized. The English loanword "Deutschmark" had a slightly different spelling (possibly due to the silent E in English) and a plural form. In Germany, the currency's name was often abbreviated as Mark (fem.) or sometimes D-Mark (fem.) IPA: [ˈdeːmaʁk] with the latter term also often used in English. Like Deutsche Mark, D-Mark and Mark have no plural form, the singular being used to refer to any amount of money (e.g. eine (one) Mark and dreißig (thirty) Mark). Sometimes, a plural form of Mark, Märker IPA: [ˈmɛʁkɐ] was used as either as diminuitive form or to refer to a (physically present or small) number of D-Mark coins or bills (e.g. Gib mir mal ein paar Märker (Just give me a few Mark (-bills or -coins)) and Die lieben Märker wieder (The lovely money again (with ironic undertone)). In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Ironic” redirects here. ...


The subdivision unit is spelled Pfennig (masc.) IPA: [ˈpfɛnɪç] , which (unlike Mark) does have a commonly used plural form: Pfennige IPA: [ˈpfɛnɪgə], but the singular could also be used instead with no difference in meaning. (e.g.: ein (one) Pfennig, dreißig (thirty) Pfennige or dreißig (thirty) Pfennig). The official form was singular. In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


The mark as a major international reserve currency

Main article: Reserve currency

Before the switch to the euro, the mark was considered a major international reserve currency, second only to the US dollar. A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ...

International accumulation of foreign reserve currencies
Currency Percentage of global currency reserves held in the particular currency, expressed in US dollars
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
US dollar 59.0% 62.1% 65.2% 69.3% 70.9% 70.5% 70.7% 66.5% 65.8% 65.9% 66.4% 65.7%
Euro - - - - 17.9% 18.8% 19.8% 24.2% 25.3% 24.9% 24.3% 25.2%
German Mark 15.8% 14.7% 14.5% 13.8% - - - - - - - -
Pound sterling 2.1% 2.7% 2.6% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.9% 2.6% 3.3% 3.6% 4.2%
Japanese yen 6.8% 6.7% 5.8% 6.2% 6.4% 6.3% 5.2% 4.5% 4.1% 3.9% 3.7% 3.2%
French franc 2.4% 1.8% 1.4% 1.6% - - - - - - - -
Swiss franc 0.3% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2%
Other 13.6% 11.7% 10.2% 6.1% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.5%
Sources:

1995-1999 & 2006, IMF (International Monetary Fund): Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves
1999-2005, ECB (European Central Bank): The Accumulation of Foreign Reserves, Occasional Paper Series, Nr. 43 A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... “EUR” redirects here. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...

References

See also

“EUR” redirects here. ... German euro coins have three separate designs for the three series of coins. ... This is a description of the coinage of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... Notgeld is German for Emergency Money. During the early 20th century special money was given out in Germany to cater for economic crisis situations. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Preceded by:
Reichsmark, Rentenmark
Reason: intended to protect West Germany from the second wave of hyperinflation and stop the rampant barter and black market trade
Ratio: 1 DM = 1 RM (either) below 600 RM, 1 DM = 10 RM above 600 RM and each person received 40 DM
Currency of West Germany
21 June 19481990
Currency of Germany
1990December 31, 2001
Note: euro existed as an accounting currency since 1 January 1999
Succeeded by:
euro
Reason: deployment of euro cash
Ratio: 1 euro = 1.95583 Mark
Preceded by:
East German Mark
Reason: German reunification
Ratio: at par up to 4000 Mark, 2 East German Mark = 1 DM above 4000 Mark
Preceded by:
Yugoslav new dinar
Reason: political and economic reasons
Currency of Kosovo, Montenegro
1999December 31, 2001

  Results from FactBites:
 
German Currency - Mark, Reichsmark, Rentenmark, Papermark, Deutsche Mark, Mark der DDR, Mark Deutscher Notenbanken, ... (1238 words)
Papiermark (Paper mark) was the nickname for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany in 1922 and mainly 1923.
It was replaced by the Deutsche Mark in West Germany and by the East German mark ("Mark der DDR" or "Ostmark") in East Germany.
The Deutsche Mark (Symbol DM, DEM; 1 DM = 100 Pfennig) was the official currency of West Germany from the monetary reform in 1948 until the introduction of the Euro in 1999.
Deutsche Mark - National German Currency (918 words)
The success of the deutsche mark has been anchored in the success of West German exports, in the Bundesbank's solicitous management of the currency's value, and in the confidence generated by the country's prosperity.
The deutsche mark's position in global monetary reserves largely reflects the extensive deutsche mark holdings in European foreign-exchange reserve accounts as well as the desire among all industrial state treasuries and central banks to hold a stable currency in their reserves.
German government and banking officials were not certain that they welcomed such prominence, but they were prepared to accept it as a reflection of international appreciation of German monetary policies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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